Wood Chisels And Their

44. Types of Chisels.—Wood chisels may be classified as socket type or tang type, according to the method of attaching the handle. On the socket type, the wooden handle fits into a steel socket on the driving end of the chisel. The tang type has a steel tang, much like the tang on the end of a file, which fits into the wooden handle. Tang chisels are preferred by some workmen for paring, because of their light weight and better balance, but they are not adapted to heavy chiseling with a mallet. For the farm shop, a medium-weight socket chisel is usually preferred.

Fro. 49.—Types of wood chisels: A, tang type; B, socket type. The socket type ia usually preferred for the farm shop.

Such a chisel can be handled easily for light paring, and it can also be used for the heavier work where a mallet, is needed.

Chisels are made in various sizes, ranging from to 2 in. wide.

45. Keep the Chisel Sharp.—The first requirement for good work with a chisel is that it be kept very sharp. Working with a dull chisel not only requires considerable extra effort to force it through the wood, but, what is more serious, it cannot be easily guided and controlled. Consequently, rough, inaccurate work is almost certain to result.

The chisel is very easily sharpened (see page 87). Whenever it becomes dull, stop and sharpen it. The time required will soon be gained back in faster and better work with the sharpened tool.

46. Chiseling with the Grain.—In chiseling with the grain, as on the edge or surface of a board, the following points should be observed:

1. Always cut with the graiu, as in planing, to avoid splitting or splintering.

2. Fasten the work in a viae whenever possible, so as to leave both liands free to use the chisel.

3. Always push the chisel from you, keeping both hands behind the cutting edge.

i. Use the left hand to guide the chisel, and the right to push the handle forward.

Fro. 49.—Types of wood chisels: A, tang type; B, socket type. The socket type ia usually preferred for the farm shop.

5. Use the chisel with the bevel down for roughing cuts, and with the bevel up for fine paring, or finishing cuts.

6. Hold the handle slightly to one side, or move it back and forth slightly, as the chisel is pushed forward. This gives a sliding or oblique cutting action, which makes the chisel cut better and easier.

Fia. 50.—Chiseling with the grain. Use the chisel with the bevel down, as at A, for deep roughing cuts, and bevel up, m at B% for light finishing cuts. Move the handle from side to side slowly as the chisel i» pushed forward in order to give an oblique cutting action.

47. Chiseling Across a Board.—This kind of work is done mostly in making dadoes, gains (sec Arts. 51 and 52), or notches. The following points should be observed in chiseling across the grain:

1. Grasp the blade of the chisel between the thumb and first two fingers of the left hand, to act as a brake while the pushing is done with the right hand.

2. Cut from both edges of the board to avoid splintering.

3. Move the handle from side to side slightly as the chisel is pushed forward in order to give a sliding or oblique cutting action.

4. Cut with the beveled side up, raising the handle just enough to make the chisel cut. In working across wide boards, however, where the chisel cannot reach the center of the board, the beveled aide should be kept down.

48. Chiseling End Grain.—This kind of chiseling is seldom required in farm shopwork. Many mechanics prefer to pare or trim end grain in cutting dadoes and gains to exact width, but by sawing carefully, a«

Fia. 50.—Chiseling with the grain. Use the chisel with the bevel down, as at A, for deep roughing cuts, and bevel up, m at B% for light finishing cuts. Move the handle from side to side slowly as the chisel i» pushed forward in order to give an oblique cutting action.

illustrated in Fig. 56, finishing with the chisel is seldom required. When paring of end grain is done, the following points should be observed:

1. If much waate is to be removed, take a roughing cut first, leaving about Me in. to be removed with a finishing cut. Taking too large a cut causes the chisel to wedge sidewisc, making it difficult to work to a line.

Fio. 61.—Chiseling across a board.

A. Work with the bevel up (except for wide boards). Raise the handle just enough to make the chisel cut and move the handle from side to side slowly. Guide the front of the chisel with thumb and fingers of left hand.

B. For heavier chiseling or roughing cutis the mallet may be used. Do not use a hammer.

C. For chiseling across wide boards where the chisel will not reach to the center, work with the bevel down.

Fio. 61.—Chiseling across a board.

A. Work with the bevel up (except for wide boards). Raise the handle just enough to make the chisel cut and move the handle from side to side slowly. Guide the front of the chisel with thumb and fingers of left hand.

B. For heavier chiseling or roughing cutis the mallet may be used. Do not use a hammer.

C. For chiseling across wide boards where the chisel will not reach to the center, work with the bevel down.

2. Start on the near edge of the board and push forward at an angle and downward. As the stroke proceed?, the handle is straightened up until it is about vertical at the end of the stroke (see Fig. 52).

3. Guide the chisel with the left hand, and apply force with the right.

4. Use about half the width of the chisel for cutting on each new stroke. Keep the ba-ck half of the blade flat against the surface left by the previous stroke. Thus the work of cutting is made easier, and the line of cutting is more easily kept straight.

5. If the chisel is to cut entirely through or across a piece, place the work on a cutting board or piece of scrap lumber, to keep the chisel from cutting into the bench, thus marring its surface and possibly dulling the chisel.

49. Use of the Mallet.—Where considerable force is required, particularly in making deep roughing cuts, a wooden mallet may be used to drive the chisel. A steel hammer should never be used, because the chisel handle would soon be ruined. A series of light taps with the mallet h

Fig. 52.—Chiseling down across end grain. Guide the chisel with the left hand, pushing forward and downward at the start-, and gradually raise the handle. A, beginning a stroke. B, finishing a stroke.

usually better than heavy blows, because the chisel can be better controlled.

60. Paring Chamfers.—The chisel may be used quite satisfactorily in paring chamfers, either with the grain or across end grai n. In chamfering, the beveled side of the chisel is kept up and the flat side down. As in most other chiseling, the handle should be held slightly to one side, or moved from side to side, as it is pushed forward in order to give the oblique or sliding cutting action. To prevent splintering when cutting a chamfer on end grain, part of the cutting should be done from one edge of the piece and part from the other.

51. Making a Dado.—A dado is a groove that runs across one board and is to receive the end or edge of a second board. Dadoes are commonly made in shelving and in cabinet work.

The first step in making a dado is to mark it out very accurately to exact width—the same as the thickness of the piece that is to fit into the dado. The piece itself may be used to mark the width of dado by superposition. A square should be used, of course, to insure marking the sides of the dado square with the edge of the board. A knife is best for mark-

Fig. 52.—Chiseling down across end grain. Guide the chisel with the left hand, pushing forward and downward at the start-, and gradually raise the handle. A, beginning a stroke. B, finishing a stroke.

first step in making a dado is to mark it out- accurately. Marking the width with the try square. Marking the width by superposition. Marking the depth with the marking gage.

Fio. 56.—A good way to saw accurately the aidea of a dado is to clarap a straight-edged block in place to guido the saw. Thus little or no chiseling of end grain will bo required. An oxtra saw cut or two between the side» of the dado will facilitate chiseling out the waste.

ing, although a sharp pencil can be used. The depth of the dado should also be marked on the edges of the board. A marking gage is a good tool for this.

After the dado is accurately marked out, the piece should be sawed just inside the lines in the waste material, care being taken not to saw too deep. To do a good job of sawing, a straight, square-edged piece may be clamped temporarily in place to guide the saw. If the dado is wide, an extra saw kerf or two may be cut in the waste material to make it more easily removed with a chisel. The chiseling across the board should be done in accordance with suggestions in Art. 47.

If the sawing has been carefully done, no paring of end grain will be required with the chisel to finish the sides of the dado. If the sawing has not been done accurately to the lines, however, the sides of the dado may be finished by vertical paring with a chisel (see Art. 48) or by filing or sandpapering.

52. Gaining In.—It is frequently desirable to gain into, or notch into, a piece in order to securely fasten a second piece. Typical examples are fastening the lower crosspieces to the legs of a bench or table, and fastening the steps to the side rails of a ladder.

The first step in making the gain or notch is to mark it out accurately to exact width and depth, using square and knife or sharp pencil and possibly also the marking gage. The gain is then sawed and chiseled out in a manner similar to that described for dadoes in the preceding article.

Marking for a gain may frequently be greatly simplified by using the secoud piece and marking the width of the notch by superposition. A square, of course, should be used to square the lines across for the notch.

Chiseling out the waste will be much easier if, before chiseling begins, several saw kerfs are cut about % in. apart in the waste.

53. Attaching Butt Hinges.—-The hinge is put in place on the edge of the door, and a knife used to mark around it. The hinge is then removed and a line gaged on the side of the door to indicate the depth the hinge is to be set in. The gain is then carefully cut out with a chisel, trying the hinge in place for fit as the work nears completion.

After the gain is finished the hinge is fastened in place with screws, first using an awl or drill to make holes for the screws.

54. Mortise-and-tenon Joints.—A mortise is a hole cut into or through one piece, and into which, or through which, another piece fits. A tenon is an end of a piece specially shaped (usually with a shoulder) to fit into a mortise. Figure 54 illustrates several mortise-and-tenon joints as well as other joints commonly used in fastening pieces of wood together.

The first step in making a mortise is to mark out accurately the location, using a square and a knife or a sharp pencil. The waste wood may be removed altogether with a chisel of appropriate width or by boring first with an auger bit to remove most of the waste and then finishing with a chisel (see Fig. 58).

If the mortise is to go entirely through a piece, its location should be accurately marked on both sides and the mortise cut partly through from each side.

A. Marking for a gain by superposition.

B. Marking with a sharp pencil preparatory to gaining-in a butt hinge. Some prefer a ¿harp knife instead of a pencil.

C. Cutting a shallow gain for a butt hinge.

D. Making several »ftw cuts lessens the work of chiseling out the waate.

A. Marking for a gain by superposition.

B. Marking with a sharp pencil preparatory to gaining-in a butt hinge. Some prefer a ¿harp knife instead of a pencil.

C. Cutting a shallow gain for a butt hinge.

D. Making several »ftw cuts lessens the work of chiseling out the waate.

The tenon is easily made, although it requires careful work. The tenon is first accurately marked out and then worked to size with the saw and chisel.

56. Rabbeting.—A rabbet is a groove cut in the edge or end of a piece to receive a second piece like a panel. Rabbeting is commonly done in making frames to hold glass, and frequently, also, in constructing drawers and other cabinet work. The rabbet may be cut with a chisel, if the work is first accurately marked out and the workman is careful. It

Fig. 58.—A mortise for a raortiae-and-tenon joint is easily made with a wood chisel. It should first be accurately marked out.

A. Mortise started.

B. Mortise partly done.

C. Finishing the mortise.

Z). If desired, most of the waste may bo removed with a wood auger and the mortise finished with a chisel-

is, of course, easier to cut a rabbet with a power saw or with a special grooving or rabbeting plane, but the amount of this work done in the farm shop usually will not justify such equipment.

Questions

44. (a) What are the common types of wood chisels? (6) Which is preferred for the farm shop? Why? (c) How is the size of a chisel designated?

45. Why is it possible to do bettor work, as well as faster work, with a sharp chiscl than with a dull one?

46. (a) Name several important points to be observed in chiseling with the grain, {ib) Under what conditions should the chisel be used with the bevel up, and under what conditions with the bevel down? (c) Why should the chisel be used with sliding or oblique cutting action?

47. (a) In what kind of work is chiseling across the grain most commonly done? (6) How can splintering of the edge of the board best be avoided?

48. (a) How may chiseling of end grain be kept at a minimum in shop work? (6) Why should a roughing cut be taken first, followed by a finishing cutr when much waste is to be removed in chiseling end grain? (e) Describe the proper method of using the chisel on end grain to insure good straight work.

49. (a) Why should a rnallct, rather than a hammer, be used to drive the chiscl in heavy work? (b) Is it better to use a series of light blows with the mallet., or a few heavy ones?

50. (a) What points should be observed in paring chamfers with a chisel? (b) How may splintering of edges best be prevented in chiseling chamfers on end grain?

51. (a) What is a dado? (b) What is the first step in making a dado? (c) Describe a method for sawing the sides of a dado very accurately, so that little or no chiseling will be required,

52. Describe the process of making a gain.

53. How may a gain to receive a butt hinge be easily marked out?

54. (a) Describe the process of making a mortise. (6) What tools are commonly used to remove the waste in making a mortise? (c) What is a tenon, and how is it made?

56. (a) What is a rabbet? (6) Give examples of the use of rabbets, (c) What tools are required for making a rabbet?

References

Hjorth: 14 Basic Woodworking Processes." Griffith: "Essentials of Woodworking."

Brown* and Ttjstisox: "Instructional Units in Hand Woodwork." Educational charts and pamphlets, Stanley Tool Works, New Britain, Conn,

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

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