Family Members Ebooks Catalog
Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) record-keeping regulation (29 CFR 1904). The BLS 1999 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data showed that the major industry division with the highest occupational injury fatality rate was agriculture (including forestry and fishing). A major drawback with BLS data is that OSHA exempts farms with fewer than 11 paid employees and all unpaid family members working on farms from its record-keeping requirements.
In the United States each year, approximately 750 farmers, ranchers, and agricultural workers, and their family members are killed and another 130,000 are injured as the result of attitudes or behaviors that they, in most cases, knew intellectually and experientially to be unsafe. In addition, others within this population, including children and newly hired workers, are injured by hazards of which they were ignorant. It is unlikely that there is a farmer or rancher in North America who doesn't know, for example, that handling anhydrous ammonia without adequate eye protection can lead to harmful consequences or that contacting an unguarded rotating shaft can cause injury. In fact, it can be convincingly argued that the majority of injuries on farms and ranches are caused by behaviors or actions that the victim knew at the moment had a higher probability of causing injury than what would be encountered through normal daily living (9,10). Recognizing that all hazards cannot be fully...
The most significant barriers that many individuals with disabilities face when attempting to return to work in production agriculture are the attitudes of those in their family and on the rehabilitation team. The general perception held by many rehabilitation professionals that there has to be something easier, safer, and more profitable than farming or ranching has proven to be a significant hurdle for many farmers and ranchers involved in the vocational rehabilitation process. Family members may also discourage return to
The first purpose of this chapter is to identify and explain the importance of groundwater in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in the second half of the 20th century. The second is to demonstrate that one of the most important roles of the MENA region's very limited groundwater (Table 4.1) has been as an enabler of an important rural socio-economic transition. Groundwater played this important transitional role by strengthening individual family economic circumstances in rural areas. These stronger family economies were able to provide a stable pattern of expenditure, which enabled the acquisition of skills by the younger family members. Thus equipped, significant proportions of whole generations have moved to urban centres. Many rural communities in the region experienced relatively high rural incomes for about three decades on the basis of groundwater use.
There are no evaluations of child care for farm children. 4. NAGCAT dissemination efforts were improved when accompanied by a visit to the farm by a safety professional or when child development principles were provided in conjunction with the guidelines. In a study among Hmong children involved in agricultural work, the authors concluded that NAGCAT could not be literally translated and disseminated due to cultural differences in task assignment, level of responsibility compared with North American children, more authoritarian parenting practices among Hmong parents, and the shorter stature of Hmong children. More information on farm task assignments among children and adolescents from other cultural groups, including migrant and seasonal farm workers, is needed to evaluate the relevance of the NAGCAT program. In addition, studies assessing injury outcomes are also needed for all prevention and intervention programs that are currently being used (58).
. . . the results suggest that household food security is positively associated with child nutritional status in some regions, negatively associated in some regions, and shows no consistent association in other regions. These results are found even when variation in household size and altitude is taken into account in the analysis . . . Under this broader view of malnutrition, household food security is a necessary but not sufficient condition for maintaining adequate nutritional status. Health related conditions and child care and feeding are also necessary conditions. .105
Proactive migration and commuting Migration and commuting were core strategies that enabled families and communities to obtain access to outside labour markets and sources of non-farm income. In some cases, this occurred over a generational basis. Families invested in efforts to find non-agricultural work for at least one key member in an urban area. In other cases, the strategy involved long-term investments in education. When drought hit, the income generated by family members working in urban areas served as a critical buffer for livelihood or as the source of capital for recovery or investment for those still living in rural areas. In yet other cases, migration involved short-term travel to work in regional labour markets - or even commuting to access specific local work opportunities. The core points here, however, are that (i) mobility was a core factor enabling diversification and (ii) in many cases it was a proactive strategy that occurred over long periods of time and not a...
He points out that extension services themselves are directly affected because staff members incur higher risks than others as a result of the frequency of their visits to areas affected by HIV AIDS, and their need to attend to sick family members and neighbors. The epidemic has undermined morale in many extension services. In addition, the costs to extension organizations have increased because of outlays on treatment of affected staff, funerals and insurance. In Uganda, it is estimated that 20 to 50 of extension staff time has been lost because of the direct and indirect effects of the epidemic.
Sharing information is at least as old as mankind, maybe even as old as primitive life on earth. Parents bring up their children by teaching them all they consider necessary or useful for their proper development into independent and happy human beings. When children grow up, the initially predominantly unidirectional flow of information gradually changes into a balanced bidirectional process. However, sharing information is not restricted to the parent-child relationship, but can be observed between all people who have something in common partners in marriage, relatives, friends, neighbours, members of the same community or a nation, colleagues, business partners, etc.
One successful U.S. outreach program was held at the Farm Progress Show over a 10-year period. This show attracted over 250,000 annually during the 3-day event. The primary attraction for farmers included the equipment manufacturers, seed companies, chemical producers, university agricultural school displays, and various demonstration plots. However, coordinated efforts by health and safety professionals allowed for respiratory, blood pressure, cholesterol, vision, skin, and hearing assessments. Mobile audiometric testing facilities made the hearing assessments personal, convenient, efficient, and valid. It also afforded the opportunity to distribute sample hearing protectors, hearing loss prevention literature, and hearing test results. Farm family members were immediately counseled regarding their hearing status and advised of any referrals for medical and or rehabilitative hearing services. One additional outcome of this particular intervention program was the enhanced usage of...
Equivalent form (specified industries, such as dental clinics, are exempt from this regulation). A summary of these events must be posted in the workplace on an annual basis. In addition, the employer must report any deaths, multiple hospitalizations, or catastrophic incidents, e.g., loss of a limb, to the local OSHA office within 8 hours. Employers with fewer than 11 employees at any given time in the year are exempt from this regulation. The recording and reporting requirements do not cover unpaid family members working on farms (9).
In addition to the farm owner, who usually serves as the primary farm worker, other family members often serve as part-time farm workers. Women have been involved in the production of food and fiber for millennia but have only recently begun to take on farm management roles. Children have been pressed into agricultural work at times of high labor need on the family farm and find themselves helping to make ends meet on subsistence farms around the world and as migrant laborers working with their parent(s).
Consideration of broader cross-cultural patterns in the anthropological literature provides a context for strengthening insights into why the prehistoric communities in the southern Levant were organized in the manner proposed. There has been much discussion regarding the conditions that favor nuclear versus extended family social organizations. Wilk and Rathje (1982) noted that variation within categories of household function (production, distribution, transmission, and reproduction) produce different types of households. For example, different sizes of households are more efficient at performing certain key tasks with respect to scheduling labor for production. Large households are better suited for coping with many simultaneous tasks. Pasternak et al. argue that extended families are predicted in situations where there are incompatible activity requirements that adults cannot avoid and where hired or coerced labor is not available (Pasternak, et al. 1976). Based on ethnographic...
This case demonstrates the critical importance of removal from exposure and decontamination. Both were delayed in this case and the delay caused the persistence of the symptoms and the possible exposure of other family members. Once the patient was removed from exposure and the house properly decontaminated, his symptoms subsided. The boy was monitored for 2 years before the case was completely closed, but he suffered no residual impairments or disabilities once he was over the acute phase.
Rosenblatt and Anderson (6) reviewed factors related to tension and stress in farm families. In addition to the stressors already mentioned, they cited difficulties related to unpredictable weather, geographical isolation, high accident rates, invariant work demands, and seasonal variations in work demands and income. Invariant work demands represent heavy periods of work that are rarely interrupted by nonwork activities. This lack of flexibility often leads to stress and fatigue. Seasonal variations in work requirements represent the pattern of work in which farmers move back and forth between invariant work demands to periods in which the farmers have no pressing work demands. Such variations can result in stress emanating from, for example, a lack of togetherness time for farm families during heavy work periods and stress due to spending too much time with family members during the off-seasons.
Weigel and Weigel (17) used factor analyses to identify stressors and coping strategies in two-generation farm families in Iowa. Their first analysis identified the stressor factors of lack of equality (not having an important role in the operation of the farm) lack of teamwork (difficulties family members had in communicating and working together) value differences (between generationals in the family) and competition (the stressors related to combining work and family roles on the farm). Their second analysis identified the coping factors of faith, fun and physical activities, talking with others, and avoidance of problem. Faith represented strategies that were used to cognitively reframe the stressors. Each of these four coping factors represents a form of emotion-focused coping in that they were utilized in the effort to better emotionally and cognitively deal with stressors, rather than to change potentially stressful situations. Hedlund and Berkowitz (19) found that...
It is obvious how the collective interplay between this large set of enzyme activities could result in rapid and extensive enrichment of unusual fatty acids in the TAG pool of developing oilseeds. The challenge of finding the important gene family members from this population has only just begun. Representative genes for many of the enzyme activities described here have not been isolated. These goals are the focus of our current efforts, with the hope that additional insights into the mechanisms of TAG synthesis and packaging will soon follow. The collective knowledge gained from chemical, biochemical, cell biological, and physiological approaches will ultimately determine the necessary gene sets required to achieve successful pathway engineering.
The caste system and infrastructure development also played an interesting role in facilitating migration. For example, people used their kinship relationship and social networks for obtaining information about the availability of wage labour (civil, construction, semi-skilled and others) and job opportunities through caste members residing in nearby well-endowed villages, cities and towns. The massive expansion of road network, power projects, bridges and communications in recent decades facilitated the movement of information as well as labour force. Although migration was prompted by immediate need, in a number of cases migrants stayed on, leaving agriculture to other family members or leasing away their land.
Female members of the farm family appear to have the most influence on the acquisition and utilization of health services for their spouses and children. Therefore, hearing loss prevention and hearing rehabilitation education should directly involve the woman in the farm family. She may be in the best position to encourage family members to practice better health protective behaviors, such as the regular and proper use of hearing protectors. Encouragement and praise appear to be needed to reinforce healthful behaviors (27).
Medical monitoring can detect early disease and prevent its spread to other employees, the food product, and family members. Pre-placement medical monitoring can identify people who are susceptible to infection, for example people with diabetes or immune diseases. In parts of the world where bovine tuberculosis is common, TB skin test monitoring can detect early infections and allow early treatment (8,9).
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