Tearing the Thread The desired length of thread usually about 5 ft is drawn from the ball and torn rather than cut off To tear it the thread

is untwisted over an 8- or 10-in. length, and then jerked. It will tear apart at about the middle of the untwisted section. To untwist the thread for tearing, roll it between the palm and right thigh, while holding with the left hand at a point about 8 in. back from the thigh.

To keep the supply of thread from becoming tangled, the ball may be kept in a small can, such as an empty baking powder can, with a small hole punched in the lid for the thread to be drawn through.

Assembling the Threads.—When the desired number of strands, usually three or four, have been withdrawn from the ball and broken off the same length, they are then assembled with the ends offset or staggered. The end of the first strand should extend about \ XA in. beyond the end of the second, and the second about in. beyond the end of the third, and so on.

Waxing the Ends.—After the strands have been thus assembled, the ends are brought together and waxed by rubbing with a small piece of

harness maker's wax. The wax is usually kept on a pad of scrap leather for convenience. In cold weather it may be well to warm the wax a little.

Twisting and Waxing the Threads.—After the ends are waxed, the thread is stretched tightly over a nail or hook and twisted, one end at a time, by rolling over the right thigh with the palm of the right hand. The left hand holds one end of the thread tight and catches and holds the twist made in the other end by rolling. When both ends are twisted, the thread is pulled back and forth over the hook to even the twist in the two ends. A little practice will indicate how much to twist the thread. Too much twist will cause kinking, and too little twist will cause the thread to be flat instead of round.

Fig. 297.—The thread is twisted by running it around a nail or hook and then rolling it over the thigh, ono end at. a time.

After the thread is twisted, it is waxed by rubbing the wax back and forth along the thread a few times. The thread is then nibbed with a piece of leather or the thumb and fiugers, to work the wax in aud distribute it evenly. Too much wax should not be used, for it will cause the thread to bind in sewing; yet there should be enough used to make the

Fig. 298.—After twisting, the thread is waxed. Do not apply too much wax, but work it in well.

thread black all over after the wax is well distributed. In case the thread is sticky, it may be rubbed with a piece of beeswax.

Attaching the Needhs.—A blunt-pointed harness sewing needle is fastened on each end of the waxed thread in the following manner: The needle is threaded onto the pointed end as far as it will go without pushing back the wax or ruffling up the fibers of the thread, usually about 2 or 3 in.

Fig. 297.—The thread is twisted by running it around a nail or hook and then rolling it over the thigh, ono end at. a time.

Fig. 298.—After twisting, the thread is waxed. Do not apply too much wax, but work it in well.

The pointed end of the thread is then folded back alongside the main thread and the doubled thread held close to the needle with the thumb and first finger of the left hand. The needle is then twisted clockwise by rolling between the right thumb and finger while the left thumb and finger move slowly down the thread from the needle. The end of the

Fig. 299.—Fastening 3 needle to the end of tho thread. Roll the needle in a clockwise direction and slowly move the left thumb and finger down tho thread.

thread is thus twisted around and worked into the main thread, and the wax holds it in place. When carefully done, the end of the thread Is then about the same size as the needle.

359. Preparing Ends to Be Spliced.—The ends of the leather to be spliced should be cut off square and beveled or skived back about 2 in.

from the ends, using a sharp knife or plane and beveling on the rough or flesh side of the leather. The hair or smooth side of the leather is tougher and stronger and should not be cut away in beveling. The ends of the straps should not be made too thin, but should be left about half the normal thickness of the leather.

F/esh stde

Fio. 300.—Ends of straps beveled or skived ready for sewing.

Flesh side

F/esh stde

Fio. 300.—Ends of straps beveled or skived ready for sewing.

360. Stitching the Splice.—After the ends arc beveled they are lapped together about to 4 in. and placed in a harness-stitching vise or clamp with the hair side of both pieces to the right, and with the strap nearest

the splice, ono needle is inserted, and the thread is drawn halfway through.

working vise is quite satisfactory, although a harness-stitching horse might be justified where considerable leather sewing is done.

Pig. 302.—Keep tho awl in the right, hand all the time while sewing.

The top edges of the pieces should project above the jaws of the clamp about in. The stitching begins by punching an awl hole in the single strap bej'ond the splice, placing one needle through the hole and drawing the thread halfway through (see Fig. 301). Punch the second hole through both pieces and about ^16 in. from the first. Insert the left needle and pull the thread through a little way; then insert the right needle and pull both threads up tight, keeping the awl in the right hand all the time. In a similar manner continue the stitching to the end of the splice.

Punching the Awl Holes.—If desired, a line may be marked or creased in the leather about from the edge to serve as a guide line for the


r /

Fig. 303.—The awl makes a diamond-shaped hole. The long axis should be neither lengthwise of the strap nor crosswise, but about halfway between.

Fig. 303.—The awl makes a diamond-shaped hole. The long axis should be neither lengthwise of the strap nor crosswise, but about halfway between.

awl holes. This line may be marked with a creasing tool, or a pencil, or one leg of a pair of dividers drawn along a straightedge. The spacing of the stitches may be marked off with a stitching wheel, or with a pair of dividers set for about a ?{e>-in. spacing, although, with a little practice, one will be able to space the awl holes evenly by eye without first marking them off.

The awl makes a diamond-shaped hole, and the long axis of the diamond should be about halfway between vertical and horizontal (see Fig. 303).

Making the Crossover.—When the stitching has proceeded across the splice, an awl hole is punched through the single strap just beyond the lap.

Both needles arc put through in the usual manner. A second hole is then punched in the single strap and the right needle placed through. This brings both threads out on the left side or flesh side of the leather.

The splice is then turned end for end in the clamp, and two holes punched in the single strap just beyond the lap. A needle is placed through each of these holes, bringing both threads to the right side or hair side of the leather. The needle coming through the farthest hole is placed back through the hole nearest the lap, which leaves a thread on each side of the leather. The second edge of the splice is then sewed in exactly the same manner as the first.

Anchoring the Threads.—To prevent the stitching from loosening, the threads may be anchored as follows: As the stitching is being finished, take one regular stitch through the single strap just beyond the splice, and then make an anchor stitch back in the double part in line with the last stitch in the double part, but about in. in toward the center of the straps (see Fig. 305). To make this anchor stitch, place both threads

Flo. 305.—Making the lock stitch to prevent the 3ewing from loosening.

through the hole in the usual manner, but draw only one thread, say the one coming through from the left side, up tight. This left thread is then wrapped twice in a counterclockwise direction through the loop made by the other thread. Tension is kept on the thread coming through from the left while the other thread is carefully drawn up tight. This wraps the threads around each other in the hole. The threads are then cut off.

Borne prefer not to make the crossover at all but prefer to stitch each side of the splice independently and anchor the threads at the end of each side.

After the sewing is done, the splice may be hammered lightly with a smooth-faced hammer or rubbed with a piece of leather to work the stitches in and smooth the wax.

361. Fastening a Buckle or Snap to a. Strap.—A good method of attaching a buckle or snap is by sewing, although it might be attached by riveting or by the use of such harness hardware as the conway loop or buclde repair clip. When attaching a buclde by sewing, the slot for the tongue may be made by punching two holes about 1 in. apart with a leather punch and then cutting out between the holes with a sharp knife. The end of the strap should be cut off square or have the corners slightly rounded, and it should be beveled back about lA to % in. from the end.

Fig. 307.—A convenient- method of splitting leather. A knife Made stuck into the bench top does the cutting, and a few strips of thin wood tacked to the bench guide the strap as it is pulled through.

Fig. 306.—A homemade hame strap. The buckle is attached by sewing reinforced with a rivet.

If desired, a leather loop or keeper may be sewed into place by careful work.

Fig. 306.—A homemade hame strap. The buckle is attached by sewing reinforced with a rivet.

Fig. 307.—A convenient- method of splitting leather. A knife Made stuck into the bench top does the cutting, and a few strips of thin wood tacked to the bench guide the strap as it is pulled through.

362. Cleaning and Oiling Harness.—Harness may be cleaned by washing with warm water and mild soap, or warm water and sal soda. A good plan is to take the harness apart and soak in a tub of warm water into which a small handful of sal soda has been dissolved, and then to scrub with a stiff brush.

The harness should then be hung in a warm place to dry, and, while still slightly damp, a good grade of harness oil should be applied by nibbing with a sponge or cloth. As the moisture dries out, the oil penetrates into the leather.

Only a good harness oil or a compound of animal oils, such as neat's-foot oil arid tallow, should be used in oiling leather. Motor oil or machine oil should never be used because of its detrimental effect on leather.


363. Kinds of Belting.—Leather belts axe usually considered superior to other kinds under conditions favorable to their use. They are more expensive, however, and they should be used only where they will be protected against moisture, steam, and oil. Their use is therefore somewhat limited on farms. The best grades of leather belts are made from the backs of hides.

Rubber belts are made of alternate laj'ers of canvas and rubber vulcanized together. They are cheaper than leather belts, are not injured by moisture or heat, and are therefore more widely used on farms.

Canvas belts are made of layers of canvas folded and stitched together. Thejr arc treated with materials to make them waterproof. They will stand considerable abuse and are widely used as drive belts for machines like threshers and corn shelters. They are not recommended for use over pulleys a fixed distance apart, because of their tendency to stretch. As a drive belt on portable machines, however, this is not objectionable, sincc the tractor can be "backed into the belt" tighter to compensate for stretching.

364. Care of Belting.—Belts should be kept clean and free from machine oil and grease. If they become dry and hard after a period of use, they should be cleaned and then treated with a suitable belt dressing. A dressing recommended by the maker of the belt should l>e used if possible. Neat's-foot oil makes a good dressing for leather belts. A dressing made of two parts of edible beef tallow and one part of cod-liver oil is also good for leather l>elts. The tallow is melted and allowed to cool a little. The cod-liver oil is then added, and the mixture stirred until cold.

Rubber belts will usually need no dressing. Washing with soap and water will generally keep them in good condition. In case the surface of a rubber belt does become hard and dry, however, a very light dressing of castor oil may be applied, after the belt has first been cleaned.

Canvas belts should be treated occasionally with a light application of castor oil or raw linseed oil.

The object of applying dressing to a belt is to keep it soft and pliable. In this condition it can better conform to the surface of pulleys, and transmit power with the least slippage. The use of sticky materials like rosin or tar is not recommended for belt dressings.

Leather belts should be run with the hair or smooth side next to the pulleys. Rubber belts should be run with the seam on the outside of the pulleys.

365. Large Pulleys Are Preferred.—The larger the area of contact between a pulley and a belt, the less the chance for slippage. For this reason it is desirable to use as large a size pulley as practical. Large pulleys are desired also because belts have to bend less abruptly and are strained less in going around them.

366. Open and Crossed-belt Drives.—Belts are crossed between pulleys sometimes to give a greater area of contact, and sometimes to give a desired direction of rotation to the driven pulley. Where an open typo of belt drive is used—that is, where the belt is^not crossed—it is preferable to have the alack side of the belt on top- This gives a greater area of contact.

Vertical drives where one pulley is directly above the other are to be avoided if possible because of the difficulty of keeping the belt tight on the lower pulley. Where a vertical drive must be used, some convenient and effective means of tightening the belt should be provided. Idler pulleys are frequently used for such purposes.

367. V-Belts and Pulleys.—The V-belt and pulley drive is the most practical for many small-size farm machines. A V-belt can run with considerable slack without slipping because the pull on the belt wedges it tighter into the V-shaped groove on the pulley. V-belts do not slip off the pulleys like flat belts, and the driving and driven pulleys do not have to be in such perfect alignment as with flat belts and pulleys. This type of drive is especially good for machines driven by electric motors.

368. Speed and Sizes of Pulleys.—Pulley speeds are designated in revolutions per minute (abbreviated r.p.m.). For mast efficient service a driven machine usually needs to be operated at a definite speed; likewise, the tractor or motor used to drive it should run at a definite speed. Therefore, a problem frequently arises as to what size of pulley should be put on a driven machine to make it run at the desired speed; or just what the speed of the driven machine will be if a certain size of pulley is used on it. The following very simple rale is used for such purposes:

The r.p.m. of the driving pulley X tte diameter =

the r.p.m. of the driven pxdley X its diameter

When any three of the factors are known, the fourth is easily found. For example, suppose a tractor pulley is 15 in. in diameter and runs 650 r.p.m. and it is desired to know the speed it will drive an ensilage cutter if the cutter pulley is 18 in. in diameter. Substituting in the formula,

600 X 15 = 18 X r.p.m. of cutter Solving by simple algebra,

The rule may also be stated in other forms, two of which are as follows:

(r.p.m. of driving pulley X its diameter) 4- diameter of driven pulley

(2) Diameter of driven pulley =

(r.p.m. of driving pulley X its diameter) -s- r.p.m. of driven pulley.


369. Types of Belt Laces.—Where many belts are used on the farm, it will probably pay to buy and use commercial metal belt laces rather than

Fx a. 308.—The single straight laee for thin, narrow belts. (The numbers at the hole» indicate the order of placing the thong through tho holes.)
5 / /•4a 4a

Pulley side Outside

Fia. 309.—The double straight lace. This style is most commonly used on farm belts.

Pulley side Outside

Fia. 309.—The double straight lace. This style is most commonly used on farm belts.

hammer, while others require a small machine that may be used in an ordinary vise. Leather laces are satisfactory for moderate service, and even where metal laces are commonly used it is well to be able to lace a belt with leather laces in an emergency. The process, although requiring careful work, is not at all difficult.

Various types of leather-thong laces may be used. For very light belts, the single straight lace (Fig. 308) is good. The double straight lace (Fig. 309) is probably the most generally used type for moderate duty. For belts that work around small pulleys, the double hinge lace (Fig. 310) is recommended; and for heavy duty, the double lock lace (Fig. 311).

370. Punching Holes for Laces.—In preparing a belt for lacing, the ends are first cut off square, and the locations of the holes carefully marked out. Figure 312 gives suggested spacing of holes for a few common widths of belts. Holes should be no larger than necessary on account of the weakening effect on the belt. Holes in- in diameter are large enough for ¿4-in. laces. Oval holes with the long axis parallel with the

Fig. 310.—The double hinge lace. This lace is recommended where belt» work over small pulleys.

Fig. 310.—The double hinge lace. This lace is recommended where belt» work over small pulleys.

371. Threading the Laces.—With most styles of lacing, the thong is started in one of the middle holes of the belt. One end is then threaded to one edge of the belt and back to the center; and the other end is threaded to the other edge and back. The order of lacing through the various holes is indicated by the numbers in Figs. 308 to 311. In making the hinge lace, the thong is threaded through the holes in exactly the same manner as the other types, except that it is always passed through the joint instead of directly across.

372. Fastening the Ends of the Laces—The ends of the laces must be fastened to prevent them from pulling back out of the holes. Where no idlers are used and the outside of the belt does not rim against a pulley, the ends may be tied together with a square knot. A good method that may be used regardless of idlers is to draw the end of the lace through a

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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