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'These values are taken from plans provided in published reports. Only those structures that were complete or whose full circumference could be reliably estimated are included. Interior area does not include walls.

'These values are taken from plans provided in published reports. Only those structures that were complete or whose full circumference could be reliably estimated are included. Interior area does not include walls.

the following trends. The early phase consists of a series of oval and semicircular structures with a considerable size range and a mean interior area of 20.4 m2 (Perrot 1960, 1966;Valla 1991,1994).The buildings were initially aligned along the side of the hill and built into the hillside. Constructed of stone, these structures generally had mud floors, with one example of a red-painted crushed limestone surface. The latter may represent the only nondomestic structure at the site. In contrast to the small sample of Early Epi-Paleolithic structures, internal features are well documented and include hearths, stone bins, and stone paving/slabs. Nonportable in situ artifacts such as mortars and stone vessels are also reported. New structures were often built almost directly overlying earlier ones. The small sample includes a large semicircular structure that is interpreted as only two-thirds enclosed (Valla 1991,1994:86). It contains three hearths each with different associated floor artifacts: one, near the front, lacked associated artifacts; lithic reduction material was associated with the second; and the third had an adjacent area with pestles and a nearby area with material indicative of weapon regearing (Valla 1994:186). Thus, a wide range of activities appears to be spatially segregated within this structure. Partially analogous (in architecture form, features, and possible open ramada-like style) structure remnants are documented at nearby Early Natufian Wadi al-Hammah 27 (Edwards 1991). In the middle phase at 'AinMallaha, semisubterranean buildings are more numerous and building size decreased to a mean area of 13.4 m2. The largest of these buildings (No. 26) is rebuilt, each time decreasing in size. These more circular buildings of the middle phase at 'Ain Mallaha include stone lined hearths, stone bins, and at least one example of a stone partition. Although the late phase has no evidence of domestic structures, new research on the final phase has documented a series of oval stone structures that have many similarities with middle phase buildings (Valla et al. 1999). Burials pits and smaller feaatures such as a plaster-lined storage facility are also well documented in the late and final phases.

In contrast, the architecture of the Early Natufian of Hayonim Cave Layer B was dominated by a series of small, honeycomb-stye subcircular stone structures with a mean interior area of only 3.9 sq m (Bar-Yosef 1991; Belfer-Cohen 1988). These structures were organized in two parallel rows across the width of the cave, and five main phases of construction discerned. The floors were constructed of stone paving. Probable stone hearths were documented in half the structures, typically near the walls, in contrast to their prominent central location in structures at 'Ain Mallaha. No other features are reported on these floors. Multiple floors were occasionally distinguished, in situ floor artifacts uncommon, and debris built up within the structures. Earlier structures are only partially exposed, and Later Natufian structures are more ephemeral (both within the cave and on the terrace) (Valla et al. 1991).

The Late Natufian of Rosh Zin in the Negev includes four slightly semisubterranean, interlocking stone structures that represent the final phase of occupation (Henry 1976). Mean interior area of the two complete structures is 8.2 m2. The largest structure included the remnants of a stone pillar or monolith with a possible dedicatory offering at its base. No other features, such as hearths, were documented, and the structures were filled with occupational debris. The subsequent Harifian structures of Abu Salem and Ramat Harif in the Negev are well discussed by Goring-Morris (1991) (see also Goring-Morris 1987; Scott 1977). Site layout was generally in a linear pattern with one dwelling per spatially distinct architectural unit (with occasionally some smaller associated structures). These structures range considerably in size with a mean of 6.9 m2. They are semisubterranean, subcircular stone structures with an occasional shelf or bench. Stone slabs and tables or bedrock with shallow-ground cup marks and cut marks and one or more deep stationary mortars occur within interiors. No storage facilities were noted. Makeshift interior hearths were present in some buildings and were situated against walls. The smaller structures adjacent to larger ones also typically had mortars and cup marks. Considerable trash occurred within the buildings.

The PPNA sample from the Jordan Valley includes structures at Gigal, Jericho, and Netiv Hagdud. The sample includes various size structures, with a mean interior area of 15.8 m2. In general, these are independent, freestanding structures with separate entrances. The small published sample of buildings from Gigal includes two burned subrectangular buildings with walls made of small stones and mud or daub (Noy 1989). Hearths (burnt gravel and ash surrounded by clay) and silos were documented inside some houses. Floor-associated material included stored plant remains, bitumen baskets, stone cup-hole artifacts, mortars, stone bowls, and stone slabs. The radiocarbon dates indicate these structures may be slightly earlier than Netiv Hagdud.

The Netiv Hagdud sample includes large and small oval structures (Bar-Yosef et al. 1980; 1991; Bar Yossef and Gopher 1997). Floors were typically of mud plaster with wall foundations of upright limestone slabs and walls of unbaked, planoconvex mud bricks. A partition is present in only one structure. Building features are uncommon and include a few bins and silos and concave oval-shaped cobble areas that are interpreted as interior hearths. Slabs with cup holes or cup marks occur on some floors, occasionally along with other artifacts.

The mud-brick structures at Jericho are generally oval or almost circular (Kenyon 1981). Multiple clay floors were common, as was multiple reuse of walls. Interior hearths were noted only occasionally, and only one other clearly identified feature documented (a 1.5 m diameter circular mud platform). Partitions are absent, and in only one instance was there direct access between houses. Floor-associated artifacts were not reported. A notable aspect ofJericho, of course, is the presence of a series of nondomestic constructions, including the wall, tower, and a series ofadjacent, apparently special-function structures.

The PPNA sample from the western highlands includes a small sequential sample at Hatoula (Lechevallier and Ronen 1985) and a large sample from Nahal Oren (Stekelis and Yizraely 1963). The Hatoula architecture includes an early phase oval structure of baked brick and two subsequent phase semisubterranean oval structures made of stone. Mean interior area is 16.7 m2. No features or artifacts were noted. The Nahal Oren Stratum II

sample includes a series of oval and subcircular structures built of stone with a mean interior area of 9.0 m2. The structures are situated on four artificial terraces along the hillside, and some buildings on adjacent terraces shared walls. A regularity in internal plan was asserted, although not documented in the short preliminary article. Internal features set into the mud plaster floors included hearths lined with stones situated in various locations, and thick and thin cup-marked stones.An underlying Natufian phase included a sequence of poorly preserved oval shaped structures with small installations, including silos and hearths.

The two PPNB sites from the Negev are characterized by clusters of stone structures. At Nahal Issaron Layer C four phases of architectural construction represent at least eight structures (Gopher et al. 1994; GoringMorris and Gopher 1983). These interlocked stone structures have well-preserved stone walls and include a wide range of oval to subrectangular forms clustered in a beehive form. Floors were not discernible, yet hearths were distinguished at sequential levels within structures (these included types that had stone lined with ash in larger structures and types with small stones and charcoal). Entrances are uncommon. Although not discussed in the text, the site plan reveals stone partitions and querns in several structures (Gopher et al. 1994: Figure 1), and possible sleeping platforms were mentioned (Goring-Morris 1993:70). Shallow slabbed-lined pits were also present, including one within a structure. Two small structures (less than 1.5 m2 each) were classified as nondomestic structures and not included in the floor area sample. In contrast, Wadi Jibba included six attached structures in a linear arrangement (Bar-Yosef 1984). Entrances all opened to one courtyard area, and no structural features are mentioned. Goring-Morris (1993) interprets the former site as a possible winter/spring settlement, while the latter is considered a winter settlement.

The architecture of PPNB Beidha represents the largest available sample, and hence is discussed in more detail. It was continuously occupied, and an indigenous architectural progression took place from clusters of oval posthouses (phase A), through individual oval and subrectangular buildings (phase B), and ultimately to full rectangular buildings with two stories (phase C) (Byrd 1994a, n.d.; Kirkbride 1966). A series of large and medium sized nondomestic structures and small storage facilities was also documented throughout the sequence. Initially, the layout of the community consisted of open courtyard spaces and small aggregates of buildings that were often constructed together using shared walls with entrances opening adjacent to each other. The phase A buildings were semisubterranean with very thin, plaster-coated floors with a mean interior area of 10.6 m2. These structures typically had two wide entrances and a simple internal structural organization. The initial subphase A1 buildings lacked internal features, while al most half of the buildings had interior features in subphase A2, typically either plastered hearths or small stone platforms. No built storage features were documented. Burned buildings of this phase produced in situ portable artifacts (including bone tools, flaked stone tools, ground stone axes, pestles, stone grinders, and raw materials) along with nonportable artifacts, including querns, stone work slabs, and stone blocks on building floors. Variation within and between buildings is documented.

Phase B included above-ground curvilinear construction and semisubterranean construction and the first subrectangular and rectangular buildings. Buildings were freestanding with single, narrow entrances via stone steps in the later portion of this phase. Internal structural features (particularly plastered hearths and stone platforms) became more widespread, and almost one-quarter had more than one feature. Based on the presence of nonportable artifacts (querns and a stone bowl) and hearths, medium/small buildings were primarily interpreted as domestic units. Mean interior area was 6.9 m2. Similar to phase A, some adjacent buildings lacked features and had no in situ portable artifacts.

Phase C buildings were generally built directly against each other, and primary multiple-construction events occasionally shared side walls. The interior area of medium sized buildings increased significantly and is represented by two-storycorridor buildings with an upper story set slightly above ground level and a basement. The upper stories, although poorly preserved, were open in plan and contained plastered floors. In contrast, the basements had earthen floors and included up to seven very small rooms (-1.5 m by 1.0 m). The mean area of the basements was 12.8 m2. The corridor building upper stories were estimated, based on preserved remnants, to be approximately 1.3 times (16.6 m2) the area of the lower story, yielding an overall mean floor area of 29.4 m2.

The internal spatial organization of two-story buildings became more diverse and complex with each story generally having a separate exterior entrance. The diversity of interior building features increased and seven types are represented. Internal partitions, wall niches, and monoliths first occurred in this phase, and partitions predominated. The relative frequency of different features varied between the upper and lower stories of corridor buildings. Corridor building upper stories (where preservation permits determination) and all but one single storybuilding contained hearths, whereas corridor building basements did not. Partition walls were most prevalent in corridor building basements. The function of the corridor building lower and upper stories diverged markedly. Stone partitions across the entrances to small basement rooms may have functioned as dividing walls for storage set on clusters of stone slabs. During phase C, individual stone slabs only occurred in corridor building basements and primarily functioned as work surfaces for the production of various items, including beads and bone tools. Food-processing equipment, typically querns set into the floor, were consistently situated in rooms near the front of the basements.

Rectangular buildings typified the PPNB structures cf Jericho (Garstang and Garstang 1948;Kenyon 1981), Beisamoun (Lechevallier 1978), Yiftahel (Garfinkle 1987), and 'Am Ghazal (Banning and Byrd 1987; Rollefson and Simmons 1988; Rollefson et al. 1992). A distinct regional style of architecture termedpier houses characterizes these sites in the western hills, Jordan Valley, and the eastern hills (Byrd and Banning 1988). These rectangular structures were usually freestanding, and typically had an entrance at one of the short ends and a series of stone piers, mud brick piers, or wooden posts situated symmetrically along the long axis to support the roof. The area between piers was often sealed off, either fully or partly, to create work spaces or storage areas. Formal hearths constructed as part of the plaster floor were common, occurring most often in the center of the large back room. Low stone partitions occur occasionally as well. Unfortunately very few structures are preserved sufficiently that their full size can be calculated. The sample includes six buildings (three fromJericho, one each from 'Ain Ghazal, Beisamoun, and Yiftahel) with a mean interior area of 35.5 m2.

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