Breast Cancer Survivors
A major area of interest in relation to pesticides and cancer has concentrated on pesticides acting as endocrine disrupters, mostly organochlorinated insecticides, and on hormone-related cancers. Research has largely focused on the association of breast cancer and exposure to DDT and its metabolites, although a causal inference has not been established. A recent study carried out in India, a country in which exposure to organochlorinated pesticides is expected to be higher and more recent than in populations from developed countries, found significantly higher levels of organochlorinated pesticides (DDT and its metabolites and others) in the blood of women with breast cancer as compared to reference women. In a Danish study, a modifying effect of p53 mutations on the breast cancer risk associated with exposures to organochlorines was observed, suggesting a potential for gene-environment interactions as an important factor in pesticide-related carcinogenicity (56-58).
Other studies were published that correlated diet intake with circulating IGF-1 levels in men and women and concluded that high energy, protein, and milk intakes were associated with higher levels of IGF-1.146,147 One author concluded that increased circulating IGF-1 was beneficial for bone health,147 whereas the other hypothesized that increased circulating IGF-1 from consumption of certain diets might pose an increased risk for cancer.146 In the Holmes et al. study, intake of fish, cereal, and pasta were more strongly correlated with increased circulating IGF-1 levels than was milk.146 Based on other associations in the Holmes et al. paper, one could conclude from their data that cancer risk can also be reduced by smoking, taking hormone replacement therapy, avoiding exercise, not drinking milk or eating cereals, and eliminating fish as well as vitamins A and D from the diet. It is apparent that the associations developed by these authors made little sense biologically. Curiously,...
Surgery is the most popular treatment for BCC and SCC cryotherapy is the most common for AK. Excision completely removes the skin cancer but can leave unsightly scars. Other techniques for removal include laser removal techniques, carbon dioxide resurfacing of photo-damaged skin, cryotherapy techniques, topical antimetabolites, electrodesiccation, and irradiation. Treatment of melanomas may require a complicated combination of excision, adjunctive immunotherapy or chemotherapy, and irradiation (47,48).
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