Archaeological Data

Although it is not the goal of this study to review the history of domestic architecture for this area (see Aurenche 1981), some salient trends and developments are described in summarizing the archaeological evidence. The Early Epi-Paleolithic sample consists of three structures from Ohalo II and one partial structure from Ein Gev I in the upper Jordan Valley with a mean interior structure size of 10.9m2 (Table 1;see Fig. 1).Dated to the twentieth millennium bp, the moderately sized semicircular hut structures from Ohalo II are oriented in a linear manner (Nadel 1991;Nadel et al. 1995). They are built of perishable construction material, opening to the east, with no internal features present. These structures have multiple floors with a range of debris and trash built within them. Hearths are present outside and adjacent to the structures and indicate spatial patterns in the processing and possibly discard of plant and animal remains. In contrast, the Ein Gev I structure was built into the side of the hill, partially using stone construction and possibly open on the downslope side (Arensberg and Bar-Yosef 1973; Bar-Yosef 1970:109-111). The hut was rebuilt six times and internal features were limited. A hearth, a pit ofunknown function, and a stone paved area were present in layer 4. A stone mortar and pestles were associated with the former, and horn cores with the latter.

The three Natufian sites with architectural assemblages occur in different settings (the upper Jordan Valley, the western highlands, and the arid Negev) and are highly varied. At 'Ain Mallaha, although the sample size of buildings where interior area can be estimated is small, remnants reaffirm

Table 1. Summary of Interior Area for Domestic Structures in the Southern Levant1

Period

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