General Bench And Vise Work

Cold-metal work constitutes one of the most important phases of farm shopwork. Most farm machinery and many small appliances used on the farm are made of metal. Many valuable repair jobs can be done with only a few simple hand tools, such as a vise, a hack saw, a hammer, cold chisels and punches, and a few files, drills, and threading tools.

LAYING OUT AND MARKING METAL

184. Metal-marking Tools.—Careful measuring and marking of the work before cutting and shaping usually save time and insure a better job.

Fto. 165.—A marking awl or seriber ahould be used in marking metal. Time spent in careful measuring and marking is time well spent.

Measuring and marking on metal is done in much the same manner as on wood, except that a marking awl or scriber is recommended for marking metal. An old saw file ground to a needle point makes a very good scriber. A center punch, or a prick punch that is ground to a sharper point than a center punch, is also valuable for marking locations for bends, drill holes, saw cuts, etc.

CUTTING WITH THE COLD CHISEL

The cold chisel is an inexpensive tool that has a wide variety of uses. And like most other tools its usefulness is greatly increased when it is kept

well sharpened and used properly (see page 103 for methods of grinding the cold chisel). Good cold chisels may be bought, or, if a blacksmith's forge is included in the shop equipment, they may be made and tempered at home.

The size of the chisel should be suitable for the work being done. Use heavy chisels for heavy cutting and smaller chisels for light cutting. If the chisel is too small for the work, there is not only danger of breaking it, but it may vibrate and sting the hands when struck, and of course it will not cut so fast as a larger one.

186. Holding the Chisel; Striking.—The chisel should be held firmly enough to guide it yet loosely enough to ease the shock of hammer blows and keep the hand from becoming tired. Always hold the hammer handle near the end and strike blows in accordance with the kind of cutting done—heavy blows for heavy cutting and light ones for light work. Light blows are struck mostly with motion from the wrist; medium blows with motion from both wrist and elbow; and heavy blows with motion not only from the wrist and elbow, but also from the shoulder.

Struck Face Chisel

Fio. 166.—In cutting with the cold chisel at the anvil, always work over the chipping block—not over the face of the anvil. Hold the chisel firmly, yet looftely enough to ease the shock of hammer blows.

186. Cutting on the Anvil.—All cutting with the chisel on the anvil should be done on the chipping block, the small depressed surface at the base of the horn. The chipping block is soft, while the face of the anvil is hardened. Cutting through a piece on the face of the anvil would not only dull the chisel, but it would damage the face, which should be kept smooth for good blacksmithing.

Nick Deeply, Then Break.—Bars and rods can generally be cut most easily by nicking them deeply on two or more sides and then breaking them by bending back and forth. Rods may be held in a vise for bending, or if small enough they may be inserted in one of the punch holes in the anvil.

187. Cutting in the Vise.—If a heavy vise is available, small and medium sizes of rods or bars may be clamped in the vise and nicked

Fig. 167.—Bars and rods may be cut roughly to length by nicking deeply on two or more sides with the cold chiscl and then bending back and forth. When cutting in the vise, always cut as close to the vise jaws as possible and always strike so that the force of the blow is against the stationary jaw—not the movable one.

deeply by chiseling close to the jaws. The rods are then easily broken by bending. Hammering should always be done so that the force of the blows comes against the stationary jaw of the vise and not against the movable one.

188. Shearing Thin Bars.—Thin bars and band iron up to about in. thick can usually be more easily cut by clamping in a vise and shearing with a cold chisel, than by sawing. The bar or band iron should be securely clamped in the vise with the cutting line just even with the top of the jaws. The chisel is then put in place at one edge of the piece, with one bevel of the cutting end flat against the top of the vise jaws, and with the handle at an angle of about 60 deg. to the line of cutting. The chisel when thus used acts as one blade of a pair of shears, and the stationary vise jaw as the other blade (see Fig. 168).

When the chisel is properly placed, tap it lightly once or twice to get the proper direction for striking, and then strike firm, well-directed

Fig. 167.—Bars and rods may be cut roughly to length by nicking deeply on two or more sides with the cold chiscl and then bending back and forth. When cutting in the vise, always cut as close to the vise jaws as possible and always strike so that the force of the blow is against the stationary jaw—not the movable one.

blows. It is important to keep the chisel placed so that it cuts close to the vise jaws, and yet does not cut into them and thus damage the vise and dull the chisel. Driving too straight against either the flat surface or against the edge of the piece will not give a good shearing cut. Also, driving too straight against the edge will cause the work to slip in the vise.

When properly done, the metal cuts fast and easily, leaving a surface that is smooth enough for most. work. Where smoother work is required, the surface is readily dressed with a file.

Sheet metal that is too thick for easy cutting with snips can be easily cut with a cold chisel and vise in the same manner as thin bars.

Fig. 168.—Thin bar« arc ea«ily sheared with a cold chisel and vise. Keep the lowor bevel of the chisel flat against the vise and the chisel handle at an angle of about 60 deg. with the line of cutting.

189. Heavy Cutting with the Chisel.—Extra-heavy cutting with the cold chisel can best be done by having a helper strike with a sledge hammer. Of course, a very heavy chisel would have to be used, and both the work and the chisel must be securely held in place. It is safer to use a heavy chisel, called a cold cutter, which has a handle in it.

190. Use of Slitting Chisel.—A special kind of cold chisel, known as a slitting chisel, is very useful for fast cutting of thick sheet iron, as cutting out the head of an oil drum, or cutting it in two in the middle. The slitting chisel instead of being ground with a beveled cutting end is ground with a blunt square end. The chisel is thicker at the cutting end than a little farther back. It shears out a ribbon of steel just as wide as the cutting end.

A slitting chisel may be started in the middle of a piece of sheet iron

Fro. 109.—Heavy sheet, metal, oil drums, water tanks. etc., are easily cut with a slitting chisel.

Fro. 109.—Heavy sheet, metal, oil drums, water tanks. etc., are easily cut with a slitting chisel.

about 45 deg. to the surface of the metal being cut. A little experimenting will quickly indicate the best cutting angle.

Fio. 170.—Type* of special grooving chisel« that may l>e made in the farm shop.

A. Cap« chisel for cutting kcyways.

B. Round-nosed chisel for cutting round groove«.

C. Diamond-point- chisel for cutting grooves.

191. Cutting Slots and Grooves.—Other special chisels, such as those illustrated in Fig. 170, will occasionally be found useful in cutting grooves and slots, such as oil grooves in a bearing, or key-ways in a shaft. If a forge is available, such chisels may be made at home.

192. Grinding the Chisel for Special Work—For cutting brass, lead, babbitt, or very thin sheet metal, it is best to use a chisel that has been ground to a keen edge of possibly 30 to 45 deg. instead of the usual angle of 65 or 70 deg.

Points on Cutting with the Cold Chisel

1. Always use a sharp chisel and one of a size suited to the cutting to be done.

2. Hold the chisel firmly enough to guide it, yet looeely enough to ease the shock of the hammer blows.

3. Grasp the hammer handle near the end.

4. Tap the chisel once or twice to get the direction of striking and then use firm, well-directed blows.

6. For light chiseling strike blows with wrist motion only; for heavier work use both wrist and elbow action; ajid for very heavy work use motion from the shoulder as well as wrist and elbow.

6. In cutting at the anvil, always work over the chipping block and not the face of the anvil.

7. Nicking a bar deeply and then breaking it by bending is usually easier than cutting it all the way through with a chisel.

5. In hammering in a vise., always strike so tlie force of the blow comes against the stationary jaw and not against the movable jaw.

9. For shearing in a vise, clamp the work tight and place the chisel so as to get a good shearing cut. Keep the bevel on the end of the chisel flat against the top of the vise jaws. Hold the chisel at an angle of about ftO to 70 deg. to the line of cutting.

10. A slitting chisel is very useful for fast cutting of thick sheet iron, such as cutting an oil drum in two.

11. Faster cutting can be done on heavy work by having a helper strike with a sledge. Cold cutters with handles are better for such work than plain chisels.

1*2, For cutting brass and similar soft materials or thin sheet metals, the chisel cuts smoother and faster if ground to an angle of 30 to 45 deg. instead of the usual angle of 65 to 70 deg.

FILES AND FILING

A file is a very valuable cutting tool. On many jobs in the farm shop a good workman can do better and faster cutting with a file than with a grinding wheel. Unless properly cared for and used, however, the file will do only moderately satisfactory work.

193. Care of Files.—A file is a hardened steel tool that has a series of small sharp cutting edges or points on its surface. Files should therefore not be thrown around with wrenches and other tools, nor should they be kept on shelves or in drawers where they will be scraped against each other or against other tools. A good method of keeping them when not in use is to hang them on a rack or on hooks by the handles. The handles of course should be kept tight on the tangs.

Fig. 171.—A *ood way to keep files is to hang them by their handles on a rack. A file should not be thrown in a drawer nor on a shelf where the sharp cutting edges might be dulled by contact with other files* or tools.
. to heavy pressure is applied with the left hand.
the thumb and first finger of the left hand.

194. Holding the File.—The work to be filed should be held securely in a vise at about elbow height, possibly a little lower for rough, heavy filing, and a little higher for light filing.

For heavy filing, the file handle should be grasped firmly, yet not squeezed too tightly, with the right hand, thumb on top, and moderate to heavy pressure applied on the end of the file with the base of the thumb of the left hand. For light filing, the end of the file is held between the end of the thumb and the fingers of the left hand, and light to moderate pressure is applied.

195. Using the File; Body Position.—Probably the most important thing to observe in filing is to use rather slow, full-length strokes and to release the pressure on the back stroke.

Fig. 174.—In filing, stand with the left foot 10 or 12 in. ahead of the right, with the body leaning forward slightly at the hips. Use rather alow, full-length strokes, and release the pressure on the baek stroke.

In heavy filing, the file should be pushed with a combination slow rythmic swing from both the body and the arms. The workman should stand in front of the vise, with the right foot about 10 to 12 in. back of the left, and with the body bending forward slightly at the hips.

The forward stroke is then started by gradually leaning the body forward and at the same time pushing with the arms somewhat faster than the body moves. The forward stroke of the file is finished with motion

Fig. 174.—In filing, stand with the left foot 10 or 12 in. ahead of the right, with the body leaning forward slightly at the hips. Use rather alow, full-length strokes, and release the pressure on the baek stroke.

from the arms only, while the body moves back into position for the next cutting stroke.

Never Use Short, Jerky Strokes.—Only a poor workman would use fast, short, jerky, or seesaw strokes. When used in such a manner, the file cuts slowly, does poor work, and soon becomes dull.

When a file is pushed too fast, it slides over the metal without properly engaging it, which cause» the slow cutting and quick dulling of the teeth. Also, the work is likely to vibrate, causing screeching. A file should always be pushed slowly enough for the teeth to "take hold" and cut.

196. Keeping the Surface Flat and Straight—In order to keep the file level during the cutting stroke and to prevent rounding the work, more pressure should be used on the front end of the file at the beginning of the stroke, and then the pressure gradually shifted to the handle end as the file is pushed forward.

197. Draw Filing.—Draw filing is a quick, easy method of filing long narrow surfaces or round rods. The file is grasped on each end as shown

Fig. 175.—Draw filing is an excellent method for filing long, narrow surfaces. The file is pushed back and forth sideways, and pressure is applied on both the forward and back strokes. Use moderately slow strokes.

in Fig. 175 and pushed back and forth sideways, using pressure on both the forward stroke and the back stroke.

In blacksmithing, draw filing can often be used to smooth up a round rod or other piece of work better than hammering. If the work is to be filed while hot, an old file should be kept for this purpose, as the heat, would soon damage a good one.

198. Scratching; Clogging.—Small particles of metal will often tear out and push along ahead of the file teeth and scratch the work. This is more likely to occur with a new file than with an old one, or when filing on

Fig. 176.—When ft file become» clogged with dirt, grease, or metal cuttings, it may be cleaned with a small wire brush known aa a file

narrow work, especially if too much pressure is used. Rubbing the file with a piece of chalk will help to prevent such scratching.

A file also is likely to become clogged and slick when filing soft metals or dirty, greasy pieces. The teeth may be cleaned by using a small fine wire brush, called a file card, or a piece of wire sharpened to a fine point.

199. Filing Soft Metal.—It is difficult to file soft metal with an ordinary file, because of the tendency of the teeth to clog. Draw filing, however, usually works reasonably well and better than straight cross filing.

200. Filing Cast Iron.—Cast iron has a hard outer surface that would quickly damage the teeth of a good file. In filing cast iron, it is therefore good practice to use an old file for cutting through this outer surface before using a good file.

201. Kinds and Sizes of Files.—There cord-are many styles and kinds of files. They may be classified according to (1) size; (2) kind of teeth; (3) shape, style, or use; and (4) degree of coarseness of fineness.

Size of Files.—The size of a file is designated by its length, measured exclusive of the tang.

Kinds of Teeth.—A file with one series of chisel-like teeth running at an angle across the face, is known as a single-cut file. A double-cut file has a second series crossing the first at an angle. A third kind, used on rasps, consists of raised points on the surface, rather than chisel-like teeth.

Shape, Style, or Use.—Files are commonly named to indicate (1) their general style or shape, as fiat, square, round, half-round, three-cornered (triangular), etc.; or (2) their particular U3e, as mill, and auger bit.

A particular kind of file is always made in just one kind of teeth. A fiat file, for example, cannot be obtained with either single-cut or with double-cut teeth. It is made in double-cut only. Likewise, a mill file is made in single-cut only.

A fiat file is commonly used for general rough or fast filing. A mill file, so called because of its use in woodworking mills for sharpening saws and planer knives, is very much like the fiat file except that it is somewhat thinner, is tapered less in width towards the point, and is made with single-cut teeth.

Fineness or Coarseness of Cut.—The fineness or coarseness of files is commonly designated by the following series of terms, which are arranged in order of coarsest first; rough, coarse, bastard, second cut, smooth, and dead smootf*. These terms are relative, however, and vary with the kind or style of file, and with the length or size of file. For example, a mill bastard file is finer than a flat bastard file of the same size; and an 8-in. bastard file is finer than a 10-in. bastard file.

202. Files for General Farm Shop Use*—For rough, fast cutting, flat bastard files of 10- or 12-in. size are good; and for finer work, mill bastard files of 8- or 10-in. size are quite satisfactory. A mill smooth file may occasionally be useful for very fine filing.

One or two round bastard files (commonly called rattail filets) from 6 to 12 in. long, would be useful for enlarging round holes and filing inside rounded comers. A few triangular saw files, one or two square files, an auger-bit file, and possibly a half-round bastard file, would occasionally be useful in the farm shop. A half-round bastard or smooth wood rasp is sometimes needed for making irregular-shaped wood pieces. Ordinary filed can of course be used on wood also.

Points on Filing

1. Clamp the work to be filed firmly in the vise (x> prevent chattering.

2. The work should be at about elbow height for average filing, possibly a little lower for heavy filing and a little higher for light filing.

♦3. Exert just enough pressure on the file to keop the teeth engaged and cutting.

4. Use moderately slow, Jong, full-length strokes.

5. Always release the pressure on the back stroke.

6. Never use short, jerky strokes.

7. Do not allow the file to slip over the work, as this dulls the teeth.

8. Do not allow files to be thrown around against tools or against each other, as this will damage the teeth.

9. A good way to keep files is to hang them up by their handles.

10. If a file tears and scratches the surface of the work, rub the teeth witii chalk.

11. Keep the teeth of the file clean by means of a file card or brush.

12. Draw filing works well on long narrow surfaces.

13. Draw filing on soft metals gives rapid cutting with a minimum of clogging of the teeth.

14. In filing cast iron, the hard outer surface should first be removed with an old file before using a good one.

15. An 8- or 10-in. mill bastard file is good for fine filing around the farm shop, and a 12-in. flat bastard file is good for fast, rough filing.

HACK SAWING

The hand hack saw is one of the most useful tools for cutting metal. Like the file, however, it is often not used properly. Although the hack saw can be used with fair satisfaction by an inexperienced workman, a little thought and study given to its proper use will result in faster and better work and less dulling and breaking of blades.

203. Kinds of Hack-saw Blades.—Good work with a hack saw depends not only upon proper use but upon proper selection of blades for the work to be done. There are three general kinds of blades available: (1) all hard, (2) .flexible, and (3) highspeed steel All-hard blades have the whole biade tempered. They are suitable for general use where the work to be sawed can be held securely. The flexible blades have only the teeth hardened without hardening the back. They are used where there is danger of cramping and breaking the blade, as in sawing in awkward positions, where the work cannot be held securely, or for sawing flexible material like armored electric cable. High-speed steel blades are made of a special steel and will cut faster and last many times longer than regular blades, provided they are carefully used and not broken.

204. Teeth per Inch.—Use of saw blades with the wrong size of teeth is the most common cause of breaking blades. In general, larger teeth should be used for sawing thick pieces and soft materials, and smaller teeth for thin pieces and hard materials. Fine teeth lessen the danger of breaking the blade.

Hand hack-saw blades are commonly available, with 14, 18, 24, and 32 teeth per inch. A blade with 14 teeth per inch is used for sawing thick bars and soft materials. It is seldom needed in the farm shop, a blade with 18 teeth per inch usually being satisfactory for the heavier sawing. For general use in the shop, a blade having 24 teeth per inch is best for beginners, although 18 teeth per inch might be better for an experienced workman. A blade with 32 teeth per inch is best for sawing thin metal and tubes with walls thinner than about He m- A general rule is to use a blade that will always have at least two teeth cutting at the same time. This lessens the tendency of teeth to catch on the work and break out. of the blade.

206. Hack-saw Frames.—Hack-saw frames are available with different styles of hand grips and in fixed lengths, or adjustable to take blades from 8 to 12 in. long. A sturdy, durable frame, with a comfortable grip, preferably of the pistol or full-hand type, should be selected for the farm shop.

Fig. 177.—The blade should be tightened until it give* a clear humming not« when picked with the thumb. After sawing a few strokes, a new blade will stretch and need to be retightened a little.

206. Tightening the Blade in Frame.—The blade should be inserted in the frame with the teeth pointing away from the handle, and tightened

Fig. 177.—The blade should be tightened until it give* a clear humming not« when picked with the thumb. After sawing a few strokes, a new blade will stretch and need to be retightened a little.

Fig. 178.—Grip the «aw with the first finger of the right hand alongside the handle. The left hand should hold the front end of the frame to help guide it and to apply pressure.

until it gives a clear humming note when picked with the thumb. After sawing a few strokes, the blade will stretch a little and will need to be retightened. It is important that the blade be kept tight but not over-strained.

A slack blade is likely to drift or cut at an angle instead of straight, and it is likely to buckle and break.

207. Holding the Saw; Position for

Cutting.—The handle of the hack saw is gripped with the right hand much as is a hand wood saw. The left hand holds the front of the frame to help guide it and apply pressure. The workman should stand at ease, with the right foot

10 or 12 in. back of the left, and with the right forearm, elbow, and shoulder in line with the saw. The saw should be pushed with a light sway of the body as well as with motion from the arms, much

Fig. 179.—In sawing with a hack as a file is pushed. See Art. 195, page saw, stand at ease with the right foot 1on n ... ,

10 or 12 in. back of the left, and with !39. Possibly a little less arm motion the right forearm, elbow, and shoulder is used in sawing than in filing, in line with the saw. Use long, even onQ T1- T _ .

strokes, swaying the body back and 208- Use Lon8> Slow, Even Strokes, forth slightly in rhythm with the arm Sawing should be done with long, even, steady strokes, and not too fast. Sixty cutting strokes per minute should be the maximum—40 to 50 are usually better.

Pressure is exerted on the forward stroke and released on the backstroke, lifting the blade slightly. Just enough pressure should be used to make the teeth cut and keep them from slipping. If they slip, little or no cutting is done, and the blade is quickly dulled. Too much pressure increases the danger of breaking the blade.

Sawing too fast is usually accompanied by short strokes and heavy dragging on the back strokes, with consequent quick dulling and excessive wear in the middle portion of the blade. Also, with fast sawing there is more danger of catching and breaking the blade.

If a blade starts to cut to one side, it is best to turn the stock a quarter or half turn and start a new cut.

In case a blade is broken and a new one must be used, always start in a new place, possibly on the opposite side of the stock. A new blade would bind and there would be danger of breaking it if it were used in a cut started by an old blade.

209. Holding the Work.—A piece to be sawed should be held securely. If possible, clamp it in a vise with the place to be cut close to the vise jaws.

Fig. 180.- -Suggested methods of holding irregular work for hack sawing. In cutting chaunels and angle iron, keep as many teeth in contact with the work as possible.

A beginner sometimes makes the mistake of sawing too far from the vise, thus allowing the work to spring and vibrate and the saw to screech. Where a vise is not available, sometimes two nails can be driven part way into the bench top, and the work held by cramping it between the nails. Sawing can best, be done if the work is at about elbow height.

In fastening irregular-shaped pieces, as angle irons, channel irons, etc., in a vise, they should be placed so that the saw will make an angling cut and enough teeth will engage at a time to prevent catching and breaking. At least two teeth, and preferably more, should always be in contact with the work. In sawing thin bars, % to 34 in. thick, it is usually better to clamp them flatwise in the vise, rather than on edge, and to saw with the front end of the saw slightly lowered. Sawing across the wide surface instead of the edge not only lessens the danger of stripping teeth but also prevents vibration. To hold a piece of metal in a vise without marring, it may be clamped between two pieces of wood.

210. File Notch to Start Saw.—It is a good plan to file a notch for starting the saw, particularly in the case of beginners or when starting on the corner of a bar. The notch helps get the saw started in the right place and decreases the danger of breaking teeth from the blade.

Fio. 1S1.—A flic notch makes it easy to start the hack savr exactly on a line and decreases the danger of breaking teeth from the blade.

Fio. 1S1.—A flic notch makes it easy to start the hack savr exactly on a line and decreases the danger of breaking teeth from the blade.

211. Sawing Thin Sheet Metal.—A small piece of thin sheet metal may be easily sawed by clamping it between two pieces of wood in a vise and sawing through both wood and metal. Larger pieces of sheet metal that cannot be held in a vise may be clamped or otherwise fastened to the bench top with the part to be sawed projecting over the edge.

Grooving Wood Drawing
Fio. 182.—A small piece of thin metal may be sawed easily by clamping it betwee-n piece» of wood in a vise and sawing through both wood and metal.

212. Sawing Tool Steel.—Tool steel should be in the softened or annealed state before sawing. Otherwise, the saw blade will be dulled quickly. Although tool steel may be clamped in the vise and sawed as any other steel, it is generally best to saw only a deep nick (about one-fourth or one-fifth of the way through the bar) and then break the bar by clamping in the vise and striking a sharp blow with a hammer. The bar should be clamped with the nick on the side to be struck -with the hammer, and just even with the movable vise jaw. Heavy hammering in the vise should always be done so the force of the hammer blows will come against the stationary jaw.

Flo. 183.—A practical method of cutting t,ool steel is to saw a deep nick vrith the hack saw, clamp it securely in a vise with the nick even with the movable vise jaw, and then break it with a sharp hammer blow.

212a. Sawing Wide Slots.—It is sometimes desirable to make a wide slot in a bolthead so that it may Ik; held or turned with a screw driver. Such a slot is easily made by using two saw blades in the hack-saw frame

instead of one.

instead of one. If for some reason a still wider slot is needed, three or even more blades might be used.

Points on Hack Sawing

1. Clamp the work in a viae if possible.

2. Saw as close to the vise jaws as possible in order to keep the work from vibrating.

3. Use a flexible blade for sawing flexible material, or where the work cannot be securely held.

4. It is a good plan to start the saw in a notch made with a fde.

o. Use a blade with a suitable number of teeth per inch. Twenty-four is about right for general use, especially for beginners. Eighteen teeth per inch might be better for an experienced workman.

6. Use a blade with 32 teeth per inch for sawing thin metal.

7. At least two teeth should be kept in contact with the work when sawing.

8. Coarser toeth saw faster; finer teeth lessen the danger of breakage.

9. Keep the blade tight yet not overstrained. If it is properly strctched, it will give a clear humming note when picked with the thumb.

10. Use just enough pressure to make the teeth cut.

11. Release the pressure on the backstroke.

12. Use long, even, slow strokes—not over 60 cutting strokes per minute; 40 or 60 are usually better.

13. Never allow the saw to rub or slip instead of cutting. Rubbing or slipping dulls the teeth.

14. To saw irregular-shaped pieces, clamp thern cornerwise in t.he vise, so as to allow plenty of teeth in contact with the work.

15. Clamp thin bars flatwise rather than on edge. This prevents vibration and lessens danger of stripping teeth.

16. Thin sheet metal may be easily sawed by clamping between two pieces of wood.

17. Tool steel is readily cut by sawing a deep nick and then clamping in the vise and breaking with a hammer.

18. Two or more blades may be used in a hack-saw frame for sawing wide slots.

BENDING COLD IRON AND STEEL

Although it may be necessary to heat large pieces of iron or steel to bend them satisfactorily, many small pieces can be bent better and more easily cold.

213. Bending in the Vise.—With a good machinist's or blacksmith's vise, rods and bars up to or % in. thick can be readily bent. Many appliances and repairs can be made with stock of this size and smaller. Care should be exercised, of course, not to do too heavy hammering or bending in a small vise, lest the vise be damaged or broken.

A simple and easy way of making a small bend in strap iron or thin bars is to bend the stock around a pipe or rod of suitable size. The end of the stock may be clamped beside the pipe or rod in a vise and then bent around the pipe or rod by pulling or hammering (see Fig. 184).

For making a uniform bend of large size, the end of the stock may be slipped between the loosely adjusted jaws of a vise and bent by pulling. When the bar is bent slightly the pull is released and the bar allowed to slip through the jaws about in., and then the bar is bent a little more by further pulling. Thus a series of very short bends is made, which gives a reasonably smooth bend of rather large curvature (see Fig. 185).

pipe or rod.
a little more; and ho on until the desired curve is completed.

RIVETING

Riveting offers a convenient and easy method of securely holding parts together. It is easily done and requires very few tools. Many repairs can be made on farm machinery and equipment by riveting.

Fig. 186.—Short bars or bars too heavy to be bent by hand, may be bent by hammering, as at A, or by pulliug on a pipe slipped over the end as at B.

214. Procedure in Riveting.—A hole is first drilled through the parts to be held together, and then a soft steel rivet is inserted and hammered

Fig. 187.—A neatly rounded head may be formed on a rivet by first striking a few medium-heavy blow» and then finishing by light, peening with a small ball-peen hammer.

tightly in place. For some work the rivets are heated and hammered down while hot; but, for most farm shopwork, cold riveting is quite satisfactory.

To form a round head on a rivet, a rivet set is used. Where such a tool is not available, the rivet may be hammered down with a few medium-heavy, carefully directed blows and then finished by light peening with a small ball-peen hammer.

Where it is desired to fasten pieces together and yet not have the rivet heads protrude from the surface, the holes may be countersunk as indi-

Fro. 188.—Methods of heading rivet*.

A. Flat head made by straight hammering.

B. Head rounded with rivet act.

C. Head rounded with small ball-i>een hnmmor.

D. Enda of rivet hammered into countersunk holes with ball-peen hammer.

cated in Fig. 188D and the ends of the rivet pcened into the countersunk holes.

Cutting Rivets to length.—To cut a rivet to the desired length it may be clamped in a vise with the head up and then sheared with a cold chisel. Holding the chisel near the cutting end with the thumb and first two fingers will allow the palm of the hand to cover the rivet and keep it from

and being lost as it is cut off.

flying off and becoming lost as the chisel cuts through (see Fig. 189). Rivets may also be cut with heavy pincers, with small boltcutters, or with a hack saw.

Questions

184. (a) What tools are used in laying out work and marking on metal? (6) Why is a pencil not satisfactory for such work?

185. (a) What- difficulties are likely to occur if a light cold chisel is used for heavy cutting? (6) How should the oold chisel be held in the hand?

186. (a) On what part of the anvil should cutting with the cold chisel bo done? Why? (b) What is the best procedure for cutting heavy bars and rods?

187. When chiseling is done in a vise, against which jaw should the force of the blow fall?

188. (a) What important points should be observed in shearing thin bars held in a vise? (6) At what angle« should the chiselfbe held?

189. (a) What is a cold cutter? (6) What is it used for?

190. (a) For what kind of work is the slitting chisel especially well suited? (b) How is it different from an ordinary cold chisel? (c) What kind of a cutting or chip does it make? (d) How may it be started in the middle of large piece of metal?

191. What other kinds of special chisels may be used for cutting grooves, key-ways, etc.?

192. How should a chisel be ground for cutting soft metal or very thin sheet metal?

193. How should files be kept when not in use? Why?

194. How should a file be held in the hands for heavy filing? For light filing?

196. (a) What kind of strokes should be made when filing? (&) What is the best.

filing stance or body position for filing? (c) Describe and be able to demonstrate how to hold and use a file properly, (d) What troubles are likely to occur if short, fast, jerky strokes are used?

196. What special precaution should be observed when filing a surface perfectly flat?

197. (a) What is draw filing? (&) For what kind of work is it especially good?

198. (a) Under what conditions or for what kind of work is a file likely to scratch rather than cut smoothly? (6) How can the trouble be remedied? (c) What might cause file teeth to become clogged?

199. (a) Why is soft metal difficult to file? (&) Can draw filing be done on soft metal to advantage?

200. What is the best procedure for filing cast iron?

201. (a) How is the size of a file designated? (6) What are the differences between single-cut files, double-cut files, and rasps? (c) What does the name of a file usually indicate? (cf) Give several terms that designate the coarseness or fineness of files, giving them in the order of coarsest first.

202. Make a list of a few different kinds and sizes of files you would recommend for the farm shop.

203. (a) What different kinds of hack-saw blades are commonly available? (b) What are the particular advantages of each?

204. (a) How is the size of teeth in a hack-saw blade designated? (b) What sizes of teeth are commonly available? (c) What size or sizes would you recommend for the farm shop? (d) What trouble is likely to occur if the teeth are too large for the work? (e) State a general rule that may be used as a guide in selecting blades with the proper size of teet h.

206. What type of hack-saw frame would you recommend for the farm shop?

206. (a) How tight should a blade be stretched in a saw frame? (6) What difficulties are likely to develop if the blade is too loose?

207. (a) How should the hack saw be held? (6) What is the proper stance or body position for hack sawing? (c) How docs the proper sawing stance compare with the proper filing stance?

208. (a) What kind of strokes should be made with the hack saw? (b) About bow many cutting strokes should be made per minute? (c) How much pressure should be exerted on the saw? (d) What difficulties may arise from sawing too fast?

CHAPTER XIV

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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