Wood Fastenings

NAILS AND NAILING

68. Nail Hammers.—There are two general kinds of nail hammers: bell-faced hammers and flat or plain-faced hammers. Bell-faced hammers have striking surfaces that are slightly rounded or convex, and by careful use nails can be driven up tight with their heads flush with the. surface of a board, or even slightly below, without leaving hammer marks. Plain-faced hammers, however, are a little easier to learn to use.

Hammers with straight claws instead of curved ones are called ripping hammers and are especially good for ripping off old boards.

The size of the hammer is designated by the weight of .the hammer head exclusive of the handle, the most common sizes ranging from 12 to 16 oz.

69. Nails are made from steel wire by special machines that receive the wire from large rolls, cut it into the desired lengths, and form the points and heads automatically. For ordinary rough work where strength is required, common nails are used. For inside finishing work, or for cabinet work, finishing nails are used. Casing nails are similar to finishing nail3 but are somewhat larger and have slightly larger heads. Finishing nails and casing nails can be set with their heads slightly below the surface, and then the nail holes can be filled with putty.

The size of nails is determined by the gage or size of wire from which they are made. The size of nails is commonly designated, however, by the term penny, twopenny

•» i . „ ■> e . Fig. 09.—Steady the nail with one hand nails being small, and four-, six-, or while 8<arting it ^ onc or tw0 light taps of eighfcpenny nails being larger. the hammer. Then follow with firm, well-

TOr^ • • „ M .. ~ , , , A directed blow». Grasp the hammer handle

. Driving Nails—To start a nearthccnd. nail it is held steady with one hand while one or two light blows are struck with the hammer. After the nail is started straight, it is then driven up tight with firm, well-directed blows.

The hammer should be held firmly near the end of the handle, and the blows struck squarely on top of the nailhead. For light driving, the blows should be made mostly with motion from the wrist; for heavier hammering, from the wrist and the elbow; and for very heavy hammering, from the wrist, the elbow, and the shoulder.

The striking face of the hammer should be kept clean to keep it from slipping off the nail head.

Fig. 70.—Stuns iu pulling a nail. Slip the claws under the nailhead and pull until the hammer handle is nearly vertical; thon put a block under the hammer head to increase the leverage and relieve the strain ou the handle.

In ordinary work the nail is driven flush with the surface of the board, with the final blow being carefully made so as not to leave a hammer mark on the surface.

71. Preventing Splitting.—If there is danger of splitting when the nail is driven, a smaller nail should be used, as a smaller nail will have greater holding power than a larger one that splits the board. Some nails have chisel-shaped points, due to the method of manufacture. With such nails the long way of the point should be across the grain, so that it cuts the

Fig. 70.—Stuns iu pulling a nail. Slip the claws under the nailhead and pull until the hammer handle is nearly vertical; thon put a block under the hammer head to increase the leverage and relieve the strain ou the handle.

Fig. 72.—A strong nailed corncr used in crating.

Wrong fibers of the wood instead of wedging them apart and causing splitting. Splitting may be prevented in thin boards and where short naiJs are used by cutting the ends of the nails off square or chisel-shaped with nippers or pKers.

72. Pulling Nails.—To pull a nail, the claws of the hammer should be caught, under the head of the nail, and the handle pulled up and backward. Usually the handle should not be pulled back any further than enough to make it perpendicular to the surface. Pulling it further increases the leverage and may overstrain the handle and possibly break it. When the pulling has progressed this far, a block of wood should be placed under the head of the hammer and the process repeated. In drawing long nails more blocks may need to be added at intervals. The blocks increase the leverage and reduce the strain on the handle.

If the nailhead is down in the wood and the claws cannot be slipped under it, a pair of pincers or nippers may be used to start pulling the nail.

73. Locating the Wails.—The strength of a nailed joint depends largely on the distribution and location of the nails. Where possible, the nails should be staggered and not driven too close together nor in line with the grain. It is always good practice to nail through a thin piece into a thick one, and not through a thick piece into a thin one. A nail will hold much more if driven across the grain than if driven into end grain. Figure 72 illustrates a good method of making a crate corner.

74. Clinching.—Clinching nails makes them hold better. For greatest holding power, the end of the nail should be bent in a direction opposite to the direction the head will tend to move in case it draws under load. For example, if the strain on the nailed parts tends to

Fig. 72.—A strong nailed corncr used in crating.

Wrong

R/ghf wrong methods of nailing.

R/ghf

wrong methods of nailing.

pull the head down, then the point of the nail should be bent up; if the strain tends to bend the head to the right, then the point should be bent to the left.

75. Toenailing is done to fasten a piece that butts against another. Good judgment must be used in selecting the point to start the nail and

Fig. 73.—Clinched nails. If forces Fig. 74.—A toenailed joint. The nail tend to move the top board to the left, should be started high enough t,o prevent then the points of the nails should be splitting, and yet it should go deep enough bent over to the right. into the second piece to hold securely.

the angle at which it is to be driven. The nail should get a good hold in the first piece without danger of splitting, and yet it should go deep enough into the second piece to insure good holding.

76. Setting Nails.—If the head of a finishing nail or a casing nail is to be set slightly below the surface, it is driven in the usual manner until the head is almost, but not quite, flush. The work is then finished with a nail

Fie. 75.—Setting a nail. The nail set can be kept in place on the nail head by steadying the hand on the board and by holding the tip of the little finger «.gainst the set.

set. A nail set resembles a small punch and has a cup-shaped point. Care must be exercised to keep the nail set from slipping off the nail. The set is held in the left hand, the top part being supported by the thumb and first fingers and the point being held on the nail head with the tip of the little finger. Nails are usually set about 3-ic in- below the surface.

77. Draw Nailing.—Where it is desired to make a tight joint between two boards, as between two pieces of tongne-and-grooved flooring, the nail may be driven at an angle with the surface, as shown in Fig. 76. The nail then has a drawing effect as it is driven up, making a tight joint.

Fig. 70.—Draw nailing. Driving the nails at an angle helps to draw the boards tightly together.

Fig. 77.—Corrugated fasteners used to strengthen a miter joint.

Fig. 70.—Draw nailing. Driving the nails at an angle helps to draw the boards tightly together.

Fig. 77.—Corrugated fasteners used to strengthen a miter joint.

78. Corrugated Fasteners.—Corrugated fastener? can frequently be used to advantage in reinforcing joints such as miter joints and butt joints. They are especially good when used in end grain. In driving them, care must be exercised to drive them evenly and not to drive one end faster than the other.

FASTENING WITH SCREWS

Pieces of wood can be more securely and more permanently fastened together with screws than with nails. Yet pieces fastened with screws can be taken apart more easily and with less damage than if they had been fastened with nails. Fastening with screws, if done in a systematic and thorough fashion, can be done quickly and with excellent results. On the other hand, if slovenly, careless methods are used, much time will be wasted, and the work will likely be disappointing.

79. Sizes and Kinds of Wood Screws. Shape of Head.—The flat-headed screw is most commonly used in woodwork, although oval-headed

Fig. 78.—Par Us of a wood screw

and round-headed screws are sometimes used, mainly for their ornamental effect.

The size of wood screws is designated by (1) the gage or size of wire from which they are made and (2) their length, measured as shown in Fig. 78.

Finish.—Steel screws without any special finish, designated simply as bright, were once commonly used in woodwork. Cadmium-plated, rustproof screws are much better and are now more commonly used. Other common finishes are nickel plated and blued. Screws made of brass are also sometimes used. Brass screws are not so strong as steel screws, however, and more care must be exercised in driving them to prevent twisting them off.

In ordering screws, the size, kind, and finish should be completely specified, as 13^-in., No. 8, flat-headed, cadmium-plated wood screws. Screws are commonly sold in packages of 12 doz. (1 gross).

The names of the various parts of wood screws are shown in Fig. 78.

80. Lag Screws.—A lag screw might be described as a square-headed bolt, but pointed and with coarse threads to screw into wood instead of fine threads to receive a nut. Lag screws are used where ordinary wood screws would not be strong enough. The size of lag screws is designated by the diameter of the unthreaded portion near the head and by the length.

81. Sizes of Holes to Drill for Screws.—Whenever pieces of wood are to be fastened together with screws, holes should always be drilled as shown in Fig. 79. The holes through the first piece should be the same size as the shank of the screw, or a little larger; and the pilot holes in the second piece should bo the same size as the core or body of the screw under the threads, or slightly smaller. The pilot holes should go nearly as deep as the screws will go if the wood is hard, or if the screws are large, or if they are made of soft metal like brass. If the wood is soft and if medium to small screws are used, the pilot holes should be drilled about half as deep into the second piece as the screws will go. Sometimes when very short screws are used and the wood is soft, the holes in the second piece may be made with an awl. If there is doubt as to the size of drills to use, it is a good plan to drill holes in scrap material and try the screws in them before drilling holes in the work. Table I will serve as a guide in selecting the proper sizes of drills for different sizes of screws.

82. Locating and Drilling the Holes.—The locations for the holes in the first piece should be accurately marked, usually first by the intersection of cross lines, and then by a deep mark or depression made with an

Flo. 79.—The hole through the top piece ahould be the me of the screw shank. The pilot hole in the lower piece should be the size of the core of the screw and in general ahould go nearly as deep as the screw will go.

Table I.—Sizes of Hotjss to Drill for Wood Screws

Screw size

Size of firet

Size second

hole (shank),

hole (thread),

32dsin.

32ds in.

2

3

2

3

4

2

4

4

2

5

4

3

6

5

3

7

5

4

8

6

4

9

6

4

10

6

4

11

7

5

12

7

5

13

8

6

14

8

6

15

9

7

16

9

7

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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