The Quick and the Dead The Social Context of Aceramic Neolithic Mortuary Practices as Seen

from Kfar HaHoresh 103

Nigel Goring-Morris

Introduction 103

Kfar HaHoresh 107

General Observations on Terminal Pleistocene-Early Holocene

Mortuary Practices 115

Ritual Centers, Burial Grounds, and Cemetery Sites 116

Monitoring Burials 119

Human and Animal Burials 121

Rankingaslndicatedby SkullRemovaland Further Treatment. . . . 121

Favissae as Repositories for ModeledSkulls 125

Use of Lime Plaster to Integrate Profane and Symbolic Realms . . . 126

Early Holocene Ritual and Mortuary Practices in Levant 126

Codification of Funerary Practices through Time 128

Concluding Remarks 129

References 131

Chapter 6 • Keeping the Peace: Ritual, Skull Caching, and Community Integration in the Levantine Neolithic 137

Ian Kuijt

Introduction 137

Ritual Practices in the MPPNB:

Shared Themes and Numeric Standardization 140

Secondary Mortuary Rituals and Community Identity 143

Social Impact of MPPNB Secondary Mortuary Practices 145

Decapitation as a Common Theme: Skull Removal and

Anthropomorphic Figurines 149

Large Anthropomorphic Statue Caches 150

Numerical Organization of MPPNB Ritual Caches 151

Skull and Statue Caching:

Implications for the Scale of Social Action 155

Social Differentiation in the MPPNB 156

Conclusion and Implications 157

References 160

Chapter 7 • Ritual and Social Structure at Neolithic 'Ain Ghazal 165

Gary O. Rollefson

Introduction 165

Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (MPPNB) 167

Animal and Human Figurines 167

Human Burials and Skull Caching 169

Lime Plaster Statuary 171

Late Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (LPPNB) 172

LPPNB Ritual Structures 174

Pre-Pottery Neolithic C period (PPNC) 178

Human Burials 178

The PPNC Temple or Sanctuary 179

Yarmukian 181

The "Public Building" 181

MPPNB and LPPNB Ritual and Social Structure 183

PPNC and Yarmukian Ritual and Social Structure 186

Concluding Remarks 187

References 188

Chapter 8 • Is Size Important? Function and Hierarchy in Neolithic Settlements 191

Frank Hole

Introduction 191

What Is Large? 193

Archaeological Data Sets 195

Bouqras 195

Abu Hureyra 198

Cayonu 199

Nevali Cori 201

'AinGhazal 202

Beidha 203

Conclusions 204

References 207

Chapter 9 •Villages on the Edge: Regional Settlement Change and the End of the Levantine Pre-Pottery Neolithic 211

Alan H. Simmons

Introduction 211

The Neolithic in the Levant 212

Chronology and Phasing 212

The Levantine Pre-Pottery Neolithic 213

The Late Neolithic in Eastern Jordan: A Tentative Scenario 214

Paleoecological Perspective 218

A Speculative Model of Social Implications 220

Stage 1: Aggregation into Large Regional Centers 220

Stage 2: Disharmony During the PPNC 223

Stage 3: The Solution: The Return to Tribal Society and

Consequent Social Fragmentation 224

Conclusions 225

References 226

PART IV • SOCIAL RELATIONS AND MATERIAL CULTURE: SYMBOLISM AND MEANING

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