•Abbreviations used to describe suface: U = undecorated; F = fingernail impressed; P _ punctuated; O _ ochre wash.

2Artifacts stored in the Iran Bastan Museum were not specifically examined for surface wear. Assessments of these pieces are based on drawings and descirptions, but should be considered tentative. 'Abbreviations for associated material: F = other figurines; S = sherds; A = other artifact types or chipping debris (seeVoight 1983:Figs. 125-139);B = animal bone. Source: Voigt(1983:Table 31).

Table 2. Figures and Figurines: Attributes ofFunctional Classes Based on Ethnographic and Ethnohistorical Sources1

Class Attrubutes

Cult figure Material May be made of presious materials, or of common materials such as clay orwood

Morphology May be technologically superior to other types of figures

Size is highly variable, ranging from large, stationary figures to small portable ones Usually anthropomorphic in form

May be accompanied by iconic elements such as plants. animals or objects (headdresses, objects held in the hands) Use May be used singly or in groups

Generally used over an extended period of time May be handled (dressed, carried about), but with care May be stored/used in a special purpose (ritual) context or in a domestic context

Disposal Little data, but treatment probably different from that of ordinary or nonritual artifacts

Vehicle of Material Made of ordinary materials, including clay, wax, other organic magic substances; rarely, made of precious materials

Morphology Are small, portable

May take the form of humans or animals; may be male, female, or "sexless"

Use Used singly or (rarely?) in groups

May be used over an extended period (for example, when worn as an amulet) but usually made and disposed of as part of a single behavioral sequence Disposal Frequently destroyed by breaking, burning

Whole figures or fragments may be deposited within the fabric of domestic structures (within walls or floors, beneath floors. especially at thresholds), in pits in open areas or in bodies of water (streams, pools, wells) Fragments (and whole figures:) disposed f in habitation debris

Initiation Material Made of rare or costly materials as well as of clay or common figure organic substances

Morphology Vary widely in style, technical competence

Size is variable, ranging from large stationary figures to small portable ones May take the form of humans or animals Form highly variable, including "strikingly nonconformist" figures

Use Used in groups, with each figure having a distinctive form and meaning

Most used only for a short period, the duration of an initiation ritual, but some stored and used in several successive rites Handled during use. but with care

Stored during use in a special structure (initiation hut); those used in several rites stored in secret place Disposal Often destroyed by burning

_Thrown into bodies of water, habitation debris, rarely in houses




TOY Material Made of common materials, including clay, wood, or other organic materials Morphology May be crudely or well made Portable, may be very small

Include animals, humans, imaginary beings; may be sexless or show sexual characteristics in elaborate detail Often have arm stubs rather than arms, or are simple cylinders Use May be used singly or in groups, with a tendency for larger figures to be used alone Less durable figures (of unbaked clay or organic materials) used for a relatively brief period; more durable figures may be used for years

Careless or rough handling not uncommon. Used in domestic contexts, both inside houses and in open areas Disposal Treated in similar fashion to any other kind of domestic trash;

found in habitation debris, but never in rutal contexts

•The sources used to compile this table are those cited within Voigt 1983:186-193.ALthough the structure of this table was derived from Ucko (1962:47-48), its content represents emendations as well as additions to his attribute lists.

Source: Voigt(1983:Table28).

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