Use Of Modeling Or Forming Tools Shaping Curved And Irregular Surfaces

Although many appliances, like hammer handles, sledge handles, single trees, and neckyokes can generally be purchased as cheaply as they can be made in the farm shop, if the time required to make them is considered, it frequently happens that valuable time in a rush season may be saved and the inconvenience of delay avoided by being able to quickly renew such broken parts. Also, at certain seasons of the year when the fanner's time cannot be put to other profitable use, he would enjoy making his own tool handles and other similar appliances, even though their cost if bought would be small. It would, therefore, seem advisable for the student of farm shopwork to acquire reasonable proficiency in the use of modeling and forming tools in making curved and irregular-shaped appliances of wood.

91. Using the Drawknife.—The drawknife is very useful in shaping curvcd surfaces, especially where considerable waste stock is to be

Curve Wood Forming
Fig. §8.—Trimming with a drawknife. Moving the blade with one handle slightly ahead gives an oblique cutting action that enables the workman to control the tool better.

removed, as in tapering a piece to make an implement tongue, or in making teeth for a sweep rake.

To use a drawknife the work should be clamped in the vise or otherwise securely held. Both hands are used to pull the knife, care being taken not to trim or cut against the grain. The beveled side of the knife is usually kept up, as in this position it can be better controlled and

guided. Moving the blade with one end slightly ahead of the other gives an oblique or sliding cut and enables the workman to more easily cut to a line.

92. Hewing.—Hewing with a hand ax or hatchet., or even with a chopping ax, is often the fast est way of removing a large amount of excess stock. A higher degree of skill is required to do good work with an ax, however, than with a drawknife. In hewing, the surface is first deeply cut or hacked every inch or two with the ax, striking the surface at an angle of 45 to 60 deg. Then the roughened waste is removed with the

Wood Hand Planes

blade striking the surface at a very small angle. A hand ax with a single bevel, being flat on one side, is best for hewing. As in all other cutting operations on wood, hewing should be done with the grain and not against it.

93. Using the Spokeshave.—The spokeshave is used for planing curved and irregular surfaces. Its action is very much like a plane, and the blade is sharpened and set in much the same manner. Best work can be done with the blade set to give a thin shaving. Being very short, the spoke shave can follow rather abrupt turns or curves. It may be operated either by pushing or by pulling. Keeping one handle slightly ahead of the other gives an oblique or sliding cut and thus gives better control of the tool.

Fig. 90.—The »pokcshave acts like a very short piano and is used for planing curved surfaces.

94. Use of Files and Rasps.—The wood rasp is valuable for removing waste in forming curved and irregular surfaces. The "half-round" rasp, or one having a flat surface on one side and a curved surface on the other, is usually preferred. The rasp cuts faster than a wood file but leaves a rougher surface. After using a rasp the surface may be smoothed with a file or a spokeshave. The rasp should be used much like a file, that is, with long, steady strokes, so that it may be better controlled. A reasonably coarse file, such as a flat bastard file or a woodworker's file is usually preferred for filing wood.

95. Sawing Curves.—The compass saw is useful in sawing curves, especially inside curves where the cut must be started in a hole bored with an auger bit. In making abrupt turns with the compass saw, it is best to use short strokes and do the sawing near the point of the blade where it is narrow. Care should be exercised to prevent catching the blade and bending it. The sawing should be done with the cutting edge perpendicular to the surface and not at an angle as in sawing with other saws. In sawing curves it is best to leave about 3-ie in. to be removed with other tools, such as the spokeshave or file, as it is difficult to saw-exactly to the line and leave a smooth cut.

The coping saw has a light, thin, short blade held in a frame and is used for sawing curves in light work. The blade may be inserted so as to cut-on the pull or on the push stroke. Cutting on the pull stroke is less apt to kink or break the blade. Long strokes should be used to prevent overheating the blade.

Sawing with a coping saw can best be done by holding the work level, allowing it to project over the bench top or supporting it in a "saddle"

Best Coping Saw Blade Cut Coins

Fig. 90.—The »pokcshave acts like a very short piano and is used for planing curved surfaces.

or V-shaped bracket held in the vise as shown in Fig. 92B. The sawing is then done with the handle below the work, the blade being inserted to cut

Blade Making
the blade inserted in the saw frame to cut on the down stroke.

When the sawing has progressed as far as the frame of the saw will permit, it is frequently possible to turn the blade a quarter turn in the frame and saw farther.

96. Planing a Piece Round.—To make a cylinder, such as a round handle for a vise, or a round peg, the first step is to square up a piece of wood of the desired length, making it square in cross section. An octagon is then marked out on the end of the piece, by marking from each comer a distance equal to one-half the diagonal (see Fig. 93/*). The lines arc extended along the sides of the piece the full length with a marking gage or with a straightedge and pencil. The corners are then planed off, making the piece eight-sided. Each one of the eight corners is then planed off about the same amount, making the piece 16-sided, and the process is continued until the piece is practically round. Final smoothing may be done with sandpaper, rubbing the paper lengthwise of the piece.

Pio. 03.—A. By careful work a cylinder inay be e*«Uy made with a plane. First make it square, then eight-sided. sixteen-sided, and finally round.

H. Method of marking an octagon on the end of a square stock preparatory to planing it eight-sided.

Pio. 03.—A. By careful work a cylinder inay be e*«Uy made with a plane. First make it square, then eight-sided. sixteen-sided, and finally round.

H. Method of marking an octagon on the end of a square stock preparatory to planing it eight-sided.

The pocket-knife is an invaluable tool for light cutting or whittling on curved or irregular surfaces. It can frequently be used in places where it. would not be possible to use other cutting tools. For best work it should, of course, be kept sharp (see page 93 for method of sharpening). The same principles apply to the use of the pocketknife as to other cutting tools, the main one being to cut with the grain wherever possible and not against it. Moving the blade obliquely, that is, with one end slightly ahead of the other, makes the work easier and enables the workman to cut better to a line.

97. Shaping Curved Surfaces.—In making curved objects as a hammer handle, the workman will need to rely upon his judgment much more than in making objects with flat surfaces. With curved surfaces it Is difficult or impossible to always work to lines. Most articles with curved and irregular surfaces can best be made, however, by squaring up a piece of stock just large enough to make the article. Curves and tapers on two edges, say top and bottom, are laid out and made, using such tools as the drawknife, spokeshave, rasp, or file (see Fig. 94). These curved surfaces should be made square with the sides.

Curves and tapers on the other two sides are then laid out and made. The corners are then rounded and the piece finished with such tools as

Tool Use Check Uneven Surfaces

the spokeshave, scraper, and sandpaper. If a steel scraper is not available, the sharp edge of a piece of broken glass may be used as a very acceptable scraping tool on irregular surfaces. In sandpapering a curved surface the paper is held in contact with the wood with the hand or fingers, no block being needed as in sandpapering a flat surface.

Very Crused Hands

98. Fitting a Board against an Irregular Surface.—The edge of a board may be marked to fit an irregular surface, as a stone wall, by holding the board firmly beside the wall, and scribing with a compass or pair of dividers, as shown in Fig. 95. One log of the compass is moved down along the surface of the wall, and the other leg marks off a line parallel to the surface* The legs of the compass should be set apart a distance a little greater than the width of the largest space between the board and the wall. The board can then be cut to the line with such tools as the saw, chisel, and drawknife.


91- (a) For what kinds of work iâ the drawknife especially good? (b) What arc some of the pointe to be observed in order to work beat with the drawknife? (c) Should it be used with the. beveled edge up or down?

92. Describe a good method of handling a hand ax in hewing.

93. (a) For what kind of work is the spokeshave used? (6) State points to be observed in its use to insure good work.

94. (a) For what kind of work is the wood rasp particularly good? (&) What other tools usually need to be used in conjunction with the wood rasp? (c) What kind of strokes should be used in working with a rasp? Why?

98. (a) In what ways is a compass saw handled differently than an ordinary crosscut or ripsaw? (6) For what kind of work is a coping saw especially good? (c) What precautions should be observed in using a coping saw? (d) How is a coping saw used in connection with a "saddle" or bracket?

96. (a) What are the steps in the process of making a cylinder, using only hand tools? (6) How may an octagon be easily marked out?

97. Outline the process of making an iregular-shaped piece like a hammer handle.

98. Describe an easy method of marking the edge of a board to fit against an irregular stone wall.


Hjorth: "liasic Woodworking Processes."

Brown and Ttjstison: "Instructional Units in Hand Woodwork." Grxititu: "Essentials of Woodworking." Ceawshaw and Lkhmakn: "Farm Mechanics/'

Educational charts and pamphlets, Stanley Tool Works, New Britain, Conn.



Although it may not be practical for the farmer to paint his larger buildings himself, he will find it profitable to paint some of his smaller buildings and many pieces of farm equipment.

99. Composition of Paint.—Paint is composed essentially of a pigment, such as whit« lead, and a vehicle, such as linseed oil. Upon drying, the vehicle forms a tough leathery film that binds the particles of pigment together and to the surface being painted. Under certain conditions, a thinner, generally turpentine, is added to paint to make it spread more easily and penetrate better. A drier Is also added to the vehicle to make it dry more rapidly.

Raw linseed oil is generally used in outside paints, and boiled oil, which dries more rapidly, is commonly used in inside paints.

100. Ready-mixed Paint.—For the smaller paint jobs on the farm it is better to use ready-mixed paints made by a reliable company than to purchase the materials and mix them at home. The market offers a wide variety of paints for special purposes, and, when made by a reliable company and applied according to directions, they give more satisfactory results than home-mixed paints in the hands of anyone not an experienced painter.

101. Painting Weather.—Almost any time from April to November when it is warm and dry and not too windy or dusty is suitable for painting. A temperature of between 65 and 80° is best, and painting should not be done when the temperature is below 50°. Not only the surface to be painted, but the wood clear through should be thoroughly dry.

102. Selection of Brushes.—A or 4-in. brush is commonly used for painting large surfaces. The bristles should not be too long, not much over 4 in. long, for inexperienced painters. A flat brush 3 in. wide is a good size for painting trim, and a sash brush 1 or 2 in. wide is good for painting windows. For varnishing, use a good-quality brush that has never been dipj>ed in paint.

103. Care of Brushes while in Use.—A brush should never be allowed to rest upright on its bristles. If you stop work for a few minutes, remove the surplus paint from the brush by wiping on the edge of the pail, and then lay it fiat, across the top of the pail or on some smooth, clean surface. If the work is stopped for a longer time—overnight or a few

days—the brush should be suspended in a can of turpentine and raw linseed oil in the case of paint brushes; or in turpentine or paint thinner in the case of varnish brushes. This can best be done by drilling a small hole through the handle and hanging it on a small wire hook on the side of the can, so that the bristles are covered by the liquid and yet do not touch the bottom of the can.

104. Cleaning and Storing Brushes.—When you have finished painting or varnishing, clean the brush out thoroughly with turpentine, benzene, gasoline, or kerosene, and then wash with warm soapsuds. Then shake the brush well and, while still damp, wrap in heavy paper and lay it away or hang in a dry, cool place. '

Old neglected brushes can generally be reclaimed by soaking in paint remover and then washing in turpentine, alcohol, gasoline, or benzene. It is practically impossible, however, to thoroughly reclaim such a brush and do first-class work with it.

105. Preparing the Surface for Painting.—In addition to being dry, the surface to be painted should be clean—that is, free from mud, dust, grease, plaster, smoke, rust, or old loose, scaly paint. Usually a wire brush, putty knife, and dusting cloth or brush are the only tools needed for cleaning. Sometimes a surface will need to be washed with soap and water, or, if greasy, with gasoline, and then allowed to dry thoroughly. Sandpaper can sometimes be used to advantage on a rough, dirty surface.

106. Preparing Ready-mixed Paint for Use.—When paint stands for some time in a container, the heavier materials settle to the bottom. The paint will, therefore, need to be thoroughly mixed and stirred. Directions for mixing and stirring, as well as directions for addition of other materials, such as linseed oil or turpentine, are usually printed on the label of the container. These directions should be carefully followed.

107. The Priming Coat.—Linseed oil or turpentine, or both, should usually be added to paint for the priming or first coat. Oil quickly soaks into wood, and enough must be provided to properly bind the particles of pigment together on the surface as the paint dries. Otherwise the paint will not form the desired tough leather}»' film, but will likely become chalky and dust off, or scaly and peel off.

For new lumber that is sappy or resinous, the priming coat should have enough turpentine to partly dissolve the natural wood oils and allow the paint to penetrate. Turpentine is also added to the first, coat applied over hard paint in order to partly dissolve the hard surface and thus make a better bond between the old and the new paint.

The amount of linseed oil and turpentine to add to the paint for the priming coat can be determined by reading the directions on the container, or, in the absence of specific directions, the following may be taken as a guide as to the amounts to add per gallon;


Raw linseed oil Turpentine

New pitchy lumber

New clear lumber

Old painted surfaces, fair to bad. Hard, flinty painted surfaces Painted surface in good condition lpt. lqt. 2 qta. 0

108. The Second Coat.—-After the priming coat has dried clear through, which usually requires from 4 to 6 days, the second coat may be applied just as it comes from the can, if only two coats are to be applied. If three coats are to be applied, a little turpentine, about pt. to the gallon, should be added to the second coat to keep it from drying with too much gloss and to form a better foundation for the third coat.

109. The Third Coat.—Three coats are recommended on new work and also on old work where the painting has been neglected for a long time. The second coat usually requires from i to 2 weeks to dry clear through. The third coat usually should be applied just as it comes from the can except possibly for the addition of a very small amount of turpentine in cool weather. Too much turpentine will cause the surface to be dull instead of glossy upon drying.

110. Handling the Paintbrush.—The brush should be held firmly but lightly, with the long part, of the handle resting in the hollow between the thumb and the first finger, and with the ends of the thumb and fingers just above the ferrule. The fingers should not extend down on the bristles.

The bristles should be dipped into the paint about one-third of their length, and then the excess paint removed by gently tapping the brush against the side of the pail or by wiping over the inside edge of the pail. The paint should be applied to the surface with long, sweeping strokes, usually with the grain, and the strokes should be feathered, that is, the brush should be brought down against the surface gradually at the beginning of the stroke and lifted gradually at the end of the stroke. The paint should be brushed out well to form a thin even coating.

111. Painting Troubles.—Blistering occurs on newly painted surfaces and is caused by moisture in the wood. As the moisture conies out of the wood, small bubbles or blisters, ranging in size from a pinhead to a quarter, form in the undried paint. As these blisters dry, the paint cracks and peels off. Blistering can be prevented by having the wood thoroughly dry before painting.

Peeling.—If paint is, applied over wood that has some moisture in it, and the paint has a chance to dry before the hot sun strikes it, then when the hot sun does strike it, the moisture may expand and cause the paint to crack and peel off.

Peeling will occur also when the priming coat is not properly thinned with turpentine to cause good penetration. Trouble may also' occur from the use of boiled linseed oil instead of raw linseed oil, in thinning the priming coat, which would cause too rapid drying and poor penetration.

Crawling.—When paint will not stay brushed out evenly on a surface, the condition Ls known as crawling. It is usually caused by painting over a glossy or greasy surface. In the case of grease, the surface should be washed with gasoline, and in the case of a glossy surface, it should be roughened by sandpapering. Crawling may sometimes be caused by painting at a temperature lower than 50°. Adding a little turpentine— from y2 to 1 pt. to each gallon of paint—is sometimes recommended under such conditions to stop crawling.

Running or Sagging.—This condition is caused by using too much oil in the paint. Upon drying, the excess oil forms a skin or scum that does not adhere perfectly to the surface but sags.

Checking.—Checking Ls the formation of a network of fine hairlines in the last coat of paint. The small checks or cracks do not extend all the way through the paint to the surface of the wood. This condition is caused by applying the last coat before the previous coat was thoroughly dried. The top coat dries and becomes hard before the under coat dries thorough^. Then as the under coat dries and shrinks, the outer coat being harder cannot follow, and consequently, the checks or small cracks form.

Chalking, Spoiling, Washing.—The deterioration of paint on a surface is due to the decay of the linseed oil, a vegetable product, in the paint. As the linseed oil decays, particles of mineral that it has held to the surface are loosened and eventually are removed from the surface by wind and rain. If the paint deteriorates or wears off in spots, it is most likely a result of unevenness in the wood. Some spots in uneven wood require more linseed oil than other spots, and, if enough has not been supplied in the priming coat, these spots will absorb oil from the following coats and not leave enough for the later coats to properly dry and harden. Paint on these spots will then become chalky and wear off or deteriorate much faster.

When the whole surface becomes badly chalked and the paint Ls easily removed by rain, it is called washing. Such a condition is usually due to a period of wet weather when the paint is drying. The paint absorbs considerable moisture from the air, which damages the oil, and then the mineral particles are easily loosened from the surface and removed.

112. Amount of Paint Required.—The number of square feet of surface a gallon of paint will cover varies considerably with the quality of paint, the condition of the surface, and the method of application, whether brushed out thin or not. Under average conditions a gallon will cover 500 to 600 sq. ft. one coat.

113. Painting Metal Surfaces.—Metal paints differ from wood paints in that they usually have a base of red lead instead of white lead, have somewhat less oil than wood paints, and use more drier. Implement paints also have some varnish in them to give a better and more durable wearing surface. It is very important that the surface be thoroughly cleaned of grease, old loose paint, or loose rust before applying the paint.

114. Staining.—Stains are used for coloring wood. They are available in a wide variety of colors and are of three general types, based upon the vehicle or carrier used, namely, water stains, alcohol or spirit stains, and oil stains. Oil stains, although usually more expensive, are probably the most satisfactory for general use. They are easily applied and do not raise the grain like water or spirit steins. An application of linseed oil alone makes a very desirable stain.

115. Varnishing.—A varnished finish makes a very attractive appearance and has good wearing qualities. The best varnishes are made of copal gum dissolved in linseed oil and turpentine. There are various grades and kinds of varnishes on the market, and, to insure best results, a varnish made for a particular purpose should not be used for other purposes. Interior varnishes cannot be expected to give good results when exposed to the weather. Varnishes should be thinned and applied in accordance with the directions on their containers.

Varnish should always be applied with a high-grade, clean brush that has never been used for anything except varnish. Varnish is sticky and slow in drying. Dust should therefore be kept down to a minimum around freshly varnished surfaces.

116. Enamels and Lacquers.—There is on the market a wide variety of enamels and lacquers that are especially suited to finishing inside woodwork and furniture. They are available in various colore, and, although the better grades are somewhat expensive, they produce finishes that are attractive and easily cleaned and wear well unless subjected to unusual wear and abuse. Enamels are made by grinding pigments in varnish and should therefore be handled and applied like varnish. Laoquers and quick-drying enamels have more volatile vehicles or solvents, and therefore dry more quickly.

117. Whitewashing.—Whitewash affords an inexpensive means of improving the appearance and lighting of barns, poultry houses, basements and similar places. It is sometimes used for painting fences and other outside surfaces, but for such purposes its poor wearing qualities make it much inferior to oil paints.

Common whitewash is composed of lime and water and may be applied either with a brush or a sprayer.1 If desired, a disinfectant such as carbolic acid may be added to the whitewash.

118. Spray Painting.—Applying paint with a compressed-air paint gun is a quick and effective way of painting. Somewhat more skill is required, however, than with an ordinary paint brush. In using a spray gun, one should not attempt to apply too heavy a coat. Two thin ones are better than one heavy one. The gun should be moved along at a steady speed and at a uniform distance from the surface. With some practice, one can soon make feathered strokes and satisfactory laps. It is important that the gun be thoroughly cleancd immediately after painting is stopped. Benzene or turpentine are commonly used for cleaning after painting, varnishing, or enameling, and other suitable solvents or thinners are used after applying other materials.


119. Replacing Broken Window Glasses.—The first step in replacing a broken window glass is to remove all the pieces of the old glass, the glaziers points, and the old putty. The rabbet (groove) should be well cleaned and then coated with linseed oil, so that, when new putty is applied, it will not dry out too rapidly. If the rabbet is not smooth and level so that it will support, the glass evenly, a little putty should be put in before the new glass is inserted.

After the new pane of glass is put into place, a few brads or glaziers points are driven in with a small hammer or the edge of an old wood chisel to hold the glass firmly. Putty is then applied to the rabbet and smoothed with a putty knife to seal the glass in place.

120. Cutting Glass.—Glass is "cut" by first scratching the surface with a glass cutter and then broken by applying pressure along the scratch. To cut glass it is cleaned and placed on a flat surface. A glass cutter is then drawn along a straightedge slowly and with even pressure, entirely across the glass from one edge to the other, making a good clean scratch all the way across. The pressure should not be too heavy or the glass will splinter. The glass cutter should not be run over the scratch a second time as it would injure the cutter. After scratching, the glass is broken by applying pressure up underneath the scratch (see Fig. 06). Another method of breaking is to place the glass, scratched side up, on a flat table top with the scratch at the. edge of the top, and then apply pressure downward on the overhanging part.

1 For directions for making special whitewashes, see U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Farmers' Bull. 1152, Painting on the Farm.

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Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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    Which is the forming or shaping curved surfaces?
    1 year ago

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