At Home Drug Withdrawal
The term chemical dependency is often used synonymously with terms such as addiction, drug dependence, alcoholism, polysubstance abuse, substance abuse, substance dependence, and drug abuse. Seymour and Smith (6) provide what is probably the best definition of chemical dependency Addictive disease is a pathological state with characteristic signs and symptoms as well as a predictable outcome if not treated. Dependency is characterized by a compulsive desire for the drug, loss of control when exposed to the drug, and continued use in spite of adverse consequences (Table 10.1).
These approaches include social skills training (called charm school by the participants), stress management, anger management, and community-based reinforcement such as education and job placement. Tattoo and scar removal is also an important facet of drug treatment as gang and drug-related tattoos serve to identify a drug user to other drug users and to alienate potential employers. Tattoo removal can serve to improve a former drug abuser's reentry into the workplace. As people detoxify from opiates, they often experience debilitating dental pain. The chances are high that they will return to opiate use unless the dental conditions are treated. Drug abusers may have other drug-related health problems such as infectious hepatitis, HIV, and skin infections. These problems require aggressive diagnosis and treatment. Finally, the dual diagnosis of drug addiction with psychiatric disease such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, or schizophrenia must be diagnosed and treated...
Any drug treatment or rehabilitation program must take into consideration the biological, psychological, and societal causes and consequences of drug abuse. A policy begins with the employer's recognition of the problem, which may be triggered by government requirements, an insurance company's or subcontractor's contractual requirements, by an injury or accident, by discovery of drugs or drug use on the work premises by law enforcement, or by the confrontation of a drug- or alcohol-intoxicated employee (Table 10.7). Utilizing consultants, the company will typically conduct an education program on drug abuse for employees and an additional class on the recognition of drug use behavior for supervisors. Once the policy is in place, the company can begin testing, typically using a third party such as a physician, laboratory, clinic or collection company.
Psychological factors that contribute to addiction include extroversion, lack of conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Dependent personality disorders (easily led by others), anxiety disorders, and depression are commonly associated with drug abuse. In adolescents, when most drug abuse starts, low affect and lack of behavior self-regulation when interacting with family and peers predisposes them to substance experimentation. In addition, immaturity may exacerbate the natural low psychological self-regulation in childhood to promote initiation of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug consumption (12-16).
Pharmacotherapies for alcohol and drug addiction have been shown to be effective during the acute or subacute withdrawal periods and with methadone maintenance. Studies have examined antidipsotropics (disulfiram, calcium carbamide, metronidazole), antianxiety agents (diazepam), antipsychotics (thioth-ixene, trifluoperazine), antidepressants (imipramine, desipramine, fluoxetine, lithium), and hallucinogens (lysergic acid diethylamide). Methadone maintenance for heroin addicts has also demonstrated benefit (18).
Drug abuse has become an endemic in all phases of agriculture as in other industries. Research by the United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) reveals that substance use or dependence among full-time workers aged 18 to 49 in 2000 was 8.1 for alcohol use and 7.8 for illicit drug use. The most recent data indicated that 19.7 of farm workers had used illicit drugs in the year prior to the study. This figure had increased from 10.8 from the previous year (1,2). Workplace drug use and intoxication has been demonstrated to decrease productivity and increase absenteeism and injuries. Studies performed by the United States Postal Service demonstrated that positive preemployment screens for marijuana and cocaine were associated with increased adverse employment outcomes such as accidents, injuries, and employee behavior discipline. A study performed in a major teaching hospital documented that, as a consequence of preemployment drug testing, the...
There are four common usage patterns of illicit drug use experimental, recreational, circumstantial, and compulsive. Experimental use involves short-term trials of drugs motivated by curiosity and is common among teenagers, young adults, and others naive about the effects of the drugs (8,9,11). Cocaine Methamphetamines
Stress in veterinarians is associated with the ordering of drugs, staff supervision, public relations, professional working hours, heavy responsibilities, and the fear of burglaries. While most veterinarians manage these stressors adequately, there is an ongoing problem of suicide, drug addiction, and burnout in the profession. Especially in small-animal veterinarians, the euthanasia of animals and the supervision of the slaughter of animals for public health reasons add further stress (see Chapter 22) (2).
Drug Free Life
How To Beat Drugs And Be On Your Way To Full Recovery. In this book, you will learn all about: Background Info On Drugs, Psychological Treatments Statistics, Rehab, Hypnosis and Much MORE.