Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health

EMF Protection

This ebook is the complete guide to learning about electrical sensitivity and how to prevent getting it in your life. You will learn what electrical sensitivity is, and what causes it. Once you have started learning about it you will learn how to get rid of it and protect yourself from the dangers of electrical sensitivity. You will also learn how to heal yourself. This book is the product of careful research by the scientific and medical communities into the dangers and preventative measures of electrical sensitivity. ES is one of the most under-diagnosed conditions in the world right now, and this ebook is designed to education people as to how it works and how to prevent it. Do not let it take hold of your family; take control and prevent it now! Do not let yourself get any more hurt; learn about this condition and fight it! Read more here...

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Overview


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The Shadow Side Of The Wireless Revolution

This ebook seeks to get rid of a lot of the myths that surround electromagnetic waves. The advent of wireless phones and devices has changed the face of our world, but there are sinister side effects to the entire wireless revolution. The ebook is designed to information the public of the dangers of EMF radiation and how to protect you and your family from the dangers that it contains. The chapters cover topics such as how to determine how sensitive (if at all) you are to the dangers of Electromagnetic Frequency Radiation. The next chapter contains the options and studies of real scientists and health professionals, so that you can be fully educated on what goes on inside your body and how to prevent danger. The other chapters discuss how to petition for more safety regulations, how to keep yourself safe, and how to avoid getting hurt. Protect your family from dangerous radiation today!

The Shadow Side Of The Wireless Revolution Overview

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Author: Camilla Rees
Official Website: electromagnetichealth.org
Price: $9.95

Injuries from Electromagnetic Energy

Key words electrocution, electromagnatic energy, non-ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation Injury occurs when body tissues are subjected to levels of energy outside the normal tolerance bands. Excessive energy damages tissues, potentially beyond repair, and disrupts normal physiologic functioning. Injury may also occur when inadequate energy is available, such as extreme cold leading to frostbite injury, or disruption of normal cellular energy systems such as asphyxiation. Energy may be in the form of mechanical energy (e.g., moving parts of machinery), chemical energy (e.g., caustic substances), heat, potential energy (e.g., working at heights with a fall, the potential energy is converted into mechanical energy as the subject strikes the ground), and electromagnetic energy (e.g., electricity, radiation). The agricultural work environment contains many sources of energy, and agriculture is widely recognized as one of the most hazardous industries in the United States (1-4).

Nonionizing Electromagnetic Energy Sunlight

The most abundant form of environmental electromagnetic radiation is sunlight. The sun emits a broad spectrum of radiant electromagnetic energy. Frequencies in the visible light range penetrate the atmosphere and allow us to see. Radiation at frequencies just above the violet, or high-frequency, end of the visible light spectrum can have important health effects. Such ultraviolet radiation can cause acute sunburn. Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation prematurely ages the skin and increases the risk for skin cancers. Sunlight-related injuries are an important problem for agricultural workers because of the need to work outdoors.

Electromagnetic Energy

Electromagnetic energy is carried at low frequencies in electrons. The energy supplied by electrons is determined by the voltage (the force acting to push electrons through a conductor) and the flow of electrons, known as current. Current flow is measured in amperes or milliamperes (mA). Common residential and industrial machinery uses alternating current, indicating that the flow of electrons alternates in direction, typically at a frequency of 60 cycles per second, or 60 hertz (Hz). A battery, in contrast, supplies direct current, indicating that the flow of electrons proceeds in only one direction. When the frequency of alternation of current flow is high, the electromagnetic energy can escape its conductor and radiate into space, traveling at the speed of light. Here the energy is carried by photons rather than electrons. The behavior and properties of this electromagnetic energy are determined largely by its frequency. The electromagnetic spectrum includes, in order of X-rays and...

Electromagnetic Radiation And The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Electromagnetic energy radiates in accordance with the basic wave theory. This theory describes the EM energy as travelling in a harmonic sinusoidal fashion at the velocity of light. Although many characteristics of EM energy are easily described by wave theory, another theory known as particle theory offers insight into how electromagnetic energy interacts with matter. It suggests that EMR is composed of many discrete units called photons quanta. The energy of photon is

Ionizing Radiation

Ionizing radiation is uncommon in agricultural settings. Ionizing radiation may be used in food sterilization and decontamination procedures. Excessive exposure to ionizing radiation may lead to acute or chronic radiation sickness. Rapidly dividing cells, such as the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and blood-generating cells in the bone marrow, are particularly sensitive to radiation exposure. Hence, acute radiation sickness is characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances, bleeding due to platelet loss, infections due to immune-system damage, and anemia. Exposed skin may suffer acute burns and subsequent scarification. Chronic radiation exposure may be associated with cancer and reproductive abnormalities. Prevention of illnesses and injuries from ionizing radiation involves eliminating or minimizing exposure. Radiation sources should be properly shielded and radiation exposures monitored. Persons not educated in working around such sources should not have access.

Principles Of Remote Sensing

Detection and discrimination of objects or surface features means detecting and recording of radiant energy reflected or emitted by objects or surface material (Fig. 1). Different objects return different amount of energy in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, incident upon it. This depends on the property of material (structural, chemical, and physical), surface roughness, angle of incidence, intensity, and wavelength of radiant energy.

Modern Remote Sensing Technology versus Conventional Aerial Photography

The use of different and extended portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, development in sensor technology, different platforms for remote sensing (spacecraft, in addition to aircraft), emphasize on the use of spectral information as compared to spatial information, advancement in image processing and enhancement techniques, and automated image analysis in addition to manual interpretation are points for comparison of conventional aerial photography with modern remote sensing system.

Interactions With The Atmosphere

The sun is the source of radiation, and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from the sun that is reflected by the earth and detected by the satellite or aircraft-borne sensor must pass through the atmosphere twice, once on its journey from the sun to the earth and second after being reflected by the surface of the earth back to the sensor. Interactions of the direct solar radiation and reflected radiation from the target with the atmospheric constituents interfere with the process of remote sensing and are called as Atmospheric Effects.

Remote Sensing Sensors

Active sensors use their own source of energy. Earth surface is illuminated through energy emitted by its own source, a part of it is reflected by the surface in the direction of the sensor, which is received to gather the information. Passive sensors receive solar electromagnetic energy reflected from the surface or energy emitted by the surface itself. These sensors do not have their own source of energy and can not be used at nighttime, except thermal sensors. Again, sensors (active or passive) could either be imaging, like camera or sensor, which acquire images of the area and non-imaging types like non-scanning radiometer or atmospheric sounders.

Assaf Anyamba Compton J Tucker Alfredo R Huete And Vijendra K Boken

Satellite data are the result of reflectance, emission, and or back scattering of electromagnetic energy (figure 5.1) from earth objects (e.g., vegetation, soil, and water). The electromagnetic spectrum is very broad, and only a limited range of wavelengths is suitable for earth resource monitoring and applications. The gaseous composition (O2, O3, CO2, H2O, etc.) of the atmosphere, along with particulates and aerosols, cause significant absorption and scattering of electromagnetic energy over some regions of the spectrum. This restricts remote sensing of the earth's surface to certain atmospheric windows, or regions in which electromagnetic energy can pass through the atmosphere with minimal interference. Some such windows include visible, infrared, shortwave, thermal, and microwave ranges of the spectrum. Figure 5.1 The electromagnetic spectrum from Lillesand and Keifer, 2000 . Figure 5.1 The electromagnetic spectrum from Lillesand and Keifer, 2000 .

Future Research Needs

The SWIR portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is a region over which leaf water content influences the reflectance response from vegetation canopies, enabling one to assess the drought status of crops and vegetation (Tucker, 1980a). However, the operational use of the SWIR region for drought studies has been restricted by problems in separating the effects of canopy structure and geometry from those of water status. Ceccato et al. (2001) have shown that by combining the NIR and SWIR data into

Principles Of Satellite Remote Sensing

All objects emit electromagnetic radiation. The hotter the source, the greater is the intensity of emission. Substances which absorb all the radiation falling on them at every wavelength are called black bodies. The coefficient of absorption is then unity. As per Kirchhoff's law, good absorbers are good emitters as well. Hence a black body also has an emissivity unity. At any wavelength it emits the maximum amount of radiation that is appropriate to its temperature. Unlike solids and liquids, gases are not black bodies. They only absorb or emit strongly at certain wavelengths. Water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) are such gases within the visible and infrared wave bands that are important in meteorology. Each of these gases is active in certain narrow absorption bands. There are other regions where the absorption by all the gases is so weak that the atmosphere is almost transparent. These regions are known as windows and are used for production of cloud imagery....

Anne M Smith Klaus Scipal And Wolfgang Wagner

Remote sensing can provide timely and economical monitoring of large areas. It provides the ability to generate information on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Generally, remote sensing is divided into passive and active depending on the sensor system. The majority of remote-sensing studies concerned with drought monitoring have involved visible-infrared sensor systems, which are passive and depend on the sun's illumination. Radar (radio detection and ranging) is an active sensor system that transmits energy in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum and measures the energy reflected back from the landscape target. The energy reflected back is called backscatter. The attraction of radar over visible-infrared remote sensing (chapters 5 and 6) is its independence from the sun, enabling day night operations, as well as its ability to penetrate cloud and obtain data under most weather conditions. Thus, unlike visible-infrared sensors, radar offers the opportunity to...

Material And Methods 2521 GPR Technique

The propagation velocity of GPR electromagnetic waves is determined by the dielectric constant or permittivity of the medium to be investigated, which on its part is a function of the water content. The dielectric constant e for water is 80, for various soil and geological materials 5 to 15, and 1 for The processing steps applied to the acquired GPR data were first counting back the applied field gain curve, then normalizing in space to 1 cm trace interval, and afterward reapplying a realistic gain curve taking the attenuation of electromagnetic waves in a midelectroconductive environment into account. No filtering was applied to the data beneath a low-cut filter during acquisition for signal stability.

Introduction to remote sensing

Remote sensing is the practice of deriving information about the earth's land and water surfaces using images acquired from an overhead perspective, using electromagnetic radiation in one or more regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, reflected or emitted from the earth's surface. As stated above, remote sensing makes use of electromagnetic radiation. The strongest and best-known source of electromagnetic radiation is our sun, which emits radiation over the entire electromagnetic spectrum see Table 1.1. Besides this natural source of illumination, which is used for passive remote sensing, it is also possible to use an artificial source of electromagnetic radiation, in which case we speak of active remote sensing. When the radiation reaches the surface of the earth, part of it will be reflected. Another part will be absorbed and subsequently emitted, mainly in the form of thermal (far infrared) energy. The fraction of the irradiance that is reflected (or absorbed and re-emitted) is...

Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Surface Soil Moisture

The microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum consists of frequencies between 0.3 and 30 GHz. This region is subdivided into bands, which are often referred to by a lettering system. Some of the relevant bands that are used in earth remote sensing are K (18-27 GHz), X (8-12 GHz), C (4-8 GHz), and L (1-2 GHz). Frequency and wavelength are used interchangeably. Wavelength (in centimeters) approximately equals 30 times frequency (in GHz). Within these bands only small ranges exist that are protected for scientific applications, such as radio astronomy and passive sensing of the earth's surface. A general advantage of microwave sensors, in contrast to visible and infrared, is that observations can be made through cloud cover because the atmosphere is nearly transparent, particularly at frequencies < 10 GHz. In addition, these measurements are not dependent on solar illumination and can be made at any time of the day or night. Polarization refers to the orientation of the...

Near Infrared Spectroscopy

What exactly is NIRS The near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum is a region having a range of wavelengths slightly longer than visible light but not as long as microwaves or the longer radiowaves. A beam of light from a quartz-iodine lamp is shone on to the sample and the spectrum of the reflected light is analysed by a spectrometer. Some wavelengths of the light beam will have been reduced in intensity because of absorption by certain vibrating molecular bonds (in particular C-H, O-H and N-H). It is not the fundamental vibration that is involved in this region but overtones or combinations of the fundamentals. The spectrum must be sampled at about 700 data points so that the subsequent data processing can unscramble the interacting spectral peaks and relate them to concentration of a substance of interest in the original sample. This process is largely mathematical and statistical and far removed from wet chemistry where, for example, the actual fibre is extracted from...

Physical Fundamentals

The interaction of radar energy with agricultural targets is different from that with visible-infrared energy. Interpretation of radar data requires an understanding of the physical processes involved in the scattering of electromagnetic waves by objects that are smaller, comparable to, and larger than the wavelength. Therefore modeling these processes is relatively difficult because simplifying mathematical assumptions often results in a lack of correspondence with physical reality. In an agricultural context, the radar signal can interact with vegetation or soil only, but more likely there is scattering within the canopy and the return signal is from multiple sources. Polarization Radar instruments distinguish the polarization of the transmitted and the received electromagnetic waves. In microwave remote sensing, horizontal polarization (H) means that the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is oriented parallel to the earth's surface, while vertical polarization (V)...

Satellite Remote Sensing

Remote sensing provides spatial coverage by measurement of reflected and emitted electromagnetic radiation, across a wide range of wavebands, from the earth's surface and surrounding atmosphere. The improvement in technical tools of meteorological observation, during the last twenty years, has created a favourable substratum for research and monitoring in many applications of sciences of great economic relevance, such as agriculture and forestry. Each waveband provides different information about the atmosphere and land surface surface temperature, clouds, solar radiation, processes of photosynthesis and evaporation, which can affect the reflected and emitted radiation, detected by satellites. The challenge for research therefore is to develop new systems extracting this information from remotely sensed data, giving to the final users, near-real-time information.

Satellite Sensor System

The photoelectric effect (for which Albert Einstein, who first explained it in detail, won his Nobel Prize). This, simply stated, says that there will be an emission of negative particles (electrons) when a negatively charged plate of some appropriate light-sensitive material is subjected to a beam of photons. The electrons can then be made to flow from the plate, collected, and counted as a signal. A key point The magnitude of the electric current produced (number of photoelectrons per unit time) is directly proportional to the light intensity. Thus, changes in the electric current can be used to measure changes in the photons (numbers intensity) that strike the plate (detector) during a given time interval. The kinetic energy of the released photoelectrons varies with frequency (or wavelength) of the impinging radiation. But, different materials undergo photoelectric effect release of electrons over different wavelength intervals each has a threshold wavelength at which the...

Shefali Aggarwal

Abstract Remote sensing is a technique to observe the earth surface or the atmosphere from out of space using satellites (space borne) or from the air using aircrafts (airborne). Remote sensing uses a part or several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. It records the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted by the earth's surface. The amount of radiation from an object (called radiance) is influenced by both the properties of the object and the radiation hitting the object (irradiance). The human eyes register the solar light reflected by these objects and our brains interpret the colours, the grey tones and intensity variations. In remote sensing various kinds of tools and devices are used to make electromagnetic radiation outside this range from 400 to 700 nm visible to the human eye, especially the near infrared, middle-infrared, thermal-infrared and microwaves.

What we see

At temperature above absolute zero, all objects radiate electromagnetic energy by virtue of their atomic and molecular oscillations. The total amount of emitted radiation increases with the body's absolute temperature and peaks at progressively shorter wavelengths. The sun, being a major source of energy, radiation and illumination, allows capturing reflected light with conventional (and some not-so-conventional) cameras and films. The basic strategy for sensing electromagnetic radiation is clear. Everything in nature has its own unique distribution of reflected, emitted and absorbed radiation. These spectral characteristics, if ingeniously exploited, can be used to distinguish one thing from another or to obtain information about shape, size and other physical and chemical properties.

Basic Principles

So far in this discussion, we have only been concerned with static, or steady, fields (i.e., constant, or direct, current magnetic moving at a constant velocity, or no acceleration, through the loop). If we consider that the field is time varying (e.g., and alternating, or AC current), then Faraday's law expressed as a time-varying magnetic field can be combined with Ampere's law to form the wave equation. We will not show the differential equations for these expressions, but they show that any time-varying EM energy (AC current, or sinusoidal magnetic field) will move (propagate) through time and space. The wave equation governs the propagation of all EM waves, including radio waves. There is also a mechanical analog of the EM wave equation for acoustic and seismic wave propagation. FIGURE 6.3 Basic principle of geophysical induction. A primary electromagnetic field emitted from a transmitter propagates through space until it encounters a conductor. Eddy currents induced in the...

Cancer Risks

Pancreatic, and brain cancers, and melanoma of the skin. The increased risks did not seem to be explained by the high socioeconomic status of this occupational group, and it was postulated that some of these results reflected the carcinogenicity of occupational exposures, including animal viruses, solar or ionizing radiations, and anesthetics (27). Causes of death among 5,016 white male veterinarians were compared to a distribution based on the general U.S. population. Proportions of deaths were significantly elevated for cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system, colon, brain, and skin. Fewer deaths were observed than expected for cancers of the stomach and lung. Although socioeconomic and methodological factors may be involved, the patterns suggest that sunlight exposure is responsible for the excess of skin cancer among veterinarians whose practices are not exclusively limited to small animals, and ionizing radiation exposure contributes to the excess of leukemia among...

Risks to Pregnancy

Another study of female pregnancies concluded that veterinarians employed in all-equine practices were at highest relative risk of spontaneous abortion when compared with pregnancies reported by unemployed veterinarians. Agent-specific relative risk estimates ranged from 0.7 to 1.1, suggesting little or no excess risk. When analyses were restricted to small-animal practitioners, there was a weak association between miscarriage risk and job-related exposure to ionizing radiation (32).


Ammeters are used to measure the amount of current flowing in a circuit. The laboratory type of ammeter is connected in series. To reduce the effect of the meter on the performance of the circuit, they are constructed with a very low resistance. A clamp-on type of meter is also available that measures the intensity of the electromagnetic field around a single conductor and converts the field intensity into amperage.

Welding Flash Burns

Welding is a common activity in the agricultural work environment its health effects have recently been thoroughly reviewed. Welding involves heating pieces of metal such that they liquefy and join together. Energy to raise the temperature of the metals may come from electricity (electric arc welding) or from the burning of gases such as acetylene. Temperatures reach several thousand degrees Celsius, and the process generates electromagnetic radiation across a wide frequency spectrum. Electric arc welding generates large amounts of ultraviolet radiation. This can lead to an acute keratoconjunctivitis (arc eye), acute skin burns (flash burns) similar to sunburn, and chronic skin damage. The most commonly affected body parts are the face, neck, hands, and forearms. Radiant heat carried by infrared electromagnetic energy may also cause burns and skin damage (5).

Vegetation Indices

The slope-based VIs are simple arithmetic combinations that exploit the contrast between the spectral response patterns of vegetation in the red and NIR portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some of these vegetation indices include the ratio vegetation index (RVI), normalized difference

Electric Motors

Electricity flowing through a conductor induces an electrical magnetic field around the conductor. This electromagnetic field will have a plus (+) and a minus (-) polarity. When the electromagnetic field comes in contact with the permanent magnetic field supplied by the magnets, a force is produced, because similar polarities repel each other and opposite poles attract each other. The strength of the force is influenced by the strength of the current, the strength of the magnetic field and the angle between the conductor and the magnetic field, Figure 28.1. In Figure 28.1, the commutator supplies electricity to the loop of wire. The electromagnetic field reacts with the permanent magnetic field supplied by the permanent magnets. This causes the wire loop to rotate. A conductive electric motor has many individual loops wrapped around the rotor and each one of them rotates a few degrees when they are energized by the commutator. Because a continuous series of loops become energized the...

Rayleigh Scattering

Rayleigh scattering predominates where electromagnetic radiation interacts with particles that are smaller than the wavelength of the incoming light. The effect of the Rayleigh scattering is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength. Shorter wavelengths are scattered more than longer wavelengths. In the absence of these particles and scattering the sky would appear black. In the context of remote sensing, the Rayleigh scattering is the most important type of scattering. It causes a distortion of spectral characteristics of the reflected light when compared to measurements taken on the ground.

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