Sawing

Probably the most common and most useful woodworking tool on the farm is the handsaw. The proper method of using t he saw is not difficult to learn, and everyone studying farm shopwork should early master the art of sa wing.

The first requirement for satisfactory work with the saw is that it be in good condition. Creditable work cannot be done with a saw that is dull or poorly filed or set (see pages 117 to 125 on saw sharpening). If the workman cannot or does not wish to sharpen his own saw, he should have it done by a competent mechanic.

20. Holding the Saw.—The saw should be grasped with the forefinger extending along the side of the handle, and not through the handle with the other fingers. This enables the workman better to guide the saw. The handle should be grasped firmly, yet not too tightly. The workman should not stand too close to the saw and the work, but should stand back a little and in a position so that a line across his chest and shoulders will

Fig. 22.—The «aw, arm, elbow, shoulder, and right eye should all be in the same vertical plane.

Fig. 23.—About 45 deg. is the correct angle between the saw and the work for crosscut sawing. (.Courte&y. Stardey Tools, New Britain, Conn.)

Fig. 24.—About 60 deg. is the correct angle Fig. 25.—Start the saw cut by between the snw And the work for ripsawing. drawing the saw backward. Hold the (Courtesy, Stanley TovU. Nw Britain, Conn.) blade ftQUftre to the stock. Steady it at the lino with the thumb.

make an angle of about 45 to 60 deg. with the line of sawiog. The saw, the arm, elbow, shoulder, and right eye (for a right-handed workman) should all be in the same vertical plane. In this position, the saw can be

Fig. 24.—About 60 deg. is the correct angle Fig. 25.—Start the saw cut by between the snw And the work for ripsawing. drawing the saw backward. Hold the (Courtesy, Stanley TovU. Nw Britain, Conn.) blade ftQUftre to the stock. Steady it at the lino with the thumb.

more easily controlled and made to follow a straight line and cut perpendicular to the surface of the board.

21. Starting the Saw.—To saw a board off, it should be clamped in a vise, or held firmly on a box or sawhorse with the left knee and hand (in the case of a right-handed workman). The left hand should grasp the board on the far edge, with the thumb serving as a guide for the saw while

Sawing opening two to three backstrokes are made to start the cut. The saw is lifted on the forward strokes. The saw should be drawn back very slowjj' and carefully and just exactly where the saw is to start.

Fro. 26.—Be. sure to saw carefully on the vhi*U sidt of the line, as at A and B. line or on the wrong aide of the Line make« the atock too short, as at C, or the too large, a* at D.

It should be remembered that the saw cut or kerf has appreciable width, and therefore the saw should not be started on the line itself, but beside the line in the waste material, the line itself normally being left (see Fig. 26). In case the piece is to be finished to the line with a plane or other tool, it is customary to saw a little farther from the line.

22. Sawing to the Line.—After the saw Is started, push it forward firmly and pull it back, using long, easy, fairly rapid strokes, and a light pressure. The cutting edge of the saw, in case of a crosscut saw, should make an angle of about 45 deg. with the board. If the saw tends to go to one side of the line, twist the handle slightly and gently to make it come gradually back to the line as the sawing proceeds (see Fig. 27). If it cannot be made to follow a straight line, the set may not be enough, or it

may be uneven, the teeth on one side being bent out more than those on the other side. Watch the saw to keep the blade square with the surface of the board. Testing occasionally with the square may be advisable. If the saw is not square with the surface, bend it a little to gradually straighten it as the sawing proceeds (see Fig. 28).

If heavy pressure is used, or if short, quick strokes are made, there is danger of catching the saw and bending or kinking the blade. It will also be much more difficult to saw a straight line. If heavy pressure is required, the saw needs sharpening.

23. Finishing the Cut.—In order to prevent splintering just as the saw is about to finish the cut, the outer end of the board should be supported, and somewhat slower and steadier strokes should be made.

24. Using the Ripsaw.—The ripsaw is used for cutting lengthwise of the grain. It is handled in practically the same manner as described above for the hand crosscut saw, except that the cutting edge of the

SAWING 19

Fig. 28.—It is best for th* beginner to check hia work occasionally to see that he is making a square cut. If he is not, he should bend the saw a little, as shown at A, to straighten it aa the sawing proceeds.

Fio.

29.—Support outer end of the board as the saw finishes the cut.

thus avoided.

Splintering is ripsaw should make a little steeper angle with the surface of the board— about 60 dcg. instead of 45.

A good method of holding a board for ripping is to place it lengthwise on a sawhorse and hold it in place with the right knee. If the blade binds in the board, a small wedge or a chisel may be us^d to spread the sides of the kerf.

If a ripsaw is not available, a crosscut saw may be used for an occasional job of ripping, but it will be slower and require more work than if a ripsaw were used.

Questions

20. Explain exactly how the workman should stand at work when sawing and just how the saw should be grasped in the hand.

21. (a) How should a saw cut he started? (6) What is a kerf? (e) Should the saw cut out the line, or should it cut just inside or just outside the line? Explain.

22. (a) What, kind of strokes and how much pressure should be exerted on the saw in sawing off a board? (6) What angle should the saw make with the board? (c) How inav the saw be brought back to the line if it tends to work away from the liue? (d) How may the saw l>c straightened if it is found not to be sawing square with the surface?

23. What precaution should be taken to prevent splintering just as the saw finishes a cut?

24. (a) What angle should a ripsaw make with the board? (6) How doe« this angle compare with that of the crosscut saw? (c) What remedy can be used in case the saw cut tends to close and pinch the saw blade? (d) Can a crosscut saw be used for ripping?

References

Hjorth: "Basic Woodworking Processes."

Brown and Tustisont "Instructional Units in Hand Woodwork." Griffith: "Essentials of Woodworking." Boss, Dent, and White: "Mcchanical Training." Ckawshaw and Lehmaxx: "Farm Mechanics."

Educational charts and pamphlets, Henry Dission and Sons. Philadelphia, Pa.; Stanley Tool Works, New Britain, Conn.

CHAPTER III

PLANING AND SMOOTHING

In order to do good work with a plane it should be sharp, properly assembled, and properly adjusted. (See pages 87 to 93 for information on sharpening.)

26. Assembling the Standard Plane.—The cap iron or chip breaker should be fastened to the flat side of the plane iron or bit—not to the

P/ane iron or bit

L atora/ adjusting /over

Cap iron or chfp breaker

P/ane iron or bit

Cap iron or chfp breaker

De pi h adjusting nut

Pio. 30.—The jack plane is one uaed moat in the farm shop.

De pi h adjusting nut

Pio. 30.—The jack plane is one uaed moat in the farm shop.

/-About hô/nch iron or chfp breaker

/-About hô/nch iron or chfp breaker

Plane bit

Fig. 31.—For average work the edge of the cap iron or chip breaker should be sot about.

Y\ 6 in- back from the cutting edge of the bit.

beveled side. For average work the bit should project beyond the end of the cap iron about Y\a in? or about the thickness of a dime.

The cap iron and the bit should fit together very tightly so that shavings will not wedge in between them and cause choking. The lever cap should clamp the cap iron and bit into the body of the plane very securely to prevent chattering and to prevent adjustments from changing

while the plane is in use. The cap iron should be on top and the bit on the bottom.

Fiq. 32.—The plane should be assembled with the beveled edge of the bit down.

26. Adjusting the Plane.—There are two main adjustments on the standard plane. The knurled nut just in front of the handle is to regulate the depth of cut; and the small lever just under the back end of the blade is to straighten the blade in the plane so that it will not cut deeper on one side than on the other.

To make a trial adjustment, turn the plane upside down, holding the front end toward you, and sight along the bottom. Move the lateral adjusting level until the blade projects through the throat evenly on both

Fig. 33.—The plane bit should project through the throat of the plane very little, and the ufttne amount at both edgea. Thia may be oh coked by sighting along the bottom of the plane or by feeling with the fingers.

edges. Then turn the depth-adjusting nut until the blade projects % through about the thickness of a sheet of writing paper. It is well also to check the adjustment b}r feeling the corners of the bit with the Grst two fingers of one hand. If one comer projects through the throat farther than the other, it can be readily detected by this method.

27. Holding and Using the Plane.—The workman should grasp the handle of the plane with his right hand, assuming that he is right-handed, and the knob of the plane with his left hand, keeping the palm on top of the knob. He should stand with his right side to the bench, with feet

Fig. 33.—The plane bit should project through the throat of the plane very little, and the ufttne amount at both edgea. Thia may be oh coked by sighting along the bottom of the plane or by feeling with the fingers.

apart and the left foot slightly ahead. As the plane is gradually pushed apart and the left foot slightly ahead. As the plane is gradually pushed

the left foot slightly ahead. As the plane is pushed forward the weight is gradually ahitaid to the left foot.
Fiq. 3d.—The plane should be hold with the left palm on top of the knob and with the right forearm pushing straight in line behind the plane.

workman can better control his plane and work with less fatigue. The forearm should be kept straight in line behind the plane. In this way the workman can push the plane with leas effort.

In starting tho plane, pressure should be exerted on the knob on the front end of the plane, and a forward push exerted with the right hand. As the plane advances over the work (which is held in a vise or against stops on top of the bench), pressure should be exerted downward at the back of the plane. As the plane goes out over the end of the work, completing the stroke, the pressure on the knob should be gradually released and the back of the plane held down firmly. Thus the board will be planed straight to the very end.

Fro. 36.—To make the plane cut a uniform depth all the way across, bear heavily on the knob at tho beginning of the stroke and on the back of the plane at the end of the stroke.

28. Keep the Plane Set Shallow.—The plane should be set to cut a very thin shaving, except in smoothing up rough lumber or in removing considerable excess stock, and even in these cases the finishing strokes are made with the plane set to take a very shallow cut. A common mistake is to set the plane too deep.

29. Plane with the Grain.—Before starting to plane, one should always examine the board to see which way the grain runs and then plane with the grain. If there is doubt as to which way the grain runs, a stroke with the plane will indicate the direction. An attempt to plane against the grain will result in rough work, and possibly in choking the plane. Sometimes, due to irregular grain, it may be necessary to plane part of the board in one direction, and the remainder in another.

30. Planing Less than Full Length of the Stock.—Where it is desired to plane one part of a board and not the whole length, the front end of the plane is allowed to ride along on the surface and the back end gradually lowered down onto the work to start the cut. If the cut is to be stopped before reaching the end of the board, the back end is gradually raised to end the cut and thus feather the shaving.

31. Lift the Heel on the Backstroke.—The back end of the plane should be raised slightly on the back or return stroke so as not to dull the cutting edge by dragging it over the surface of the board.

32. Preventing Dulling.—The plane should always be laid on its side on the bench when not in use to prevent the keen edge from being dulled by coming into contact with the gritty bench top. When the plane is put away, it should have a thin strip of wood under the front end to keep the cutting edge off the bottom of the tool chest or case; or else the depth-adjusting screw should be turned to draw the cutting edge well up into the

Fio. 37.—When not in use a plane should he laid on its side or otherwise placed to prevent dulling the cutting edire.

Fio. 37.—When not in use a plane should he laid on its side or otherwise placed to prevent dulling the cutting edire.

33. Planing and Testing a True Surface.—After the whole surface of a board has been smoothed and the plane cuts a thin shaving the full length of the stroke, the surface should be tested to see if it is a true plane.

If the piece is not too long, a straightedge, such as the edge of a steel square, may be placed on one diagonal of the surface, then on the other, and then moved along crosswise, and then lengthwise of the piece. If the same amount of light can be seen under the straightedge in the various different positions, the surface may be considered a true plane.

Another test for a true plane is first to hold the piece up to the light and sight across it and see if the top of the back edge is in line with the top of the front edge; and then to place the try square or other straightedge across the surface and move it from end to end and see if the same amount of light c.an be seen under it in various positions.

By such tests any high and low spots can be located, and then the high ones can be planed down.

34. Planing an Edge Straight and Square with Adjoining Surface.—It is frequently necessary in woodworking to plane the edge of a board to make it (1) straight and (2) square with an adjoining surface. It would be well, therefore, for the beginner in woodwork to early master this simple but important operation.

Fig. 38.—Testing to see if the surface is A true plane. Always test crosswise, lengthwise, and diagonally. Th* large square is better ior large surfaces.
Fig. 39.—Two good methods of holding o plane when planing an edge square with a »arinco.

Before starting to plane an edge to straighten it, sight along it to note the location of the high spots. After the high places have been planed down, it is well to take long strokes extending the full length of the piece, if possible. Care should be taken to keep the front end of the plane firmly down against the work as the plane starts onto the edge, and to keep the back end down firmly as the plane goes out over the other end at the finish of the stroke.

Care must also be exercised to keep the bottom or sole of the plane perpendicular to the side of the board. Many workmen prefer to hold the front end of the plane down with the thumb of the left hand, allowing the fingers to project down and under the plane and rub along the side of the board to steady the plane and keep it square with the side.

Another simple method of keeping the bottom of the plane square with the adjacent surface is to hold a small square-edged block under the front of the plane and against the side of the piece being planed.

As the planing proceeds, the edge should be checked frequently for straightness and squareness, by sighting or using a straightedge, and by using the try square.

35. Planing End Grain.—This is an operation seldom used in farm woodworking. By careful marking and sawing very little smoothing of

Fia. 40.—Planing end pram. Pushing the plane at an angle gives an oblique cutting action and makes it cut bettor. The plane should be very sharp and set vory shallow.

the ends will be required, and such as is required can frequently be better done with a file. For planing across the end of a board, the plane should be very sharp, and it should be set extremely shallow. If it is dull, or if it is set too deep, it will gouge and jump, resulting in rough, uneven work.

Instead of pushing the plane straight along the end of the board, it-may be pushed along at an angle. This makes the plane cut better and gives the workman better control of it. The plane must not be pushed

Fia. 40.—Planing end pram. Pushing the plane at an angle gives an oblique cutting action and makes it cut bettor. The plane should be very sharp and set vory shallow.

entirely across the end of a board, unless the far edge is firmly supported or backed up to prevent splintering or splitting of the edge. Clamping a entirely across the end of a board, unless the far edge is firmly supported or backed up to prevent splintering or splitting of the edge. Clamping a

planing end grain.

method to avoid splintering. If some such method cannot be used, the end of the board should be planed partly from one edge, and then reversed for planing the remainder.

Care should be taken, of course, to work down the high points and to check the work frequently with the try square as the planing proceeds. It is the mark of a good workman to remove as little material as possible in straightening and squaring his work.

The bench hook or a homemade miter box may be used to aid in square planing the ends of small pieces. The left hand holds the piece firmly against the backstop with the end to be planed projecting very little—almost not at all—beyond the edge of the bench hook. The plane is then pushed entirely across the end of the piece with the right hand.

The block plane is better for end planing than other planes.

36. Smoothing End Grain with the File.—Frequently the end of a board may be smoothed and made straight and square with a file much

Fio. 43.—Smoothing and squaring end« frequently may bo <lone more easily by filing than by planing, particularly ii care has been used in «»wing, and only little watte is to be removed.

A. Removing considerable, material.

B. Making a light finishing cut.

Fio. 43.—Smoothing and squaring end« frequently may bo <lone more easily by filing than by planing, particularly ii care has been used in «»wing, and only little watte is to be removed.

A. Removing considerable, material.

B. Making a light finishing cut.

more easily than with a plane. In using a file, long, steady strokes should be made—not.short, quick, jerky ones—and the file should be lifted slightly on the back or return stroke. In this manner it is much easier to control the file and to work the end down straight and square. As in planing, more pressure should be put on the front end of the file as it starts a stroke, and the pressure gradually shifted until more is on the rear or handle end at the finish of the stroke. A moderately coarse file, such as a flat bastard file, or a woodworker's file, is recommended for filing wood.

Where very much material is to be removed, the file should be used at an angle as shown in Fig. 43.4. For light, finishing cuts the file may be used in line with the edge as shown in Fig. 435.

37. Squaring Up a Board.—By squaring up a board is meant making all surfaces (sides, ends, and edges) smooth, true planes at right angles to each adjoining surface. (A true plane is one that has all points in the same plane. A surface may be smooth, yet not true. See Art. 33, page 25, for methods of testing a surface for trueness.) For many farm woodwork jobs, mill-planed lumber as it comes from the lumber yard will be smooth enough, the surfaces will be near enough to true planes, and the surfaces will be near enough square with each other. Other jobs, however, will require greater accuracy and smoother work than can be done with the lumber at hand, and the pieces will need to be partly if not completely squared up.

To do creditable work where accuracy is required, the workman should perform at least, the first two steps of the squaring up process as outlined below:

1. Plane one broad surface smooth and true (make it a true plane). This surface is then known as the working surface and is marked with a short line extending to the edge that i3 to be selected for the working edge. The first step should not be considered complete until the marking is done. If a test shows the board to be true and smooth enough for its purpose without planing, then the working surface is simply marked.

2. Select the best edge for the- working edge and plane it (a) straight, and (b) square wiih the working surface. Straightness is tested by sighting or with a straightedge; and squareness is tested with a try square. This edge is called the working edge. It should be marked with two short lines extending to the working surface. If the edge is already straight and square with the working surface, it is simply marked and need not be planed. (With the marking done as indicated one can tell which is the working surface and which is the working edge by seeing either.)

3. Make the second edge parallel to the working edge. It will then be (a) straight and (b) square with the working surface. Probably the easiest way of performing this third step is to gage (or otherwise mark) for the desired width, marking on both the working surface and the opposite side; and then to plane to the gage lines or marks.

4. Mark and cut one end (a) straight, (b) square with the working surface, and (c) square with the working edge. The handle of the try square should always be held against either the working edge or the working surface in marking around a board. Sawing should be done carefully and very close to the line.

5. Mark the piece, for desired length and cut the second end like the first one, making it (a) straight, (6) square with the working surface, and (c) square with the working edge.

6. Gage for thickness and plan-e to the gage lines, making the second surface parallel to the working surface. This step is usually omitted when working with mill-planed lumber.

Order of Steps in Squaring-up Process.—Many workmen prefer to perform the operations of squaring up a board in the order given above. After the working surface and the working edge are established, however, the remaining steps may be performed in any order.

38. Planing a Chamfer.—If a piece is to be chamfered all the way around, lines should be gaged down from the working surface all the way

Fig. 4i.—In planing a chamfer around a board, plane fcbe edges first and the end» hurt. Push the plane at an angle when planing the ends, so as to give an oblique cutting oetion.

around the piece; and lines should be made on the working surface all the way around, baek the same distance from the edges and ends as the lines on the edges and ends are down from the working surface. Gaging with a pencil and rule (as explained in Art. 8, page 5) is a good method of marking out a chamfer. The marking gage is a very convenient tool for this work, but it has the disadvantage of leaving marks in the surface that are difficult to remove. In case the marking gage is used, very light marks should be made.

The chamfers on the edges or sides should l>e planed first. The direction of planing is parallel to the edges. The chamfers across the ends are planed last in order to avoid splintering. The plane should not be held parallel to the ends in planing the end chamfers, but at an angle of about 45 deg. with the ends. The movement of the plane, however, should be parallel with the ends, that is, the plane should be moved with a semisidewise motion.

39. The Block Plane.—The block plane is a small plane about 6 in. long. It is used mostly for planing across end grain and for planing small pieces where it is not convenient to hold them in a vise. The plane, being small, can be used with one hand while the other hand holds the stock. The plane bit is mounted in the body of the plane at a much lower angle than in the jack plane. This makes it better adapted for cutting across end grain.

There are three adjustments on the block plane. In addition to the depth adjustment and the lateral adjustment of the blade as in the jack plane and other standard planes, there is a small lever at the front of the plane for adjusting the width of the throat opening. The block plane

Fto. 45.—The block plane ia a very good tool (or planing end grain.

should be kept very sharp, and, for end planing, it should be set very shallow.

Although a block plane is convenient, especially for end planing, it is not at all necessary for the farm shop.

40. Other Planes.—The jack plane, which is about 14 in. long, is a general-purpose plane and is all that is needed for the average farm shop. There are other kinds of planes especially adapted to certain kinds of work. The smooth plane is from about 6 to 10 in. long, and, as its name implies, it is for smoothing boards. Being short, it can follow into slight depressions in a board better than the longer planes. The smooth plane is used after the main straightening of the surface has been done with the jack plane.

The jointer plane is from 22 to 24 in. long, and is used primarily for straightening the edges of long pieces.

SMOOTHING WOOD SURFACES

41. Scraping.—The scraper is a thin, flat piece of steel used for putting a fine-smooth surface on a piece of wood. It is used after plan;ng and

Fto. 45.—The block plane ia a very good tool (or planing end grain.

before sandpapering. When properly sharpened, the scraper will take off a very fine, silky shaving, leaving a much smoother surface than would be possible with a plane. It is also valuable in smoothing wood that is difficult to plane on account of irregular grain. Scraping with a dull scraper is exceedingly slow and tedious work. Only an inexperienced or poor workman would use a dull scraper. (See page 99 for instructions on sharpening scrapers.)

The scraper is held at an angle of about 75 deg. to the surface of the wood and is usually pushed or pulled along with one end slightly ahead of the other.

a« at D, with one end slightly ahead of the other. The scraper should be kept sharp. Dust instead of shavings indicates a dull scraper.

42. Sandpaper and Its Use.—The beginner usually wants to use sandpaper before he should. Sandpapering should not be done until all work with the cutting tools and scrapers is finished. There is no advantage in using sandpaper on wood that has not been previously planed or scraped. With sandpaper it is practically impossible to remove the "hollows and ridges" left on a piece by the mill planer; in fact, sandpapering such mill-surfaced lumber generally magnifies the hollows and ridges and actually detracts from the appearance, rather than improving it.

The sheets of sandpaper are usually torn into four pieces, by creasing firmly and then tearing over the sharp edge of a rule or over the edge of the bench. The small pieces are then wrapped part way around a flat block for use. For economy the block should be of such a size that the paper will come onljr part way up on each edge and not around on top.

Sandpaper with the Grain.—Sandpaper should always be rubbed back and forth with the grain and never with a circular motion or across the grain, as this would roughen and scratch the work instead of smoothing it. Care must be exercised to hold the block flat against the surfaces and not to round the edges. A good workman does not round the corners and edges except where there would be danger of splintering. In such cases the sharpness may be removed by running a plane along each corner before sandpapering, or by running the sandpaper over the edges oncc or twice very carefully af ter the other sanding Is finished. For sandpapering curved surfaces no block is needed, the paper being held in the hand.

Sandpaper is available in several grades or degrees of coarseness. The commonly used grades range from No. 00 (fine) to No. 2 (coarse).

47.—Sheets of sandpaper are easily torn by crossing and then tearing along the sharp edge of a rule as at A, or over the edge of the bench as at

Fig. 48.—Plat piece* are beat sandpapered with paper wrapped part way around a flat block. Sanding should always bo done with the grain—never across it.

43. Other Smoothing Materials.—Steel wool may be used also for smoothing the surface of wood, but, like emery cloth or emery paper, it is used more on metal than on wood.

Pumice slonc is sometimes used in cabinetmaking to produce a very fine finish on wood.

25. (a) Should the cap iron or chip breaker be fastened to the flat or to the beveled side of the plane bit? (b) How far should the plane bit extend beyond the cap iron? (c) Why should the bit and cap iron fit together tightly? (ci) What may happen if the lever cap doe« not clamp the bit and cap iron tightly into the body of the plane?

26. (a) What are the two main adjustments of the standard plane? (6) Explain just how to make a trial adjustment on a plane.

47.—Sheets of sandpaper are easily torn by crossing and then tearing along the sharp edge of a rule as at A, or over the edge of the bench as at

Fig. 48.—Plat piece* are beat sandpapered with paper wrapped part way around a flat block. Sanding should always bo done with the grain—never across it.

Questions

27. (a) Describe the body position for planing. (b) How should the plane be held in the hands? (c) Why should the pressure be shifted from the front to the back of the plane as it advances over the work?

28. Under what conditions should the plane be set for a deep cut?

29. (a) Why should a board be planed with the grain? (b) How may a board with irregular grain be planed?

30. How should the plane be handled when the stock is to be planed less than full length?

31- Why should the heel of the plane be lifted slightly on the back or return stroke t

32. (a) How should the plane be laid on the bench when not in use? (6) Give two ways of protecting the sharp cutting edge of a plane when it is put away in the tool case.

33. Give two testa to indicate whether or not the surface of a board is a true plane.

34. (a) What precautions should be observed in planing an edge straight? (&) Describe two methods of holding the front end of a plane so that it will plane the edge of a board square with a side.

35. (a) How may the amount of planing of end grain be kept at a minimum? (6) How should a plane be set for planing end grain? (c) Why should the plane be pushed at an angle? (d) How may splintering of the edges be prevented when planing the end of a board? (e) How may a miter box or a bench hook be used to advantage in planing end grain?

36. (a) How should the file be held and manipulated in filing end grain? (6) When is filing preferred over planing end grain? (c) What kind of a file is best for filing wood?

37. (a) What, is meant by the expression squaring up a boardt (b) What is a true plane? (c) What is the difference between a smooth surface and a true surface? (id) Name the steps of the squaring-up process, (c) What is a working surface? A working edge? (J) How are the working surface and the working edge marked?

38. (a) Why is a pencil better than a marking gage for marking out a chamfer? (6) What precautions should be observed in case a marking gage is used? (c) Should the chamfers on the sides or the chamfers on the ends of a piece be planed first? Why? (d) How should the plane be held and pushed in planing chamfers across the end of a board?

39. (a) For what kinds of work is the block plane particularly good? (6) In what ways is the block plane different from the jack plane? (c) What feature of construction enables the block plane to be used to advantage for planing end grain?

40. (a) How is the smooth plane different from the jack plane? (b) For what kind of work is the jointer plane used? Why is it better than the jack plane for this work?

41. (a) Should a scraper be used before or after planing? Before or after sandpapering? (6) Just how should the scraper be held and manipulated in use?

42. (a) At what- stage in smoothing and finishing a board should it be sandpapered? (6) How may sheets of sandpaper be torn straight and easily? (c) State precautions to be observed in the use of sandpaper.

43. What materials other than sandpaper are sometimes used for smoothing wood surfaces?

References

Hjorth: "Basic Woodworking Processes."

Brown and Tttstison: "Instructional Units in Hand Woodwork." Griffith: " Essentials of Woodworking." Crawshaw and Leqmank: "Farm Mechanics."

Educational charts and pamphlets, Stanley Tool Works, New Britain, Conn.

CHAPTER IV

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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