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Water Freedom System

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Water Freedom System Summary


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Drought and Groundwater Hydrologic Response

The definition of drought varies across countries and also within different areas of a country. Half of India, at any point of time, generally suffers from some kind of drought conditions. A meteorological drought3 is defined as 'a sustained, regionally extensive, deficiency in precipitation condition' (Ramachandran, 2000). The impacts of meteorological drought on water resources, agriculture as well as social and economic activities give rise to what have been called hydrological4 and, most important for our purposes, agricultural5 droughts. Agricultural drought occurs widely in India. About 68 of net sown area in India is highly vulnerable to agricultural drought. Most of this area is located in the 60 of the country that is arid and semiarid (Tenth Five Year Plan, 20022007). When drought occurs, there is a loss of biomass along with essential soil-building microorganisms due to the denuded soils being subjected to prolonged periods of dryness. As pressure on resources grows, there...

Drinking water supply

Groundwater is a key source of drinking water, particularly in rural areas and on islands. In Spain, for example, medium and small municipalities (of less than 20,000 inhabitants) obtain 70 of their water supply from groundwater sources (MIMAM, 2000). In some coastal areas and islands the dependence on groundwater as a source of drinking water is even higher. Nevertheless, as it was previously mentioned, Spain is one of the European countries with the lowest proportion of groundwater uses for public urban water supply to large cities. Llamas (1985) explains the historical roots of this situation. There were two main causes. The first was that there was a very centralized government system where all the decisions in relation to water policy were taken by a small and selected group of civil engineers working for the Ministry of Public Works. The second was the failure in the 1850s of a proposal of another selected group of mining engineers who also worked for the government. Between the...

Drought Mitigation

In the long run, soil and water conservation practices can prepare for and mitigate droughts. NIAST carried out research on multiple functions of paddy farming according to agricultural production conditions to support agricultural issues such as climate change, natural disasters, farm product disaster insurance, and direct payments provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Korea. The NIAST has quantified the positive impacts of paddy farming, including flood prevention, enhancement of water resources, air and water purification, and soil erosion alleviation (Seo et al., 2001). Negative impacts include the emission of greenhouse gases, nitrogen leaching, and the amount of agricultural water use (Seong et al., 2001). Crop simulation models based on weather data can be used to predict irrigation schedules to aid drought mitigation. The main activity to mitigate drought in Korea is to compensate for drought damages. First, the severity of drought is assessed by the CACM...

Demand Management Versus Water Supply Options

The Sana'a Basin provides the most compelling example of the emerging water crisis. Water use in the basin was estimated at 178Mm3 in 1990, and present consumption trends indicate that it will reach 442Mm3in 2010 without a significant change in policies. The annual natural recharge in the basin is estimated at 41.9Mm3, and so the gap to be filled, in order to avoid depletion of the aquifers, will reach about 400Mm3 in 15 years, more than twice the current level of use. This is equivalent to 12698l s from pumps that run 24h a day. Rural areas with balanced water supply and demand. An example is provided by the lower western wadis in Dhamar Governorate,3 where the isolation of the communities and distance from markets make the use of diesel pumps uneconomic. Current rates of water use are sustainable but as incentives change a forward-looking vision will be needed to equip these communities to be able to manage their resources.

The Origins Of The Water Crisis

The water crisis in Yemen has technological, social, institutional and economic origins. The technological aspect is the introduction of pumps, which began on a large scale in about 1970. Previously, most of the wells for irrigation and municipal water were hand-dug and thus were self-limiting in terms of the amount of water extracted. Now, the total number of tubewells is estimated to be more than 400 000 and growing. The institutional dimension of the water crisis refers to uncertainty about water rights and the weakness of institutions for controlling the rate of groundwater exploitation. In addition, urban water systems have not proven to be as effective as would be desired in reducing water losses throughout the systems.

Impacts of Droughts

Foodgrain Production 2001 2002

The main food crops affected by drought are rice, wheat, pearl millet, sorghum, and pegion pea that are grown during southwest monsoon season under rain-fed conditions. Legumes and pulses, which are short-duration crops, are less affected. Persistent droughts cause crop failures and lead to acute shortage of food, fodder, and water (for drinking or irrigation), affecting human and livestock health. During drought years, people and livestock in the arid parts of Rajasthan migrate to neighboring states in search of food, fodder, drinking water, and employment (figure 23.2). Droughts that occurred in India in 1967,1968,1969,1972,1974,1979, and 1987 (Ministry of Agriculture, 1988) had considerable impact on food grains production (figure 23.3). For example, the drought of 1966-67 reduced overall food grains production by 19 , and the loss in production of rice and other pulses was 30 in 1965-66, 66 in 1966-67, and 86 AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT IN INDIA 299 Table 23.1 Frequency of occurrences of...

Water Supply For Farmhouse

Farmers can have running water, hot or coild, in their dwelling houses at a cost of fifty dollars and up, depending upon the size of the house and the kind of equipment needed. This makes possible the bath and toilet room, protection from fire, the easy washing of windows and walks, the sprinkling of lawns, the irrigating of gardens, and all the other conveniences which a few years ago were thought possible only in cities, where big water systems were available. This is one of the things that makes farm life attractive. It lessens the work in the house, insures a fine lawn and garden, reduces danger from fire, adds greatly to comfort and convenience in every direction. The way to secure this is to install a water supply system, with a pressure tank in the basement. The most satisfactory method of pumping, however, is to use a windmill, or what is much better, a gasoline engine. Every up-to-date farm ought to have a small gasoline engine, which can be utilized not only for operating...

Drought Mitigation in Bangladesh

The surface water systems of the country are largely dependent on upstream countries India, Nepal, Bhutan, and China. Increasing water withdrawal upstream and the diversion of water from the main transboundary courses reduced the flow in Bangladesh significantly during the dry months To maintain self-sufficiency in food production, farmers have adapted to the use of modern irrigation techniques. Mechanized pumps have replaced the traditional methods of transferring water. Table 24.3 shows gradual development of various forms of irrigation with respect to time and technology. It is evident from table 24.3 that the total irrigated area more than doubled from 1985 to 2000. Moreover, the contribution of surface water and groundwater was almost equal in 1984-85. The recent expansion in total irrigated area was made possible due to about a threefold increase in groundwater irrigation, as against only about a 44 increase in surface-water irrigation during the same time. Currently, about 4.1...

Global Water Partnership

The Global Water Partnership (GWP), created in 1996 and based in Sweden, is a working partnership among all those involved in water management government agencies, public institutions, private companies, professional organizations, multilateral development agencies and others committed to the Dublin-Rio principles. The mission of GWP is 'to support countries in the sustainable management of their water resources'. Management tools water resources assessment, planning for IWRM, efficiency in water use, social change instruments, conflict resolution and regulatory instruments.

From Resource Development to Management Mode

Initiating supply-side management by (i) promoting mass-based rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge programmes and activities (ii) maximizing surface water use for recharge and (iii) improving incentives for water conservation and artificial recharge. As groundwater becomes scarce and costlier to use in relative terms, many ideas - such as trans-basin movement or surface water systems exclusively for recharge - that in the yesteryears were discarded as unfeasible or unattractive, will now offer new promise, provided of course that Asia learns intelligently from these ideas and adapts them appropriately to its unique situation.

Groundwater pollution

Both the literature on groundwater and our survey report a number of other problems that are not directly related to groundwater overdraft. For example, it has been widely reported in the press and in academic journals (e.g. Kendy et al., 2003) that pollution from municipal sewage has contaminated the groundwater of many villages in China. Part of the problem is created when farmers pump from effluent canals, using sewage-laced water on their fields. The recharge from irrigation with such water can affect the entire aquifer. Even when villages do not use the water for irrigation purposes, recharge from streams and riverbeds can contribute to groundwater pollution. According to the Ministry of Water Resources and Nanjing Water Resources Institute (2004), the groundwater resources of more than 60 of the 118 largest cities in China have contaminated groundwater. While the extent of the perception of rural groundwater pollution problem appears to be less serious than the urban suburban...

Rural domestic supplies

Groundwater plays a role in providing domestic supplies to the rural population in many countries in SSA. According to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) statistics, groundwater is the primary source of drinking water for both humans and livestock in the driest areas of SADC, and it is estimated that about 60 of the population depends on groundwater resources for domestic water. In the Limpopo River water management area in South Africa rural domestic supply accounts for 55 million cubic metres of groundwater abstracted, or just more than 20 of all groundwater abstracted. Admittedly, groundwater resources in SSA are modest, but are sufficient and important at local levels as they are the main resource for water supply for rural populations, e.g. in parts of rural Zimbabwe, Mozambique (Juizo, 2005), Zambia and Botswana). Although precise numbers are lacking, it is likely that most domestic water supply in rural SSA is currently from groundwater and that expansion in...

Institutional Framework

Various initiatives have been developed in Central America for the purpose of harmonizing the policies and legislation for water management in the region. In 1994, the Central American Water Agreement was signed, which sought the efficient use of water resources based on criteria of fairness and justice. In the agreement, water was considered the 'germ of life, source of development and peace, and a public good with economic value', and the interests of the involved actors must therefore be considered in its management. Also, in the same year, In 1999, CCAD prepared the Central American Regional Environmental Plan (CAREP), which contemplates integrated management as one of its principle policies social, economic and ecological, equitable access, and the promotion of shared responsibility in the management of water. Its objectives included an attempt to guarantee the protection of water sources and to assure the long-term provision of the adequate quantity and quality of water in order...

Strategic Implications

Our recent research on responses to the combination of drought and groundwater overdraft provides a series of initial insights that raise as many questions as 4. The central role of mobility - migration and commuting - in adaptation needs to be recognized and appreciated. Globally, urban populations are growing and rural areas are taking on urban economic characteristics. This trend towards social and economic integration is a major factor contributing to the ability of populations to adapt to location-specific constraints such as groundwater overdraft. Rather than seeing migration as a signal of distress to be resisted, strategies to support it and mitigate the negative effects need to be an integral part of both long-term responses to groundwater problems and short-term responses to drought. 5. Far more attention needs to be paid to the linkages between long-term groundwater management issues and issues such as drought that are often treated as completely separate short-term crises....

The Artificial Recharge Movement in India

There are numerous examples and stone inscriptions from as early as ad 600, citing that ancient kings and other benevolent persons considered as one of their bound duties the construction of ooranies (ponds) to collect rainwater and use it to recharge wells constructed within or outside ooranies to serve as drinking water source. Even today, thousands of such structures exist and are in use for multiple purposes in the southern coastal towns and villages of Tamil Nadu where groundwater is saline (DHAN Fondation, 2002). Similarly, more than 500,000 tanks and ponds, big and small, are dotted all over the country, particularly in peninsular India. These tanks were constructed thousands of years ago for catering to the multiple uses of irrigated agriculture, livestock and human uses such as drinking, bathing and washing. The command area of these tanks has numerous shallow dug wells that are recharged with tank water and accessed to augment surface supplies. Many drinking water...

Progression of the Artificial Recharge Movement

And the third is the period from 1990 to date when water scarcity became increasingly severe, and groundwater level decline became alarming in many pockets of the country. The second phase, from 1960 to 1990, coincides with the period of large-scale extraction of groundwater that resulted in many aquifer systems showing signs of overexploitation, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. During this phase, curriculum relating to hydrogeology and groundwater engineering was introduced in many universities in India and the science of groundwater hydrology was better understood. Both the public and government had started realizing the importance of recharging aquifers to arrest groundwater decline and maintain groundwater levels. As a consequence, pilot studies of artificial recharge of aquifers were carried out by a number of agencies including central and state groundwater boards, water supply and drainage boards, research institutes such as National Geophysical Research Institute...

Artificial Recharging Methods

Topics, can be found in the literature (e.g. Todd, 1980 Huisman and Olsthoorn, 1983 Asano, 1985 CGWB, 1994). In summary, artificial recharging may be carried out by direct or indirect methods, or by a combination of methods in an integrated water resources management context. Groundwater recharge is often best accomplished as a by-product of an integrated water resources development scheme, for example, by increasing groundwater recharge by way of reservoir and canal seepage, injection and infiltration of return flow from irrigation, enhanced infiltration of rainfall as a result of levelling fields for irrigation purposes, and basin development schemes involving the construction of check dams and minor irrigation dams. The Central Groundwater Board (CGWB, 1995) states that nearly 30-40 of applied irrigation water goes as seepage from irrigation fields, a portion of which recharges groundwater. Rates for paddy are much higher than average, ranging from 55 to 88 of the applied...

Benefits of Groundwater Development

Groundwater sustainability must necessarily take into account the numerous dimensions of this concept, among them the socio-economic and even ecological benefits that result from groundwater use. Socio-economic benefits range from drinking water supply to economic development, as a result of agricultural growth in a region. With respect to the potential ecological benefits, the use of groundwater resources can often eliminate the need for new large and expensive hydraulic infrastructures that might seriously damage the natural regime of a river or stream and or create serious social problems (World Commission on Dams, 2000).

Water rights law and water rights doctrines

Choosing a water allocation method is difficult, and the methods used in America are, of course, not the only choices. Some of the selection factors to be considered by a country include the type of legal doctrine already in place, if any, including constitutional protection of property against government takings without compensation the extent to which groundwater resources are already being overused and the current rate of growth of groundwater use the density of population and water wells the strength and viability of the judiciary, administrative agency system and legal system in general to resolve water disputes expeditiously and the availability of public funds and hydrologic and other scientific and legal expertise and data available to administer the system.28 A country having areas with large numbers of groundwater irrigation users per unit area might find the costs of administration of the Prior Appropriation Doctrine prohibitive. Moreover, superimposition of strict...

World Water Assessment Programme

Many international conferences emphasize that water is at the heart of sustainable development, trigger debates on a global water crisis and call for immediate action. However, in spite of the many valuable water resources assessments in the past, until recently there has been no global system in place to produce a systematic, continuing and comprehensive global picture of water and its management. The World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), a joint initiative of the water-related agencies under the UN, was established to fill this gap. The Internet address www.unesco.org water wwap provides information on the programme. After the presentation of WWDR-1 in 2003 at the Third World Water Forum in Japan, a second report was prepared for presentation at the Fourth World Water Forum in Mexico in March 2006. Numerous water-related agencies and specialists from all over the world contribute to this report. Groundwater is focused upon in the chapter on 'Water Resources', but the space...

Regional institutions programmes and networks on groundwater

The EU is important for groundwater for at least two reasons (i) the Water Framework Programmes for financing innovative research on Europe's water resources and (ii) the EU Framework Directive on Water, aiming to establish a framework for the protection of Europe's water systems (including groundwater), which forces all states of the EU to assess their water resources properly and to upgrade their water-monitoring systems according to a common standard.

Guidelines and lessons learned

An early guideline covering more or less the entire field of groundwater exploration, groundwater resources assessment or groundwater monitoring is UNESCO's publication Groundwater Studies An International Guide for Research and Practice (1972). This guide, completely revised in 2004, is in reality very close to a textbook and is more useful as a general background than for providing step-by-step guidance on specific activities. The guidelines Water Resources Assessment Handbook for Review of National Capabilities (WMO UNESCO, 1997) pays ample attention to institutional capacities required for water resources assessment. Many other guidelines, however, focus on narrower, more specific subjects and usually offer more details. These guidelines have often been written to support activities inside a certain organization or country, but several of them may provide excellent support far beyond that region. A good example is the USGS series entitled Techniques of Water Resources...

Recognition of Groundwater Problems

It is interesting to consider the fact that intensive groundwater use over just one generation, or essentially the last 3-4 decades, has drawn down underground water resources to an unprecedented level in human history, and there is no likelihood that water management in the future will make it possible to revert to earlier levels, or even maintain status quo. Basically, this blue underground treasure, which is only partially replenishable, is permanently lost and with it, valuable wet ecosystems as well as an important buffer capacity against droughts. Again this impact strikes harder in already marginal and resource-stressed areas and regions of the world where poor people already tend to accumulate. Groundwater pumping most often occurs in an uncontrolled and indiscriminate manner, be it in developed or developing countries. Entitlement to groundwater is most often associated with access to land and financial resources (for drilling and pumping costs) more than formal rights and...

Challenges to Groundwater Management

In a sense, much wealth creation and poverty reduction has been derived on a loan that will never be directly paid back. There is a danger that the poverty-reducing potential of groundwater will be lost, making societies more vulnerable to climate changes and extreme events. There is a major challenge in securing basic water needs to people in developing countries who depended to a large extent on sustain-ably replenished shallow wells that are now out of reach. The primordial role of drinking water needs to ensured, for example, by having deep, protected wells for drinking and shallow wells for irrigation (and not the other way around as is often the case today in rural areas), or by zoning of areas with precedence for drinking water.

Conclusion Is Groundwater Manageable

Groundwater management was neglected for a long time due to the apparent abundance of the resource. With population and economic growth and the technological options to abstract groundwater at reasonable prices from ever-greater depths, the need to actively manage the resource has become clear. This is especially the case in developing countries where the poorer segments of rural society do not have other livelihood options available, should they lose access to their safe water source, both regarding production and drinking water supply.

Contrasting Local and Basin Perspectives On Artifical Recharge

Why artificial recharge is growing in popularity can be seen from an example from India's arid western region. The year 2000 was an unprecedented drought year in Gujarat. The water crisis that year had created an intense awakening among the people of the Saurashtra and Kutch regions about the importance of water. Social workers and NGOs undertook numerous water-harvesting projects to recharge groundwater for domestic and agricultural uses. These projects were often funded by voluntary contributions from affected people. Because of the apparent success of these efforts, under the Sardar Patel Participatory Water Conservation Programme (SPPWCP), the government of Gujarat invested more than Rs 1180 ( 28) million in construction of more than 10,000 check dams across Saurashtra, Kutch, Ahmedabad and Sabarkantha regions in 2000 01, which was co-financed by beneficiary contributions. Overall, 60 of the funds was supplied by the government and 40 by direct stakeholders. The responsibility for...

Regulating or not Chinas groundwater the role of the government

Over the last 50 years, China has constructed a vast and complex bureaucracy to manage its water resources. To understand the functioning of this system, it is important to first understand that, until recently, neither groundwater use nor water conservation has ever been of major concern to policymakers. Instead, the system was designed to construct and manage surface water to prevent floods, which have historically devastated the areas surrounding major rivers, and to effectively divert and exploit water resources for agricultural and industrial development. Historically, when attention was paid to water conservation, the emphasis was on surface water canal networks. Therefore, many of the most severe groundwater problems have not been directly addressed. Water policy is ultimately created and theoretically executed by the MWR. The MWR has run most aspects of water management since China's first comprehensive Water Law was enacted in 1988, taking over the duties from its...

The Contemporary Story of Groundwater

Groundwater is generally a reliable and good quality water source, and with modern technology for drilling, electrification and pumping, it is widely accessible throughout most parts of the world today. In fact, these technological advances are primarily accountable for the recent, remarkable increase in global abstraction of groundwater. The history of global intensive groundwater use is less than 50 years old and much of the modern increase in global water use has been contributed by groundwater. Surface water use has remained constant or increased at a slower rate, simply because resources are running out or the feasibility of capturing and storing them is low. What is also remarkable about today's groundwater use is that the increase is continuing on a global scale, with only patches of declining or stagnating trends. Global aquifers hold an enormous water reserve that is several times greater than surface water resources (UN WWAP, 2003). Groundwater could, in principle, be...

Case study 2 the Namoi River

Namoi River Catchment Map

1000 mg l total dissolved solids (TDS) ). In 1988, there were 1639 high-yielding tube wells, mainly in the paleo-channels or alluvium adjacent to the river, with maximum yields as high as 200 l s. Average groundwater use at this time was 200 million cubic metres per year, which was equivalent to recharge these aquifers. Small volumes are also sourced from porous sandstone aquifers of the Great Artesian Basin, which stores the bulk of the groundwater in the Namoi Valley (243 billion cubic metres) at depths of 520-810 m below ground level. Although TDS are generally less than 1200 mg l, the water has high sodium content and is not suitable for irrigation, but is used for stock watering and for town and rural drinking water. Groundwater in fractured rocks (basalt) is sometimes sourced for stock and domestic supplies, but yields are low and success in drilling is variable. The results were incorporated into the Water Sharing Plan, seeded in 1999, which was expected to be formalized in...

Raising public awareness

The World Water Vision's slogan 'making water everybody's business' launched at the Second World Water Forum in 2000 (WWF2) correctly highlights the fact that everybody on the globe has a stake in water. Consequently, water is not a subject matter to be understood and handled by water specialists only, but rather a matter of concern to everybody. Politicians and other decision makers need to understand in general lines how to exploit and use the water resources properly, ensure sustainability, protect water quality and minimize negative impacts of exploitation. Water users need to know how to benefit optimally from water, both for domestic and productive uses. The general public, finally, needs to understand how individual behaviour - on a voluntary basis or enforced by regulations - contributes to conservation and protection of water resources and the related environment. Ministerial Conference on Drinking Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation World Summit for Social Development...

Threats to groundwater

El Salvador In the department of San Salvador, a region of economic importance to the country, there is a group of aquifers that form a very complex water system due to the emergence of springs and of connections between surface and groundwater flows. To the west of the San Salvador aquifers, water for agricultural activity is extracted from wells located in the Zapotitan Valley, which is dedicated to agriculture. To the east is the San Salvador aquifer, which coincides with the metropolitan area of the capital city, and covers Approximately 227 million cubic metres of groundwater is extracted annually and 80 of the potable water supply comes from groundwater. The reliable yield of the existing groundwater deposits in the country are estimated at 83 m3 s.


What does intensively used or stressed aquifer mean During the last decade the expression water stressed-regions has become pervasive in the water resources literature. Usually this means that there are regions prone to suffer now or in the near future serious social and economic problems resulting from water scarcity. The usual threshold to consider a region under water stress is 1000 m3 person year (United Nations, 1997, pp. 10-13), but some authors increase this figure to 1700 m3 per-son year. If this ratio is only 500 m3 person year, the country is considered to be in a situation of absolute water stress or water scarcity (Seckler et al., 1998 Postel, 1999 Cosgrove and Rijsbesman, 2000). This is far too simplistic. Considering only the ratio between water resources and population has meagre practical application. Most water problems are related to quality degradation, and accentuated drought cycles, but not to its relative scarcity. As an example, a good number of Spanish regions...

The World Bank

The World Bank (IBRD) finances development programmes and projects in many countries of the world. Within its programmes, the role of groundwater is most pronounced in the water and sanitation sector and the irrigation sector programmes. Apart from financing and taking care of the technical work involved in the project cycle, the World Bank is also contributing to the international exchange of experience in groundwater. This is done in particular by studies on the impact of groundwater-related projects on human welfare and by dissemination of publications on 'good practice' or 'lessons learned'. A rather technical example of the latter is the publication Community Water Supply The Handpump Option (Arlosoroff et al., 1987), which presents results of testing and monitoring 2700 pumps of 70 different models in 17 countries. A recent World Bank activity focusing on the promotion of 'good practice' in groundwater is the Groundwater Management Advisory Team (GW-MATE) programme. GW-MATE was...

Physical and Spatial Conditions

Water quantity can be increased through drainage (in the case of water surplus), irrigation and inundation (in the case of water shortage), and water management in general (see Chapter 5). Water quality can be improved through water purification and management (see Chapter 5).

B Impacts on domestic water supplies

Quality requirements for domestic drinking water are determined by the EPA and, in some instances, include modifications and additions from the State health department. Water quality regulations for domestic supplies can be divided into two categories primary standards related to health concerns and secondary standards pertaining to aesthetic interests. Health associated regulations often relate to toxic levels of manmade and natural substances. Under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, EPA set primary standards for 83 contaminants. Some of the substances that are associated with agriculture include nitrate, bacteria, selenium, lindane, toxaphene, 2-4,D, aldicarb, alachlor, carbofuran, simazine, atr-azine, picloram, dalapon, diquat, and dinoseb. Those regulations aimed primarily at aesthetics include such substances as foaming agents, pH, and total dissolved solids. The primary and secondary standards for drinking water for specific constituents are listed in table...

Herbicides and water quality

Since the 1980s there has been increasing recognition that herbicides, applied in the course of normal farming practices, have contaminated surface and ground water in many agricultural regions (Barbash et al., 1999 Larson, Gilliom & Capel, 1999 United States Geological Survey, 1999). Among the herbicides detected most frequently in drinking-water sources, there are a number of compounds classified as probable (e.g., acetochlor), likely (e.g., alachlor), and possible (e.g., atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine) carcinogens (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1999). Several herbicides contaminating drinking-water sources are also under scrutiny as possible disrupters of human immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems (see section Acute and chronic effects of herbicides on human health below). The effects of low-level exposure to herbicides are poorly understood, but there is considerable popular and regulatory concern over contamination of drinking-water...

D Impacts on agricultural uses

Farms require a domestic water supply in addition to water used for a variety of other purposes. Livestock farmers are especially concerned with water quality for health and product quality reasons (especially milk). A water supply that is both potable (safe to drink) and palatable (nice to drink) is most desirable for livestock consumption, although the water generally does not need to be as pure as that for human consumption. Livestock farmers must be particularly careful that the farm water supply does not become contaminated by the livestock waste. Surface ponds or tanks to which livestock have ready access are always potential candidates for contamination. The quality of water needed for livestock consumption varies with the type and age of animals. In general, young animals are less tolerant of water that has high nitrate or fecal coliform levels. Some animals, primarily lactating ones, have a relatively high daily intake of water as compared to their body weight. The daily...

Ancient Landforms and Modern Inhabitants

Five or six generations of farm families had carved out their livelihoods on these plots. Each had its own goals, but there would have been certain overlapping concerns. Farmer A wouldn't have wanted Farmer B leaching fertilizers into the creek upstream of his land if that supplied drinking water for him or his livestock. There would certainly have been questions regarding accuracy of fence lines, as well as questions of responsibility for large overhanging or fallen trees. For years boundary issues would have been worked out between neighbors, using fallen trees and other guides for simple solutions that kept the geometry and plot layout clear. I guessed that this community of farmers hadn't been engaged in dialogue about the intercon-nectedness of their lands within the larger landscape. They were neighbors, but they weren't exactly allies. They worked in rhythm with one another as they farmed their individual properties, but as with small children engaging in parallel play, their...

Communicable Diseases

In low-income countries, waterborne diseases remain a major public health problem. Drinking water can be the direct cause of enteric infections, bacil-lary dysentery, and cholera. Standing water can also serve as the indirect cause through transmission of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and

Mobility Problems in Developing Countries

Agricultural improvement programs change the land use and increase crop yields. They also result in a need for longer trips by farmworkers to farming areas. When time spent on walking increases, the period available for farming activities decreases and the effectiveness of farm labor is even further reduced. In that case, farmers may decide to abandon their remotest fields to concentrate their efforts on the more accessible food crops. The need for regular supplies of drinking water and firewood in rural areas also can involve long trips. This can take up to four hours each day as, for example, in the eastern part of Africa. In parts of Tanzania, for example, water sources are often found at distances of at least 5 km from a village. Almost all of these trips have to be undertaken on foot. These long trips for water can be avoided if wells or boreholes are created closer to the villages 1 .

Intersectoral Water Policy

Elements of a national, intersectoral water policy can include plans for construction and operation of multi-sectoral water facilities, definition of the legal and regulatory framework for water rights, procedures for surveillance of water use and conflict resolution, incentives frameworks, definition of the role of the private sector in water supply and management, and environmental regulations and flood control provisions, among other considerations. A water assessment has to take into account all sources of water, including both groundwater and surface water and non-conventional sources such as desalinized and treated waste water, and all water uses, current and projected. Where there are competing uses, it is necessary to estimate the economic value of water in each category of use and the possibilities of water conservation in existing uses. An assessment also evaluates the waste-assimilation capacities of the water systems in light of the likely loads of waste materials that...

Water Rights Markets An Introduction

. market mechanisms are particularly problematic in water. . No doubt local water markets often operate successfully. But it is unrealistic to expect that a general reallocation between sectors or improvements in water quality can be effected through the market, at least for the foreseeable future. . Moreover, renewable water is a fugitive and variable resource associated with pervasive externalities. It is thus inherently difficult to manage, becomes embedded in complex institutional structures, and cannot be apportioned and regulated solely - or even significantly - by the market. Thus, government is inevitably required to (1) establish the policy, legislative, and regulatory framework for managing water supply and demand and (2) ensure that water services are provided, notably by constructing large-scale projects for which economies of scale or social externalities preclude private supply.111 Shah (1991)112 estimates that as much as one-half of the gross area irrigated by tubewells...

Issues in Water Rights Markets

Is codified in the laws of the states of that region. The first right to water from a given source is established by usage, and refers to the annual quantities taken out by that pioneering user. The use must be 'beneficial', in keeping with established criteria, and failure to exercise 'beneficial' use for a defined period of time can lead to loss of the water right. Subsequent rights, or 'junior rights', may also be established, but in the event of a drought the more senior rights have priority in receiving water.121 Informal water rights in developing countries also tend to be of this type. . Tradable property rights can, however, be assigned to communal groups or water-user associations as well as to individuals. Assignment of traditional property rights to communal groups should in fact enhance the control of these groups over water resources, insuring better access to water than is often the case with existing water user groups. Assignment of tradable property rights in water to...

HttpebbokTucom second chance

What's to be learned from all this From now on the safety of our drinking water may depend on each of us demanding that our public agencies invest at the watershed scale, and look upstream, downstream, and below our feet for ways to turn problems into opportunities. Ecological reserves can link rural and urban needs by connecting the health of the land and its ecosystems to the physical and economic well-being of human communities, and perhaps rebuilding time-honored networks of interdependence.

Approaches for Food Consumption Data Collection 9321 Population Based Methods

The dietary recall consists of listing foods and beverages (including drinking water and sometimes dietary supplements) consumed during some previous period, usually the previous day or during the 24 hours prior to the recall interview. These surveys generally collect information not only about the types and amounts of food consumed but also about the source of the foods (e.g., store-bought, home-cooked), the time of day, and place that foods are consumed. Foods and drinks are recalled from memory. The interview may be conducted in person, by telephone, or increasingly via the Internet.

Principal Policy Instruments Available For Water Demand Management

(8) Relocate industry and services to areas better endowed with water resources. (9) Provide transition assistance for populations affected by the water crisis. 4. DHV Consultants BV, Northern Region Agricultural Development Project, Technical Assistance for Engineering Services, YEM 87 015 Regional Water Management Plan, United Nations Development Program and Yemen Republic, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Sana'a, Yemen, January 1994, p. 47. tion systems will contribute in a major way to solving the water crisis, and so most of the emphasis should be placed on other approaches, including policy reform. (So far, most of the discussion of possible solutions to the water crisis has centered around proposals for promoting the improved irrigation techniques and around schemes for interbasin water transfers.)

Fiscal And Strategic Issues

The magnitude of the impending changes that will be brought about by the water crisis will place unusual demands on the system of policy planning and implementation, and on the process of building a consensus with the public. Government funds will be needed to ease the transition out of agriculture for thousands of rural families, through programs like purchasing water rights, training workers for new occupations, and expanding the coverage of the social safety net, and Privatize urban water supply Note a, indicates would help augment water supply. Note a, indicates would help augment water supply.

Non-oxidizing Fungicides

BETZ Slimicide C-31 is a blend of dodecylguanidine hydrochloride and methylenebis (thiocyanate) with organic dispersants and penetrants. This product is designed to perform as a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent for the control of fungal, algal and bacterial slimes in air conditioning, evaporative condensers, heat exchange water systems, cooling tower and influent water systems, industrial water scrubbing systems, brewery pasteurizers and cannery cooling water. BETZ Slimicide C-58P aids in the control of bacterial, fungal and algal slimes in evaporative condensers, heat exchange water systems, commercial and industrial cooling towers, influent systems such as flow through, infilco units, filters, lagoons, etc., industrial water scrubbing systems and brewery pasteurizers. BETZ Slimicide C-70 is a liquid source of chlorine which aids in the control of bacterial, fungal, and algal slimes in cooling tower water systems. BETZ Slimicide J-12 aids in the control of bacterial, fungal, and...

Membrane Processes for Advanced Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater Purification

Reverse osmosis (RO) is often associated with water treatment or ultrapure water production because of its ability to retain the dissolved ions (in the case of ultrapure water production, RO serves as pretreatment for ion exchange deionization). One successful commercial application of reverse osmosis is desalination of seawater or brackish water and production of bottled water. RO is also used with some success in removing arsenic from drinking water sources. RO may also be used to desalt effluents from a As described in Chapter 3, pervaporation is an energy-efficient technology that has been used commercially for alcohol dehydration, VOC removal from contaminated water, and hydrocarbon separations. The driving force of pervaporation processes is the chemical potential difference across the membrane between the feed and permeate the performance of pervaporation is not restricted by vapor-liquid equilibrium like distillation (Dutta et al., 1996). Recently, it has been shown to be a...

Land Treatment Systems

Wastewater Pretreatment Packaged System

There are two major categories of reuse of wastewater, which have been practiced throughout the world potable use and nonpotable use. The potable use of wastewater mainly includes injecting reclaimed water to the drinking water supply after multiple levels of treatments, or using natural systems (including land applications) to treat wastewater directly. Nonpotable uses of wastewater are many direct irrigation of agriculture fields using food wastewater with low BOD5 and TSS irrigation of parks, forests, or golf courses with low-load wastewater and use for aquaculture are the most promising examples. In many areas of the world, wastewater reuse has been practiced using a combination of treatment technologies that achieve a very high degree of treatment. Many states in the western U.S. have, over the past 20 years, been treating wastewater to tertiary treatment standards and then allowing the wastewater to be reused for irrigation or for recharge to groundwater aquifers. Although this...

Direction and hydraulic gradient

Hydraulic Gradient

If a published water table map is not available for the area, but several wells and springs are nearby, a contour map of the water table may be drawn. Plot on a topographic map (at an appropriate scale) a sufficient number of points of static levels of water wells, observation wells, and test pits. Include spot elevations of perennial streams, ponds, and lakes. Using an appropriate contour interval, contour the data points to produce a useful water table map. Record dates of observations to allow comparison over time, from season to season, or in areas of suspected water table fluctuations. For planning purposes, the general ground water flow direction and hydraulic gradient of the water table is calculated using data from three wells located in any triangular arrangement in the same unconfined aquifer (Heath 1983). They may be observation wells, test holes, test pits, or water wells. Also, the elevation of a perennial pond or stream can serve as an observation point. The 8-step...

Agricultural Waste References

Craun GF, Calderon RL, Nwachuku N (2002). Causes of waterborne outbreaks reported in the United States, 1991-98. In PR Hunter, M Waite, E Ronchi (eds), Drinking water and infectious disease establishing the link (pp. 105-117). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Geldreich EE (1990). Microbiological quality of source waters for water supply. In McFeters GA (ed.), Drinking water micro-biology (pp. 293-367). Springer-Verlag, New York.

Potential Hazards Associated with Agricultural Waste

Over-application of agricultural waste in the form manure to crop land and pasture can result in a decrease in crop production due to inhibitory amounts of ammonia of nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) or salts in the soil. Application of dairy effluent or feedlot manure to permeable loam and clay loams soils can also reduce the permeability of these soils and thus adversely affecting the crop growth. Excess loadings of nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural waste applied to land that cause eutrophication of water bodies or contamination of drinking water have been well documented in the literature (Sharpley et al. 1984 Sharpley and Halvorson 1994 Anderson et al. 2002). Apart from excessive nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients, salts, pathogens, livestock waste also contain significant amounts of steroid hormones (naturally released by animals of all species in urine and faeces) and their metabolites. Veterinary antibiotics that are fed to the animals during their life period are also...

Brief History of Food Safety and Agriculture

Recurrent outbreaks of food and water diseases have highlighted the importance of sustaining safe food and water supplies. In response to threats to food safety, the United States government and other entities have made several changes in the United States food safety regulatory structure. These include implementation by USDA of the Pathogen Reduction Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HAACP) in 1995, Final Rule for Meat and Poultry (from USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), creation of FoodNet (a sentinel surveillance system for active collection of foodborne disease surveillance data), creation of PulseNet (a national molecular subtyping network for foodborne bacterial disease surveillance), and revisions to the Food Code and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (10-12).

Larval hatching systems

Sandifer & Smith (1978) described a system for holding ovigerous females consisting of two 2000 L tanks (1.83 m diameter x 0.76 m deep) attached to a recirculating water system. Each tank contained artificial habitats and could accommodate up to 130 females m2 of tank floor and provide excellent survival ( 90 ) for 3 week hatching periods. The system was maintained at 28 to 30 C and 12 p.p.t. using synthetic seawater. The two holding tanks were connected to a smaller larval collecting tank. The larvae were

B National water quality standards

The early water quality standards, which related to health, were aimed at improving domestic drinking water supplies. If a particular water source was used for drinking, it had to meet the quality standards or be treated in some fashion so that it would meet those standards. Responsibility for meeting the standards has typically been assigned to the user. In general, the burden of meeting standards is now moving from the water user to the potential water polluter. Water quality standards are now aimed at control of potential pollutants at the source. This change in focus, in part, has resulted in the use of standards for point sources based not only on pollutant concentrations in water, but also on the best available technologies for control of water pollution. I Sources of water supply for drinking or food processing purposes, requiring principally disinfection. Any other usage requiring water of lower quality. II Sources of water supply for drinking or food processing purposes,...

Applicability of Biotechnology to Specific Agricultural Objectives

(i) Increasing Productivity and Stability of Crops in Rainfed and Marginal Environments. Producing more food on the same area of cultivated land would reduce pressure to expand cultivated areas to forests and marginal areas. Broadening tolerance of existing HYV cereals for drought, flooding, salinity, heavy metals, and other abiotic and biotic stresses would increase yields in rainfed areas. CIMMYT and IRRI, in cooperation with NARSs in different countries, are focusing their efforts to develop HYVs of rice and maize for rainfed areas. (ii) Improving Water Use Efficiency in Crops. Future availability of water for agriculture is a major issue. By 2020, there may be a water crisis in Asian agriculture (ADB 2000c). Crops with higher water use efficiency and tolerance for drought would be an advantage. With the completion of the rice genome, scientists will be able to identify genes responsible for drought tolerance.

Improving the Land Degradation Assessment

In addition to a Global Water Resources Assessment and Global Biodiversity Assessment, the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and FAO have developed a system for rational land-use planning on the basis of agroecological zones methodology (Fischer et al., 2000). This methodology can be applied at national, regional, and local levels. The International Food Policy Research Institute and World Resources Institute have undertaken a comprehensive assessment of the earth's ecosystems, such as a Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems and Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, sponsored by the Global Environment Facility, the United Nations Foundation, the Packard Foundations, and the World Bank (Reid, 2000). UNEP and FAO have developed guidelines for erosion and desertification control management with particular reference to Mediterranean coastal areas (UNEP MAP PAP, 2000). Socioeconomic data sets (Global Farming System Study, Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Mapping systems) have...

Breach of embankment or accidental releases of waste impoundments

The magnitude of the environmental impact from breach or accidental release to a surface waterbody is related to the amount and concentration of the released waste and to the quality and quantity of water and the biota in the receiving waterbody. The magnitude of the impact may also vary according to the time of year and such factors as the dilution capacity, reaeration coefficients, antecedent dissolved oxygen conditions, sensitivity to phosphorus and nitrogen loads, and the proximity of drinking water intakes and recreation areas. Exactly what the effect of released waste would be is difficult, if not impossible, to predict with any precision. Regardless of the impact, it must be recognized that releasing wastewater in any amount or concentration into a surface waterbody is seldom socially acceptable. For this reason, precautionary measures should be considered in planning and design to minimize the risk or consequences of embankment breach or accidental release if a hydraulic...

A Introduction

Many environmental laws enacted by Congress are enforced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA issues regulations for prevention of air and water pollution, protection of drinking water, proper solid waste management, and control of pesticide use. Their broad regulatory powers related to air and water pollution and solid waste management are of great interest to the agricultural producer and to agencies, such as the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), that provide technical assistance to producers. State public health and environmental control agencies generally are responsible for implementing Federal as well as State control programs.

Field Sanitation

The Field Sanitation regulation, 29 CFR 1928.110, was adopted to reduce the communicable disease risk among agricultural field workers. The regulation requires employers of field workers to provide potable drinking water, toilets, and hand-washing facilities to hand laborers in the field. The regulation does not cover livestock operations and hand labor operations in permanent structures (e.g., packaging and storage facilities). Employers must also inform each employee of relevant health hazards (e.g., gastrointestinal illness) and good hygiene practices that can reduce these hazards. Occupational health professionals can be instrumental in providing hygiene education resources and supporting agricultural employers in providing appropriate field sanitation programs.

Lead Testing

Agricultural activities can include many of the same lead exposure scenarios. Farm equipment maintenance may involve exposure because of lead-based paint on older equipment. Many farmers perform cutting, welding, soldering, and brazing without the benefit of personal protective equipment or even minimal environmental controls. In some farm settings, water systems are soldered with lead-based solder, which may leach into water supplies. Older buildings may contain lead-based paint. Melting of lead to produce weights, sinkers, and ammunition can pose a threat of lead exposure. Despite the potential risks, family farms and most agricultural activities are not subject to monitoring. Table 9.2 provides a summary of United States regulations and standards for lead.

Farm Chemicals

Due to the intense use of synthetic fertilizers and livestock manure in agriculture, levels of nitrate in water may be elevated. This waterborne chemical hazard for very young children on farms results in a potential for overexposure to nitrates through drinking water. Nitrate contamination in shallow wells may lead to methemoglobinemia in infants. Nitrate is converted to nitrite by commensal bacteria in the gut and absorbed primarily in the small intestine. Levels of nitrate that are safe for adults pose a significant hazard for infants, due to the inability of the infant to process the nitrate and excrete it in the nontoxic form (28-30).

Fecal bacteria

EPA established a criterion of 10 mg L of NO3 -N for drinking water because of the health hazard that nitrates present for pregnant women and infants. Unborn babies and infants can contract methemo-globinemia, or blue baby syndrome, from ingesting water contaminated with nitrates. In extreme cases, this can be fatal. Blue baby syndrome generally effects only infants that are less than 6 months old. The disease develops when nitrate is converted to nitrite in the alkaline environment of the baby's stomach. The nitrite then enters the bloodstream and interacts with the hemoglobin, converting it to methemoglobin. Even after the baby discontinues consumption of the contaminated water, the buildup of normal hemoglobin can be slow. After the age of 6 months, the baby's stomach pH reaches adult levels, and the disease is rarely a problem.


Synthetic polymers can be used as adsorbents because they are easily functionalized on the surfaces. Ion exchange polymers target ions in the solution, so they are good candidates for removing ions in water purification or wastewater treatment to remove certain heavy metal or other toxic ions from wastewater. Polymers that do not rely on an ion exchange mechanism utilize the hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions (a stronger form of molecular force than van der Waals forces) to adsorb the adsorbates.

Consumption Data

Food consumption data reflect what either individuals or groups consume in terms of solid foods, beverages (including drinking water), and supplements. Food consumption can be estimated through food consumption surveys (FCSs) at an individual or household level, or approximated through food production statistics (FPSs). FCSs include records diaries, food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), dietary recall, and total diet surveys. The quality of the food consumption survey data depend on the survey design, the methodology and tools used, the motivation and memory of the respondents, the statistical treatment, and the presentation (foods as purchased versus as consumed) of the data. FPSs, by definition, represent foods available for consumption for the whole population, typically in the raw form as produced.

Mode of Transmission

Hepatitis E is excreted in the feces and is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Transmission is usually by ingestion of contaminated drinking water. Rare cases of person-to-person transmission have been recorded. There is a possibility that transmission by blood transfusion may occur. In the United States where no outbreaks of hepatitis E have been reported, a low prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E (


(1) A solution to the water crisis will require use of both supply options and tools of demand management. (7) Yemen's industrial development will have to be accelerated, along with a more advisable geographical location policy, as part of a solution to the water crisis. (8) It will be necessary to share the costs of managing the water crisis, designing a package of policies so that neither farmers nor townspeople, nor the general taxpayers, shoulder all of the burden of the transition. (11) The adequacy of rural and urban safety net programs should be evaluated in light of the likely intersectoral movements of population as a result of the water crisis.

Microchek 11 T

41-J1 is a combination bactericide and corrosion inhibitor for use in oil field water systems. It is particularly effective for the control of sulfate-reducing and slime-forming bacteria. It also exhibits strong film forming properties for the control of corrosion caused by hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, acids and salts. BETZ EnChem 41-J2 is a specially formulated liquid biocide for the control of slime forming bacteria, fungi, algae and sulfate reducers in oil field water systems. 41-J2 is a highly effective biocide for oil field water systems. The product can be fed to source wells, at free water knockouts, before or after flotation cells and filters, or after the injection pumps. 41-J3 is a specially formulated liquid biocide effective in controlling slime forming bacteria, algae, fungi and sulfate reducing bacteria in oil field water systems. 41-J4 is a specially formulated liquid biocide effective in controlling slime forming bacteria, algae, fungi and sulfate reducing...

Pregnancy Outcomes

Between parental pesticide exposure and pre-term labor. A recent study measuring maternal urinary and cord blood organophosphates and cholinesterase levels found a small decrease in gestational age but no association with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). A preliminary study found IUGR was associated with elevated levels of atrazine and other herbicides in drinking water in rural Iowa. A small but significant decrease in birth weight was associated with maternal pyrethoid use. Other studies have found no association with agricultural occupations and low birthweight (28-33).

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