Pipework On The Farm

238. Pipe Tools for the Farm Shop.—On a farm that uses much machinery and equipment, a few pipe tools will often save considerable time and repair expense. Fortunately, not many tools are required in order to do a moderate amount of pipework.

Wrenches.—At least one, and preferably two, pipe wrenches should be included in the shop equipment. Wrenches of 14- and 18-in. sizes are most useful. Wrenches with all-steel handles are usually better for farm work than those having wooden grips.

Vise.—The most practical kind of vise for holding pipe on most farms is a regular steel blacksmith's or machinist's vise that is equipped with pipe jaws. Such a vise can be used not only for pipework, but also

Fig. 211.—Every well-equipped farm shop should have at least one pipe wrcnch, preferably two.

for other iron and metal work. Where considerable pipework is to be done, a regular pipe vise may be advisable. For an occasional job, pipe can be held in an ordinary flat-jaw vise with the aid of a pipe wrench with the handle cramped against the bench (see Fig. 212).

Pipe. Cutter.—For an occasional job of pipe cutting, a hack saw is quite satisfactory. Where considerable pipe is to be cut, a pipe cutter will be better and more economical.'

Dies and Taps.—A set of pipe dies will be needed only when a large job of pipe fitting, such as installing a water system, is undertaken, or where considerable pipework is to be kept in repair. Pipe dies and taps in the two smallest sizes and l/\ in.) may be justified for such work as repairing grease and oil pipes on machinery and engines.

Sets of pipe-threading tools do not normally include taps, as pipe fittings that screw onto pipes are threaded at the factory, and therefore there is little use for taps.

Fig. 211.—Every well-equipped farm shop should have at least one pipe wrcnch, preferably two.

One-piccc dies are generally preferred over two-piece dies, because of the ease with which they may be changed in the stock. A stock with a ratchet handle is much easier to use than a plain stock for threading any but the smallest sizes of pipe. The ratchet handle can be worked back and forth through that portion of the turn where force can be best applied.

Fig. 212.—For an occasional job of pipowork, the pipe can be held in an ordinary vise with the aid of a pipe wrench.

Fig. 213.—The ratchet die, although more expensive than the plain die, is much easier to 1 operate and is preferred by many mechanics.

Ratchet equipment costs more, however, and for an occasional threading job the extra expense may not be justified.

239. Kinds and Sizes of Pipe.—Pipe is available in either black or galvanized iron. Black pipe is used for oil, air, or gas. Galvanized pipe should be used for a water-supply system. Galvanized pipe will, of course, last longer when used under conditions that tend to cause rusting and corrosion.

Pipe fittings are made of cast iron or of wrought iron. Wrought-iron fittings are available in either black or galvanized finish.

Fig. 212.—For an occasional job of pipowork, the pipe can be held in an ordinary vise with the aid of a pipe wrench.

Fig. 213.—The ratchet die, although more expensive than the plain die, is much easier to 1 operate and is preferred by many mechanics.

Pipe Measured by Inside Diameter.—The size of a pipe is designated by its inside diameter. The actual inside diameter of a pipe, however, is slightly more than its nominal diameter. For instance, a j^-in. pipe measures actually a little more than -in. in diameter. Pipe is made in sizes ranging from % to % in. by steps of % in., and from to in. by steps of )/\ in.

The size of pipe fittings is designated by the size of the pipe upon which they fit, and not by the diameter of the fittings themselves. For example, a in. elbow has an inside diameter of about % in., so that it will screw over the outside of a pipe that has an inside diameter of in.

240. Pipe Threads.—Pipe threads, known as Briggs standard threads, are tapered 3^6 m- P«r inch of length. They are tapered so that the farther a fitting is screwed onto a pipe, the tighter the joint will become. This makes it passible to make a joint tight without having any tension or end pull on the pipe. Bolt threads are straight, that is, they are cut on a cylinder, and a nut is made tight by drawing it up against the piece being held in place bj' the bolt.

Pipe threads arc much larger than the corresponding size of bolt threads, owing to the system of indicating pipe sizes. For example, a 3^-in. bolt die cuts threads on the outside of a rod }4 in. in diameter; and a J^-in. pipe die is much larger, because it cuts threads on the outside of a pipe that has an iaside diameter of in.

Pipe threads are used on some spark plugs, and bolt threads are used on others. A H-in. spark plug that uses a 3^-in. pipe thread is about the same size as a %-in. plug, which uses a %-in. boU thread.

241. Pipe Fittings and Valves.—There are many and various kinds of fittings and valves used in pipework. The most common ones are described below:

The coupling is simply a short sleeve threaded on the inside at both ends and is used for joining two pieces of pipe in a straight line and where at least one of the pieces can be turned.

The union is used for joining pipes where neither can be turned. It consists of three pieces, one to screw onto each of the two ends being joined, the third part being a nut for drawing the other two parts tightly together. There are two general kinds of unions, one that requires a gasket to make a tight joint, and one that does not. The parts of a union that requires no gasket fit together much like an engine valve fits into its seat.

A nipple is simply a short piece of pipe threaded on both ends.

The elbov) or "ell" is used for making right-angle turns in a line of pipe. A 45-deg. elbow is used for making a turn of 45 deg.

The street ell is similar to the ell, except it has one end threaded on the outside, so that it may be screwed into a fitting such as a tee. It can be used instead of an ell and a short nipple. It is also frequently used in piping to give a certain degree of flexibility to allow a limited movement of parts without causing undue strain on the joints (see Fig. 223).

Tee Coupling

Union

Elbow

Streef ell

Reducer or reducing coupling

Bushing

Nipple

A tee is used for joining a side branch to a main line of pipe.

.4 reducing coupling is a coupling with one end made to fit one size of pipe, and the other end a different size.

A busking is a short sleeve used to reduce the size of a threaded opening. It is threaded on the inside, and also on the outside at one end. The other end is hexagon shaped to receive a wrench.

A cap is used to screw over the threaded end of a pipe, thus stopping it.

A plug is used to screw into a threaded opening, such as one outlet of a tee, and thus stop the opening.

A floor flange is used for fastening the end of a pipe to a wall or floor, as in stair rails.

A check valve is used to prevent a backflow in a pipe. Two general styka are in common use, the lift valve and the swing valve.

A stop-and-waate cock is commonly used in a supply pipe. When it is turned oil it allows the water in the pipes beyond the cock to drain out.

The globe valve is the most commonly used type of shutoff valve. In passing through it, water must make two right-angle turns. It should

Fio. 215.—Check vnlvca. A, lift typo; B, awing type.

Fio. 215.—Check vnlvca. A, lift typo; B, awing type.

Fig. 216.—Shutoff valve*. A, at op-and-waste cock; B, «lobe valve; C, gate valve.

be installed so that when it is turned off there will be no pressure on the packing around the valve stem. This not only lessens the possibility of leakage around the stem, but it .also enables the stem to be repacked without turning off the pressure on the whole line.

The gale valve offers less resistance to the passage of water through it than does the globe valve; but it is not so easily repaired and is used less.

Fig. 216.—Shutoff valve*. A, at op-and-waste cock; B, «lobe valve; C, gate valve.

It is used in places where it is important not to impede the flow and where the valve would have to be closed only rarely, such as at a pump or storage tank where the valve would need to be closed only when repairs are made on the system. In a gate valve the flow is stopped by lowering a wedge-shaped gate into a seat.

Fio. 217.—Faucots. A, compression bib; B, Fuller's bib.

The compression bib is the most common type of faucet. In principle it is very similar to the globe valve. When it is closed a composition disk is held against a seat. When the disk becomes worn it is easily replaced or turned over.

The Fulkr's bib is a faucet in which the flow of water is stopped by pulling a rubber ball or valve disk onto a seat. It is a little more difficult to renew the ball or disk in a Fuller's bib than the disk in a compression bib. Both the compression bib and the Fuller's bib may be purchased plain or with ends threaded to receive a hose connection.

242. Planning a Job of Pipework.— To insure a good job and to prevent waste of materials and time, it is always advisable to take measurements before doing any cutting. If the job is a large one and involves the use of many pieces and joints, a sketch or rough drawing, should be made to show dimensions and kinds of fittings to be used. If dies are Fro.. 2 is.—Although a hack saw not. available at home, careful measure- 1°£?ZXL"l ments may be made and pipe bought recommended whore much pipe work already cut to length and threaded. is to bc donc-

243. Cutting Pipe.—If a hack saw is to be used, careful work will be required to prevent catching and breaking out some teeth or breaking the blade. A fine-toothed blade (24 teeth per inch) is usually best. If a pipe cutter is used, it should be carefully placed on the pipe, to

insure cutting to the desired length, and then turned around the pipe, the handle being tightened a little each round to force the cutting wheel into the pipe. As with other cutting tools, lard oil or a threading oil should be used.

fia. 219.—Reaming tho inside of a pipe to remove the burr left by the pipe cutter. The burr may be removed with a round or haif-round file if a reamer is not available.

244. Reaming Pipe.—A pipe cutter leaves a burr on the inside of the pipe, which should be removed to prevent decreasing the carrying capacity of the pipe. This burr can be removed with a reamer used in a carpenter's brace, or with a round or half-round file.

Fio. 220.—Threading pipe. The die should be kept lubricated with lard oil or threading oil. The die should be stopped and backed off when about one thread projects through tho die.

245. Threading Pip«.—Firm pressure is needed to start the die, after which it will feed itself onto the pipe. The die should be kept well lubricated with lard oil or threading oil and screwed on until about one thread projects through the die. If it is screwed on further the end of the

fia. 219.—Reaming tho inside of a pipe to remove the burr left by the pipe cutter. The burr may be removed with a round or haif-round file if a reamer is not available.

pipe that projects through the die will have straight threads instead of tapered threads.

246. Making a Short Nipple.—If a short nipple is needed and one is not at hand, it can be made by first cutting a piece of the desired length from the end of a threaded pipe. The piece is then screwed into a coupling on the end of another pipe held in the vise (see Fig. 221). The piece in the vise should be threaded back far enough for the coupling to screw almost all the way onto it. The short piece will then screw up against the end of the long piece without becoming tight in the coupling. The end of the short picee can now be threaded with a die that has been fitted with a guide large enough to go over the coupling.

Fzo. 221.—Threading a short nipple. Three point« are important:
Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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