Making a Waxed Sewing ThreadTo make a sewed splice it is first necessary to make a waxed sewing thread From three to

Harness thread should be torn, not cut. Aftor the desired length is withdrawn from the ball, it is untwisted by rolling over the thigh, aa at A, and then torn apart by a scries of short, Quick jerks, as at B. Fig. 294. Harness thread should be torn, not cut. Aftor the desired length is withdrawn from the ball, it is untwisted by rolling over the thigh, aa at A, and then torn apart by a scries of short, Quick jerks, as at B.

Contents

To the Student xiii FARM WOODWORK AND CARPENTRY CHAPTER I Measuring and Marking 1 Planing and Smoothing 21 Wood Chisels and Their Use 36 Boring and Drilling Holes in Wood 46 Wood Fastenings 53 Use of Modeling or Forming Tools Shaping Curved and Irregular Surfaces 65 Painting, Finishing, Glazing 72 Cutting Common Rafters 80 Tool Sharpening 87 Grinding and Sharpening Equipment Ill Saw Sharpening 117 PART III COLD-METAL WORK CHAPTER XIII General Bench and Vise Work 132 Drilling Tools and Their Use...

Forging And Tempering Tool Steel

One of the main advantages of having a forge in the farm shop is to be able to redress and make and temper tools like cold chisels, punches, screw drivers, picks, wrecking bars, etc. Tool steel for making cold chisels arid punches and similar tools may be bought from a blacksmith or ordered through a hardware store or it may be secured from parts of old machines, such as hay rake teeth, pitchfork tines, axles and drive shafts from old automobiles. 301. Nature of Tool Steel. Tool steel contains...

Fundamental Forging Operations

Forging may he defined as changing the shape of a piece of metal by heating and hammering. All the various operations that a. blacksmith performs in forging iron may be classified into a surprisingly small number of fundamental or basic processes. Once these are mastered, the beginner is well on his way to success, and he can do practically any ordinary piece of forge work. These fundamental operations are (1) bending and straightening (2) drawing, or making a piece longer and thinner (3)...

Boring And Drilling Holes In Wood

The carpenter's brace is used for turning such tools as wood auger bits, twist drills, screw-driver bits, countersinks, and reamers. Braces are made either with or without the ratchet device. A ratchet brace makes it possible to bore holes where the handle cannot be turned a complete revolution. This type is also more convenient in boring in hardwood and in driving screws with a screw-driver bit. For such work it is frequently easier and better to advance the brace by part turns rather than...

Pipework On The Farm

On a farm that uses much machinery and equipment, a few pipe tools will often save considerable time and repair expense. Fortunately, not many tools are required in order to do a moderate amount of pipework. Wrenches. At least one, and preferably two, pipe wrenches should be included in the shop equipment. Wrenches of 14- and 18-in. sizes are most useful. Wrenches with all-steel handles are usually better for farm work than those having wooden grips. Vise. The...

O E

Steps in scarfing and preparing to weld an eye on the end of a rod. 1. Use a clean, deep, compact, coke fire. 2. Clean the fire every half hour. 3. Make the scarf short arid thick, rather than long and thin. Scarfs should not he longer than V 4 times the thickness of the stock. 4. Round the surfaces of scarfs so slag will be squeezed out- rather than trapped in the weld. 5. Heat the irons to a Rood welding he-at, yet do not burn them. 6. Bring both irons up to the welding heat at the...

2x8 16

If the rise were 5 ft. and the run 7 ft., the pitch would be The relationship between rise, run, and pitch may also be expressed by another form of this formula, as follows For example, if it is desired to find the rise of a rafter whose pitch is one-third and whose run is 15 ft., substitute the values into the formula thus The rise per foot of run Is a term used frequently in rafter work, and should, therefore, be thoroughly understood. It may be determined by dividing the ruse of the rafter...

Preface

This book has been prepared to meet an increasing need for a text in farm shopwork that deals simply and directly, yet comprehensively, with tools arid basic tool processes. It is recognized more and more that for satisfactory achievement in shopwork the student must study the subject systematically, much as he would study any other school subject, as well as work with his hands on practical jobs or projects in the shop. Because of the wide variety of mechanical work done on the farm and the...

Soldering And Sheetmetal Work

Soldering is the process of joining pieces of metal by fusing their surfaces together with solder, an alloy of tin and lead. (An alloy is a mixture of metals, brought about generally by melting or fusion.) The solder commonly used is composed of equal parts of lead and tin and has a melting temperature of 401 ,* which is lower than that of either lead or tin. If molten solder is placed on a piece of metal that has been cleaned, fluxed (that is, treated with...

Boltthreading Equipment And Its

A few threading tools will enable a farmer to make many handy appliances as well as to make certain repairs on farm machinery and equipment, such as rethreading bolts with battered threads, making bolts to Fio. 204. Threading toola. A. die B, stock for holding dio C, t*p wrcnch D, tap. Fxq. 205. A si of tap and dies, known sus a ecrcw plate, is a valuable asset in the farm exactly the length needed, making truck and wagon-bed irons, long brace rods, etc. Threads are cut on a rod or bolt by a...

Cutting Common Rafters

Laying out a rafter is not a difficult problem if the workman understands the underlying principles. The student should, therefore, strive to understand principles rather than to rely upon certain rules and figures that may memorized. The main jobs in laying out a rafter are (1) determining the angles of cut at the ends of the rafter and at the bird's mouth or seat, and (2) determining the length. This is easily done by means of the carpenter's steel square and is made possible by the fact that...

Bighf LoopRound turn

Roj)e is made from a number of different vegetable fibers, including manila, sisal, and cotton. Most of the rope used on the farm is made from manila or sisal fiber, or a combination of the two. Manila fiber is made from the outef portions of the abaca plant, which resembles the banana plant and is grown in the Philippine Islands. The best grade of manila fiber Is light buff in color, has a silky or lustrous appearance, is fine, uniform in size, flexible, and from 6 to 12...

Grinding And Sharpening Equipment

A few years ago the grindstone was a common piece of equipment on the farm, but, with the great improvement made in artificial abrasives and grinders, it now has been largely replaced by the new and faster-cutting grinders. Although a grindstone cuts much slower (unless it is power driven and considerable pressure is used), it puts a very fine cutting edge on a tool without danger of drawing the temper and is preferred by many for the sharpening of edge tools, mower sickles,...

Tearing the Thread The desired length of thread usually about 5 ft is drawn from the ball and torn rather than cut off

Is untwisted over an 8- or 10-in. length, and then jerked. It will tear apart at about the middle of the untwisted section. To untwist the thread for tearing, roll it between the palm and right thigh, while holding with the left hand at a point about 8 in. back from the thigh. To keep the supply of thread from becoming tangled, the ball may be kept in a small can, such as an empty baking powder can, with a small hole punched in the lid for the thread to be drawn through. Assembling the Threads....

Tapping Threads in a Hole or NutIf a threaded hole is to be

Made in a piece of metal, a hole of suitable size must first be drilled. Table V. Tap-drill Sizes* U.8.8. Threads ' S.A.E. Threads Table V. Tap-drill Sizes* U.8.8. Threads ' S.A.E. Threads Fig. 209. The die should be kepi well lubricated with lard oil or a threading oil. makes the die turn easier, cut smoother threads, and hist longer. Fig. 209. The die should be kepi well lubricated with lard oil or a threading oil. makes the die turn easier, cut smoother threads, and hist longer. Fig. 210....

Wood Fastenings

There are two general kinds of nail hammers bell-faced hammers and flat or plain-faced hammers. Bell-faced hammers have striking surfaces that are slightly rounded or convex, and by careful use nails can be driven up tight with their heads flush with the. surface of a board, or even slightly below, without leaving hammer marks. Plain-faced hammers, however, are a little easier to learn to use. Hammers with straight claws instead of curved ones are called ripping hammers and...

I 1 i T f 1 i 1 i i 1 i 1 i i i

After cleaning the fire bowl, dump the ashpit below the tuyere and then try the blower and make sure a good strong blast comes through. Sometimes ashes work back into the blower pipe and obstruct the blast. Fig. 2-19. The forge fire should be cleaned by pushing tho shovel along the bottom of the hearth to the center of the fire, ft at A, and then lifting it straight up, as at B. The clinker and ashes, if any, will be exposed and can be easily removed. Fig. 2-19. The forge fire should be cleaned...

The Colorimetric Test for Organic Impurities

The colorimetric test is a reliable indicator of the presence of harmful organic matter except in areas where there are deposits of lignite. To make this test, an ordinary 12-oz. prescription bottle is filled to the 4 -oz. mark with a sample of the sand. To this is added a 3 per cent solution of caustic soda1 (sodium hydroxide) until the 7-oz. mark is reached. The contents are thoroughly shaken and then allowed to stand for 24 hr. At the end of this time the color of the liquid will indicate...

Drilling Tools And Their

Breast Drill Machine Art Photos

A few tools for drilling holes in metal will enable a farmer to make many handy appliances and to make many repairs on his machinery and equipment that would otherwise be impossible. DRILLING EQUIPMENT FOR THE FARM SHOP 215. Drilling Machines, The post drill is probably the best drilling machine or tool for general work inside the shop. It is especially good for drilling holes of the larger sizes above in. in diameter. A power- driven post drill may be desirable under some conditions, although...

C

The square knot is a very uceful knot and should not be confuted with the 327. The granny knot slips under load and should usually be avoided. 327. The granny knot slips under load and should usually be avoided. the hog released by simply pulling on the opposite end of the rope. It may be tied by tying a slip knot, leaving the end of the rope long, and then 391. The hitching or manger knot (Fig. 330) is started like a slip knot. Instead of drawing the rope entirely through and...

Wood Chisels And Their

Wood chisels may be classified as socket type or tang type, according to the method of attaching the handle. On the socket type, the wooden handle fits into a steel socket on the driving end of the chisel. The tang type has a steel tang, much like the tang on the end of a file, which fits into the wooden handle. Tang chisels are preferred by some workmen for paring, because of their light weight and better balance, but they are not adapted to heavy chiseling with a mallet....

Wood Scrapers The first step in sharpening a hand wood scraper is to drawfile the edges square and straight rounding

A smooth mill file should be used. The scraper should then be whetted on an oilstone, first on edge and then on the flat sides to make Fig. 126. Two point* are important in sharpening auger bite A file the spurs on theinuid* only. B file the cutting lip on the top side (next to shank). Fig. 126. Two point* are important in sharpening auger bite A file the spurs on theinuid* only. B file the cutting lip on the top side (next to shank). corners smooth and sharp. A burnisher, or other...

Sawing

Probably the most common and most useful woodworking tool on the farm is the handsaw. The proper method of using t he saw is not difficult to learn, and everyone studying farm shopwork should early master the art of sa wing. The first requirement for satisfactory work with the saw is that it be in good condition. Creditable work cannot be done with a saw that is dull or poorly filed or set (see pages 117 to 125 on saw sharpening). If the workman cannot or does not wish to sharpen his own saw,...

Farm Concrete Work1

Concrete is an ideal material for foundation walls, floors, walks, steps, water tanks, and countless other jobs on the farm. It is economical, strong, durable, sanitary, and attractive in appearance. To insure most satisfactory result , however, a working knowledge of how to make good concrete is essential. The principles outlined in the following pages are easily understood and can be readily mastered. 332. Action of Cement. In a concrete mixture, the cement and water form a paste that, upon...

The crown or end splice is one of the most useful and permanent end fastenings for a rope It is made by first making a

Place strand 1 over the first adjacent strand in the main part of the rope, and under the next strand (see Fig. 320). 2. In a similar manner pass strand 2 over the strand of the main part that is adjacent to strand 2 and under the next. 3. Strand 3 is then passed over the strand of the main part that is adjacent to it and under the next. Strand 3 should come out at Oie same place sirand 1 went in, and when properly done the three strands will come out of the main part equally spaced and no two...

Rope Work

Every farmer has occasion to use rope, and it will be well worth his time to master some of the more useful knots, bitches, and splices so that he can make them easily and quickly. It is better to learn a few of the more useful ones thoroughly than to acquire only a. superficial knowledge of many and be unable to use them when needed. 373. How Rope Is Made. Hope is made of fibers of certain vegetable plants. The fibers A (Fig. 313) are twisted together in a right-hand1 Fig. 313. Parts of rope....

Farm Woodwork And Carpentry

Plumb Bob Divide Image

Although there is an increase in the amount, of steel and other metals used in farm machinerjr and equipment, there will always be a need for the farmer to make repairs and construct appliances involving the use of wood. It is a simple matter to become reasonably proficient in the use of woodworking tools, bccause woodworking, like most other kinds of mechanical work, is based upon a comparatively few fundamental tool processes or operations, like sawing and planing. Once these are mastered,...

Saw Sharpening

How Small Saw Filing

Filing and sotting a saw is considered by some to be a difficult job not to be attempted by the average farmer or farm boy. With some study and practice, however, most boys of high school age who have a reasonable amount of mechanical ability can learn to sharpen saws quite acceptably. Before attempting to sharpen a saw, one should have clearly in mind the proper shape of the teeth, and it is desirable also to understand the cutting action of a saw. 169. Shape of Saw Teeth. There are two...

D

American Method Cattle Casting

Place strand 2 over the strand under which I was placed, and under the next. 4. Place strand 3 over the strand under which 2 was placed, and under the next. Strand 3 should come out of the standing part at the same point that strand 1 went in. 5. Continue weaving and tucking the strands as in the crown splice and the short splice. A modification of the eye splice, called the side splice, is used in splicing the end of one rope into the standing part of another rope. 410. The loop splice Ls used...

General Bench And Vise Work

Cold-metal work constitutes one of the most important phases of farm shopwork. Most farm machinery and many small appliances used on the farm are made of metal. Many valuable repair jobs can be done with only a few simple hand tools, such as a vise, a hack saw, a hammer, cold chisels and punches, and a few files, drills, and threading tools. 184. Metal-marking Tools. Careful measuring and marking of the work before cutting and shaping usually save time and insure a better job. Fto. 165. A...

Cutting a Gasket for UnionA SckT tbC good way to cut a gasket for a union is

To place the gasket material (usually sheet rubber or fiber) over one end of the union and cut it to shape with light blows from a hammer Fig. 222. a gasket for a union may be cut by placing a sheet of gasket material over one end of the union and hammering with a light hammer or the material may lie marked with a few taps and then cut with a knife, scissors, or snips. Fig. 222. a gasket for a union may be cut by placing a sheet of gasket material over one end of the union and hammering with a...

Tool Sharpening And Fitting Chapter X Tool Sharpening

Sharp tools arc the mark of a good workman. Only a poor workman or an amateur would struggle along with a dull tool rather than take time to sharpen it. The time required for sharpening is soon repaid in faster and better work. 129. Cutting Edges Composed of Small Teeth. The cutting edge of a sharp knife or similar tool is composed of a series of small microscopic teeth. Such tools are used with a diagonal or sawlike motion, and the small teeth aid in the cutting. The size of the teeth...

C rrw3 6TI 67 sacks

The amount of sand required is 2)4 times the cement required, or 15 cu. ft. (2)4 X 6.7 - 15). The amount of gravel or coarse aggregate is three times the amount of cement, or 20.1 cu. ft. (3 X 6.7 20.1). A simple, easy method of very roughly estimating quantities of materials required for small jobs is to assume that the amount of coarse aggregate required will be the same as the total volume of the forms and that the amounts of sand and cement required will be in the same proportion to the...

Blacksmithing Equipment Forge Fires

Bolt Tongs

Whether a farmer can afford a forge and anvil will depend upon the distance to a blacksmith shop, the amount of machinery repair work he needs to do or have done, and his ability as a mechanic. Although not every farmer can profitably own blacksmithing equipment, many farmers can. If a farmer cannot, he should remember that a great deal of repair work can be done with cold metal, if he has a few simple tools like a vise, a hack saw, files, cold chisels, and drill . Although blacksmithing under...

Cork Seat For Blow Torch Check Valve

Diy Gasoline Torch

Handle of the chisel should be held to one side so as to give an angling shear cut (see Art. 188, page 134). 271. Folding Edges and Forming Joints. Frequently a hook or lock joint as illustrated in Fig. 239 can be used to advantage in making appliances of sheet metal. It is strong, easily made, and gives a neat, finished appearance to a piece of work. To start a hook joint, the edge of the sheet metal is extended over the edge of a bench and bent down with a mallet or a hammer. The metal may...

Using the Screwdriver

Where several screws are to be driven, particularly large screws, a screw-driver bit in a brace makes for faster and easier work. Such a bit is simply a screw driver that, instead of having a handle, has a square tapered end that fits into a brace. Care should be exercised when using the screw-driver bit to keep it from slipping out of the slot and marring the wood and possibly the screw head also. The bit is more easily kept in the slot if the ratchet on the brace is used or if the crank is...

Use Of Modeling Or Forming Tools Shaping Curved And Irregular Surfaces

Best Coping Saw Blade Cut Coins

Although many appliances, like hammer handles, sledge handles, single trees, and neckyokes can generally be purchased as cheaply as they can be made in the farm shop, if the time required to make them is considered, it frequently happens that valuable time in a rush season may be saved and the inconvenience of delay avoided by being able to quickly renew such broken parts. Also, at certain seasons of the year when the fanner's time cannot be put to other profitable use, he would enjoy making...