Homemade Organic Fertilizer Recipe

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils. Continue reading...

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Overview

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Fertilizers and Nutrients

A fertilizer is any substance used to make soil more fertile. Plants need large amounts of three nutrients, commonly referred to as macronutrients Fertilizer manufacturers extract these three nutrients from natural sources and convert them into soluble forms that plants can easily use.

Nitrogen Containing Fertilizers Ammonia

Ammonia (NH3) is used as an applied fertilizer or as a building block for other fertilizer products. At room temperature it is a colorless, flammable gas with a pungent, suffocating odor. It becomes a clear, colorless liquid under increased pressure and is usually shipped as a compressed liquid in steel cylinders. Anhydrous ammonia is the form used primarily in refrigeration and agriculture. Ammonia is also stored as a refrigerated liquid under pressure and is injected into the soil or irrigation water as a gas after being exposed to air.

Phosphorus Containing Fertilizers

Monammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) are called ammoniated phosphates because phosphoric acid is treated with ammonia to form these basic phosphate products that also contain nitrogen. They are widely produced in the granular form for blending with other types of fertilizers and are also produced in nongranular forms for use in liquid fertilizers. MAP and DAP can be toxic to the lungs in high concentrations. There are several emission standards for hazardous air pollutants from phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizer production (18,19).

Potassium Containing Fertilizers

After potassium is mined as potash, potassium chloride (KCl) is separated from the mixture, resulting in a granular fertilizer. Potassium chloride can be absorbed into the body by accidental or deliberate ingestion. When potassium chloride is ingested, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and sometimes weakness or convulsions may be evoked. KCl poisoning results in cardiac dysrhythmias when ingested at high amounts. To avoid such incidents, workers should be prohibited from eating, drinking, or smoking during application of fertilizer. In cases when ingestion is suspected, the mouth should be rinsed. In conscious persons, induce vomiting (20).

Interaction of Natural Biofertilizers

Different biofertilizers have shown nitrogen-fixing, phos-phorus-solubilizing, and phytohormone-producing abilities and are used as for increasing agricultural productivity, for e.g., (Brady)rhizobium for legumes (grain, fodder), plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) for cereals (wheat, rice, grasses, etc.), Azolla for the rice ecosystem, and actino-mycetes (Frankia spp.) for forest trees. The AM biofertilizer is known to increase the nitrogen-fixing potential of the legumes when given together with Rhizobium (Chaturvedi and Kumar 1991) and Bradyrhizobium (Werner et al. 1994 Xie et al. 1995). The mycorrhiza first stimulates the nodule bacteria in a sequential process by increasing the tissue phosphorus content this results in improved nodulation. There are also reports of positive interaction between Azotobacter Azospirillum, and AM fungi (Alnahidh and Gomah 1991). The AM colonization favorably affects the population of these free-living N-fixing bacteria and thus stimulates better...

Environmental Concern On Chemical Fertilizer Usage

Fertilizer production is also an environmental concern. For every ton of phosphoric acid produced, five tons of phosphogypsum are generated. Phosphogypsum is a solid material that results from the reaction of phosphate rock with sulfuric acid. Although it is nearly identical to natural gypsum, it may contain small amounts of sand, phosphate, fluorine, radium, and other elements present in phosphate ore. Federal regulations restrict both use and research involving phosphogypsum because of its radium content and require phosphogypsum to be stacked on the ground. A limited amount of phosphogypsum, with a minimal radium content, is used as an agricultural soil amendment. During the past 50 years, more than 700 MT have accumulated in Florida alone. These enormous stacks, some covering an area of more than 300 hectares and up to 60 m high, have settling ponds on top that contain highly acidic water that can overflow into waterways. New regulations have been enacted to guard against...

Impacts of Fertilizers on Insect Pests

By modifying the nutrient composition of crops, fertilizer practices can influence plant defenses. A review of 50 years of research identified 135 studies showing more plant damage and or greater numbers of leaf-chewing insects or mites in nitrogen-fertilized crops, while fewer than 50 studies reported less pest damage. Researchers have demonstrated that high nitrogen levels in plant tissue can decrease resistance and increase susceptibility to pest attacks (Table 2). Although more research is needed to clarify the relationships between crop nutrition and pests, most studies assessing the response of aphids and mites to nitrogen fertilizer have documented dramatic expansion in pest numbers with increases in fertilizer rates. In England, conventional winter wheat fields were plagued with more rose-grain aphids than their organic counterpart. Top-dressed in April with nitrogen, the plants treated with soluble synthetic fertilizers con In California, organically fertilized broccoli...

Implications for Fertilizer Practices

Conventional synthetic fertilizers can dramatically affect the balance of nutritional elements in plants. When farmers use them excessively, these fertilizers likely create nutritional imbalances with their large pulses of available nitrogen, which in turn compromise crops' resistance to insect pests. Probably due to regulated release of carbon and nitrogen metabolites from hairy vetch decomposition, the cover-cropped tomato plants showed a distinct expression of selected genes, which would lead to a more efficient utilization and mobilization of C and N, promote defense against disease, and enhance crop longevity. These results confirm that in intensive conventional tomato production, the use of legume cover crops offers advantages as a biological alternative to commercial fertilizer, in addition to minimizing soil erosion and loss of nutrients, enhancing water infiltration, reducing runoff, and creating a natural pest-predator relationship.

The Analysis of Fertilizers

There are several publications detailing standard or officially recognized methods of fertilizer analysis. These include Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (Horwitz, 2000) Official and Standardised Methods of Analysis, published by the Royal Society of Chemistry (Watson, 1994) and Fertilisers - Methods of Analysis used in OEEC Countries (OEEC, 1952). There are also the EEC methods, which have been implemented in the UK by the Fertilisers (Sampling and Analysis) Regulations 1996 (Statutory Instrument (SI) 1996 No. 1342). The title page of the SI may be downloaded from the following website http www.hmso.gov.uk si si1996 Uksi_19961342_en_4.htm sdiv2 Note By changing the year and number of the SI using the above URL format, it is possible to access and download any available SI. The methods detailed in the above SI are used by Public Analysts to determine whether a fertilizer conforms to the Fertiliser Regulations 1991 (and subsequent amendments), which is available at...

Calibrating Fertilizer Applicators

Granular Fertiliser Applicators

Fertilizers, which are mainstays of modern agriculture, are applied in liquid, gaseous, or granular form. In this section we will discuss the calibration of granular FIGURE 8.1. Broadcast fertilizer spreader. FIGURE 8.1. Broadcast fertilizer spreader. applicators. The application of liquid fertilizers follows the same principles as spraying chemicals and sprayers are discussed in a separate section. Gaseous fertilizers require specialized equipment and are very hazardous to use. The equipment to dispense gaseous fertilizers is not included in this text. Most granular fertilizer applicators will be one of two designs, broadcast or gravity flow. As with any agricultural machinery, designs vary, but a common tractor powered spreader consist of a hopper that holds the material, a metering mechanism, and a spreading mechanism, Figure 8.1. The hopper capacity will vary depending on the size of the machine. Metering usually is accomplished through the use of a variable-speed chain belt in...

Discussion 63 Determination of potassium in fertilizers

If the fertilizer is a straight potassium fertilizer such as potassium chloride (muriate of potash), sulphate or nitrate, it may be extracted by shaking with water. For any fertilizer, including mixed or compound fertilizers, the AOAC official method (No. 983.02B, Preparation of sample) recommends extraction with boiling 4 ammonium oxalate solution. The ammonium oxalate was introduced to precipitate calcium, which could suppress the potassium reading by up to 2.5 in an erratic fashion (Schwer and Conan, 1960). The precipitated calcium oxalate is allowed to settle and an aliquot for analysis taken from the supernatant, or else it is filtered. The final determination uses an automatic analyser and flame photometer (Johnson, 1990b). The SI 1996 No. 1342, however, recommends extraction of straight, compound or fluid fertilizers with boiling water followed by removal of interferences and gravimetric determination of precipitated potassium tetraphenylborate. We will give both extraction...

Discussion 62 Determination of phosphorus in fertilizers

The analysis of phosphorus in fertilizers can be achieved in many ways, and due regard must be made both to the chemical form in which the phosphorus occurs, and its solubility, and hence relative rate of availability to the plant. Phosphorus can occur in many different molecular combinations and admixed with a variety of other substances, organic and inorganic, so that it is difficult to recommend one method in preference to any other. The type and amount of accompanying trace elements can also vary. The determination of total phosphorus is easier to achieve than available phosphorus, but the acid digest should not be highly coloured or else it could result in too high a colorimetric reading. Phosphate rocks usually contain apatite, and this is mainly virtually insoluble calcium fluorapatite. The molecular formula can be written either as 3Ca3(PO4)2.CaF2 or 9CaO.3P2O5.CaF2. It has been formed from partial or total replacement of the hydroxyl in hydroxyapatite, 3Ca3(PO4)2.Ca(OH)2, by...

Major Constraints And Solutions In Commercialization Of Am Biofertilizer

Biofertilizers represent an affordable industry for many developing countries. In many African countries, the use of inorganic fertilizer has increased soil acidity, reducing the yield per ton of fertilizer. Biofertilizers are cheap to manufacture, suitable for small-scale farmers if produced locally (eliminating distribution costs), and the investment in technology is far lower than that of inorganic fertilizers. Biofertilizers have been produced, packaged, and sold commercially in India, while in a number of African and Latin American countries, biofertilizers have been produced at national research centers. Most importantly, the demand for biofertilizers has outstripped production in almost all these countries. It is estimated that about 40,000-550,000 is required to build a 100-150 MT biofertilizer plant. Alternatively, 500,000 for 10 plants in different locations could produce up to 1000-1500MT to meet the demand by rural farmers. With increased production capacity,...

Am Biofertilizers Have An Edge Over Other Biofertilizers

This group of biofertilizers is the only among others having fungal system involved. Other biofertilizers exploit bacteria most commonly. Also this offers wide applicability with a wide range of plants having little selectivity, which is commonly reported in other biofertilizers. Though some exceptions exist with certain nonmycorrhizal families like chenopodiaceae, brassicaceae, and few nonhost plants of nyctaginaceae etc. The storage conditions also are very simple with no extra infrastructural requirements like low temperature and moisture content. Shelf-life is comparatively long. Bacterial systems have short life and cause cell death easily. The hyphae of fungal system can extend much beyond (a few meters away) the depletion zone and thus can acquire nutrients from a much wider area. The fungal system also produces vegetative structures like chlamydospores and zygospores, which become dormant during periods of environmental stress and germinate with the return of favorable...

Fertilizers

Although Albrecht has been endeared to advocates of organic farming methods for his balanced holistic view, he was pragmatic when it came to the use of artificial fertilizers in addition to manures. Thus he writes, 'Fertilizer use should not serve to divert attention from manure conservation, its maximum production, and its wisest use. All possible practices in better soil management should be exercised first and then fertilizers purchased and added to make up the deficiencies in soil fertility that need to be balanced for most effective crop production. Manure use represents putting back much of what came from the soil. Fertilizer use represents putting on some fertility purchased and brought from outside the farm, to add to the soil's supply' (Albrecht, 1942, and in Walters, 1992). Current organic farming methods seek to reduce bought-in manures to a minimum, but some fertilizers are allowed as permitted inputs on a restricted basis (Lampkin and Measures, 1999). In general, only...

Agriculture in the United States

The 2002 Census of Agriculture by the United States Department of Agriculture found a slight decline in the total number of farms, but a much more significant loss (18 ) in the number of corporate farms (74,000 from 90,000), reversing a trend of increasing corporate ownership of farms that began in the 1970s (nearly doubling between 1978 and 1997). Sixty percent of principal operators of U.S. farms have farming as their primary occupation, so 40 of farm operators have jobs off the farm that they consider their primary employment. The average age of principal farm or ranch operators was 55.3 years compared to 54 years in 1997, which continues a 25-year trend of aging among American farmers. The typical family farm today is a commercialized and specialized business, concentrating on one or two commercial crops. It utilizes machinery to the greatest extent possible on large fields and usually depends on borrowed capital to purchase equipment, seed and feed, fertilizer, pesticides, and...

Sensitive Human Populations

In addition to sensitive populations that actually work on farms, additional sensitive populations are exposed to potential agricultural risks because of encroachment of housing and business development into areas that were previously farmland and immediately adjacent to land currently under cultivation or used as pasture. Drift of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and odors only rarely have true adverse health effects, but involuntary exposures of any kind are emotionally and physically stressful and may lead to symptoms and legal conflicts. Persons with immunosuppression for organ transplant or due to infection have additional theoretical risk from living in close proximity to an agricultural operation.

Organic Farming and Food Safety

Despite many favorable characteristics of organic farming, one of several criticisms about organic farming is the increased potential for microbial food contamination. A French study in 1999 to 2000 warned that biological toxins in certain organic products (i.e., apples and wheat) should be closely monitored. Another major concern is the use of manure as a fertilizer in organic farming. Manure can carry human pathogens and mycotoxins from molds. It is well known that E. coli 0157 H7 originates primarily from ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and deer, which shed it through their feces. In addition, growers must also be alert to the potential contamination of produce growing and handling environments by human or animal fecal material, which is known to harbor Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, and other pathogens. However, properly treated manure (and other biosolids) can be an effective and safe fertilizer. Other sources of contamination related to organic farming may arise from nearby...

Influence of Biotechnology on Food Safety

Genetically modified crops can directly benefit the farmer by altering the inputs needed to produce a crop, such as herbicides or fertilizer. Other plants are designed to benefit the consumer when the end product expresses a desirable outcome, such as improved quality, nutritional content, or storability (81,82).

Overview of Hazards for Those Working in Agriculture

Similarly, pest control and the use of fertilizer in the prein-dustrial, prechemical age may have been inefficient, but it gave rise to a narrower range of serious hazards than the substances and methods in use today. Handling fertilizer Working in grain elevators Chemical toxicity can result from animal care activities involving feeds, pesticides, animal wastes, and veterinary care. Pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, silica, endotoxins, and decomposition gases are common crop-related chemical exposures. These exposures affect a variety of organs, especially the skin and lungs, and may result in acute and chronic diseases. Research has also begun to focus on the use of agrochemicals and possible associations with both cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes (8).

B National water quality standards

Design standards are also necessary in the definition of NPS water pollution control practices, particularly if they are structural. Procedural standards for pollution control may, for example, include such management practices as proper manure spreading or fertilizer management.

Countryside Values and Agriculture

The increase in output can be attributed to increased output per hectare, increased output per capita, and in some countries, expansion of the cultivated area. These developments were made possible through the introduction of inputs such as chemical fertilizers, pesticides, high-yield varieties of crops, and machinery management systems such as irrigation and dry farming and planning systems such as land realotment.

Past Successes in Reducing Poverty Through Agricultural Science

Tion in Asia doubled, calorie availability per person increased by 24 percent, and real food prices halved (IFPRI 1997). Although the region's population grew by 1 billion people, overall food production more than kept pace with population growth (McCalla 1998). These food production increases were achieved largely by the cultivation of high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of rice and wheat, accompanied by expansion of irrigated areas, increases in fertilizer and pesticide use, and greater availability of credit. The scientific basis for the Green Revolution stemmed from national and international research programs that led to the development and distribution of new HYVs, particularly of rice and wheat. The first generation of these new varieties were based on the introduction of new genes for dwarfing that made the HYVs shorter, more responsive to fertilizers, and less prone to falling over or lodging when fertilized and irrigated. Subsequent varieties also carried genes that gave...

E ADBs Poverty Reduction Strategy

While the need for further intensification of agricultural production in Asia is clear, intensification strategies must change to avoid adverse environmental impact and to reverse the effects of earlier practices. Enhanced, but inefficient use of irrigation and mineral fertilizers over the past three decades has had negative side effects such as soil salinity and nutrient leaching. With crop intensification, incidences of pests and diseases also increased (Pinstrup-Andersen and Cohen 2000). (ii) Reducing chemical inputs of fertilizers and pesticides and replacing these with biologically based products.

Strategies to lower production costs

Reduction of production costs is one strategy for increasing farm profitability. The possible importance of this strategy is illustrated by results from three studies sponsored by South Dakota State University comparing conventional and alternative (organic) cropping systems. Study 1 and Study 2 were conducted from 1986 to 1992 on replicated field plots at a university research farm (Smolik, Dobbs & Rickerl, 1995) Study 3 was a paired comparison from 1985 to 1992 of two commercial South Dakota farms, one managed conventionally and the other managed organically, without the use of synthetic fertilizers, herbicides, and other pesticides (Dobbs & Smolik, 1996). In Study 1, a conventional maize-soybean-wheat rotation was compared with an alternative maize-oat + alfalfa-alfalfa-soybean rotation in Study 2, a conventional wheat-barley-soybean rotation was compared with an alternative wheat-oat + clover-clover-soybean rotation (a mixture of red and sweet clovers was sown). The...

Ancient Landforms and Modern Inhabitants

Five or six generations of farm families had carved out their livelihoods on these plots. Each had its own goals, but there would have been certain overlapping concerns. Farmer A wouldn't have wanted Farmer B leaching fertilizers into the creek upstream of his land if that supplied drinking water for him or his livestock. There would certainly have been questions regarding accuracy of fence lines, as well as questions of responsibility for large overhanging or fallen trees. For years boundary issues would have been worked out between neighbors, using fallen trees and other guides for simple solutions that kept the geometry and plot layout clear. I guessed that this community of farmers hadn't been engaged in dialogue about the intercon-nectedness of their lands within the larger landscape. They were neighbors, but they weren't exactly allies. They worked in rhythm with one another as they farmed their individual properties, but as with small children engaging in parallel play, their...

Australian Government

Crops and forestry work has focused on development of diagnostics for diseases (viral, fungal, mycoplasma, and bacterial) and contaminants in tropical crops, and the application of biofertilizers, bioremediation technology, and biofumigants. Molecular markers have been developed for the improvement of cereals and tree species. In cooperation with IRRI, attempts are being made to develop apomixis systems for rice. Tissue culture methods for micropropagation and conservation of several species, including sweetpotato, taro, tropical fruits, coconut, green tea, and tree species such as mangrove are being developed.

Aciddigestion of soils

The second reason for acid-digestion is the determination of the total soil elemental content of, e.g. potassium, phosphorus or trace elements. This is seldom done for potassium in normal soil samples, mainly because 'the total K in soils is of no value as an index to the availability of K to plants, nor is it always of value in tracing the movement or accumulation of applied fertilizer K' (Pratt, 1965). The unreactive soil phosphorus is obtained by subtracting the naturally leached reactive phosphorus from the total phosphorus, and a method for determining the latter by extraction with sulphuric acid and potassium persulphate is cited by Turner and Haygarth (2000). They analysed

Chemical Exposure An Overview

Key words pesticides, growth regulators, fertilizers, nutrients, buffers, petroleum products Agricultural chemicals comprise thousands of formulations, including petroleum products, pesticides, growth regulators, buffers, nutrients and fertilizers, and veterinary medications. These chemicals may be used as solids in granular, powder, pellet, or block form liquids in mists and sprays or in gaseous forms as fumigants or fuels. Application of chemicals to crops may be by sprays of liquids from aircraft or ground machines broadcast of solids from aircraft, vehicles, or stationary sources injection of gas, liquid, or solids into water, soil, animals, or feed or gaseous exposure in fumigation cells. Animals may be dipped in pools of dilute insecticides to remove surface insects. To save on manpower and fuel, it is common to apply five or more chemicals at once to a crop, making it difficult to determine which are the relevant agents. Mass casualty situations may result from the sudden...

The Cost of Onfarm Conservation

On the socioeconomic side, information on any future comparative disadvantages, if any, for a farm household that selects landraces over MVs, other crops, or economic pursuits, is necessary to estimate the costs of in situ conservation. The pressures against landraces may include lower unit costs of production, broad resistance of MVs, and commercial and official factors which favour MVs. How disadvantageous are landraces Currently, for those farmers selecting them, they are not disadvantageous on the contrary, landraces are the optimal choice given the multiple criteria used in the varietal selection process. Yield is certainly a primary consideration, but it is only one of several. Bellon (1996) describes how farmers' concerns are met by infraspecific diversity within a crop. He cites five general concerns, environmental heterogeneity, pests and pathogens, risk management, culture and ritual, and diet, which are met by infraspecific diversity Bellon (1996) details specific concerns...

Extraction Procedures Soils

There are many different types of soil, and extractant formulations have been fine-tuned to suit the soil. The particular extractant may also be chosen on the basis of familiarity over the years, and because it is easier to compare results with those previously obtained, and hence make recommendations to correct deficiencies based on experience. Usually one is not interested in the total amount of a soil nutrient, rather in the amount that is in a form available to the roots of the plant. Regional advisory laboratories over a long period may have developed index tables relating to the found concentration of nutrient in local soil types and the corrective amount of fertilizer required. It would probably be wise to adopt the same methods that have been used to

Threats to groundwater

A study conducted by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the problems of pollution in 16 Latin American countries determined that in urban areas the main sources of polluting agents from agricultural activities are fertilizers, pesticides and food-processing industries, whereas in rural areas the contaminants are associated with pesticides and fertilizers of chemical origin. Intensive agriculture is one of the main sources of income in Central America. Great volumes of water are used as farmers seek the highest possible levels of performance, thus forcing irrational use in the dry season and uncontrolled use of pesticides and herbicides, which in turn lead to situations of risk. A total of 10.1 million tonnes of chemical fertilizers were used in the region from 1980 to 2000. Interestingly, as shown in Fig. 6.2, the use of chemical fertilizers in Central America has revealed quite irregular tendencies, with use increasing by 20 in some years (1983 and 1997) and falling...

Phosphate extractants

Again, there are several choices of extractant, and the preferred one depends mainly on the type of soil under test. One of the most widely used procedures is the Olsen method (Olsen et al., 1954), which was developed in the USA to correlate crop response to fertilizer on calcareous soils. The amount of P extracted will vary with temperature (increases by 0.43 mg P kg-1 per degree rise between 20 C and 30 C) and shaking speed, so conditions should be standardized. The extractant is 0.5 M sodium bicarbonate adjusted to pH 8.5. The bicarbonate competes with phosphate on the adsorption sites extracts, and removes most, but not all of it, together with some soluble calcium phosphate. Addition of phosphate-free activated carbon before shaking is necessary if coloured soil extracts are obtained, and then they will require filtration. The North Central Region, in addition to the Olsen method, uses the Bray and Kurtz P-1 test for phosphorus (Bray and Kurtz, 1945), which has proved to be well...

Agriculture and Allied Areas

Ance, developing planting material with desirable traits and the genetic enhancement of important crops. Integrated nutrient management and development of new biofertilizers and biopesticides would be important contributions to sustainable agriculture, soil fertility and a clean environment. Stress biology, marker-assisted breeding programmes and studying the important genes will continue as priorities. We have achieved the cloning and sequencing of at least six genes, developed regeneration protocols for citrus, coffee and mangrove species and new types of biofertilizer and biopesticide formulations, including mycorrhizal fertilizers. Research to develop transgenic plants for brassicas, mung bean, cotton and potato is well advanced. Industries have shown a keen interest in the applications of biotechnology, including field trials, and have set up production facilities for biopesticides, biofertilizers and tissue-culture plants. The success of the tissue-culture pilot plants in the...

B Preventing detachment

When the contaminants are on the land (already available), physical detachment generally results from the impact of raindrops or from shear forces in overland sheet flow or concentrated flow. Unprotected soil and surface-applied wastes, fertilizers, and pesticides may be detached in this way. Therefore, the primary control measures to prevent detachment are those that reduce the impact of raindrops, such as vegetative cover or mulch, and those that control the velocity of water moving across the landscape, such as minimum or no tillage. Applying less soluble fertilizers

Why Invest in Agricultural Biotechnology

These new developments when used in conjunction with developments in the physical and social sciences, offer more sustainable means for obtaining necessary productivity increases that are less dependent on environmentally damaging inputs of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Given appropriate policies and necessary human and financial resources, modern biotechnology could make an extremely important contribution to future agricultural growth.

Physiological and Biochemical Alterations of the Host

The production of phytoalexins as a result of pathogen invasion in mycorrhizal plants has been explored. Tomato plants inoculated with G. mosseae posed greater resistance to the pathogen F. oxysporum and were found to have increased phenylalanine and b-glucosidase activity and total phenol content in their roots compared to plants inoculated with either organism alone (Dehne and Schonbeck 1979). Sundaresan et al. (1993) reported that a purified ethanol fraction of mycorrhizal cowpea root extract inhibited F. oxysporum in vitro. However, the isoflavonoid was not identified. Production of phytoalexins in mycorrhizal plants appears to be independent of the effect of fertilizer addition (Caron et al. 1986b). In general, in the presence or absence of pathogens in plant roots, phytoalexins are induced in mycorrhizal plants that neutralize the negative effects of pathogens.

Drought Mitigating Measures

Indirect methods are preventive measures such as (1) the use of drought-resistant varieties of crops (2) rotation of crops with less number of crop species in annual rotation (only one main crop instead of three crops per year) (3) preference for planting cereals on farms susceptible to drought (4) application of cultivation methods and fertilizers so as to accelerate crop development and maturity in order to shift the critical phase of plant development to the period endowed with higher availability of soil moisture (5) harrowing and shallow plowing after harvest to minimize moisture loss (6) deep tillage before winter to increase soil roughness (7) raising hedgerows and tree stripes at field boundaries to help preserve winter snowfalls and limit evapotranspiration and (8) using sluice gates to prevent or reduce water outflow from fields.

Durum Wheat Genetic Variability Past and Present

Most important of all, the attainment of a satisfactory lodging resistance, which permits the application of higher doses of nitrogen fertilizers, together with the incorporation in the species of some level of tolerance to the most dangerous diseases (Puccinia graminis, P. recondita, Blumeria graminis, Fusarium spp., Septoria spp.), had to wait until germplasm from outside the Mediterranean region was included in the breeding programmes. To be sure, the path most frequently and successfully followed was the hybridization of international germplasm with local types. But the local component, although synergic, was never resolutive.

Reclamation Procedures

When dune areas are being reclaimed, the first step is to ensure protection from sea erosion, by wave screens or groines. At the same time, the original vegetation must be reestablished in places where it has been removed or destroyed 29, 30 . Sea lyme grass is valuable for building foredunes because it can tolerate a high degree of salinity. A number of other species that are adapted to the unfavorable coastal environment also can be planted or sown. These include sea couch, red fescue, sea oats, and beach bean. After planting, the sand surface often requires stabilization. Bituminous stabilizers are suitable for this purpose and can be very effective if applied properly. To this end, cover crops of large-seeded annuals such as cereal rye and sorghum can be very valuable if sown at a low density along with fertilizer dressings. Experience from many different parts of the world shows that, in the first year, about 100 kg ha of nitrogen and 25 kg ha of phosphorus (given in two or three...

Mycorrhizal Commercialization Techniques and Their Formulations

Plant inoculation with AM fungi results in the formation of a mycorrhizosphere with selective consequences on other important soil micro-organisms. Therefore the use of AM fungi in plant production needs an appropriate inoculum technology compatible with that used for other beneficial soil micro-organisms. Development of second generation inocula, derived from mixing AM fungi with other inocula, is one such major activity. The use of such inocula will improve plant fitness, and soil aggregation and stability, so increasing yield by biological means. Some of the important issues related to AM biofertilizer commercialization (c) Quality control. Specific protocols for quality control of AM fungal inoculum need to be developed and standardized for application. This is essential not only as a guarantee for producers and users but also for the protection of ecosystems. This would help in quality management and assessment of inoculum potential with every batch of...

Brian J Wienhold and John W Doran Contents

Soils commonly exhibit spatial variability in inherent soil properties such as texture, depth of topsoil, and organic C content. Inherent soil properties influence many chemical and biological properties that ultimately affect plant growth. Traditional methods of soil sampling (grid sampling, stratified sampling) require large inputs of labor and are expensive. The labor and cost requirements associated with traditional sampling often make it prohibitive to sample at a density that will accurately measure the spatial patterns present in a field. In agricultural fields, crops growing in areas of a field differing in inherent soil properties may differ in yield potential. Because yield varies within a field, the potential exists for improving crop utilization of inputs such as lime and fertilizer by varying application rates based on spatial patterns in inherent soil properties. To realize this potential, more efficient methods for delineating spatial variability in inherent soil...

National Academy for Agricultural Research Management Hyderabad India2Department of Economics Yale University New Haven

The first data set is compiled by ICAR for selected districts and years. ICAR reports yields for the three 'highest yielding' varieties in farmers' yield trials in each district-year combination for irrigated and unirrigated, kharif and rabi season rice. Fertilizer use is controlled and yields are reported for a sample of farms in the district. Each variety can be given trait characteristics and hence yields can be related to these characteristics. This data set is available for the years 1977-1989, covering some 45 districts in India. The weakness of these data is that the sample size of three is not large enough to provide an adequate control group. Furthermore, it is a highly selected reference group. It is plausible that the district average yield for the year in question and other district-level variables might represent a control group. Thus if poor weather affects the district

Food crops biotechnology

High yield always ranks at the top of any farmer's or breeder's list of important traits. Genetically improved crop varieties usually offer the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly means of increasing yields, with or without minimal use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Renal and Hepatic Disease

Generally speaking, the occurrence of liver or kidney disease is not particularly associated with agriculture. Nevertheless, life in rural settings in general, as well as work in agriculture in particular, is associated with a variety of health risks that can affect liver or kidney. These risks are not completely different from those in urban life but can be present to a greater or lesser degree. Environmental exposures on farms are typically characterized by biological hazards, including a higher infectious disease risk by the use of agricultural chemicals, including fertilizers and biocides and by exposures to solvents, fuels, paints, and welding fumes associated with maintenance and repair work. On the other hand, pollution by traffic exhausts, industrial emissions, and other effluents of civilization play a comparatively smaller role in a rural environment. Health risks associated with general lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and lack of physical exercise,...

Irrigation Pricing Systems

The effectiveness of irrigation pricing in achieving the objectives listed above, particularly (i) through (iii), depends not only on the level of the price but also to some extent on the kind of pricing system employed. Yacov Tsur and Ariel Dinar describe eight methods of pricing irrigation water volumetric pricing, output pricing, input pricing, area pricing, tiered pricing, two-part tariff pricing, betterment levy pricing and water markets.96 Volumetric pricing charges per unit of water used, output pricing per unit of output produced with the water, input pricing per unit of a complementary input used (such as fertilizer), and area pricing per hectare irrigated. Tiered pricing is volume-based pricing in which the rate increases as a threshold volume is

Drought Monitoring Systems

Crop performance during the growing season is monitored by the members of the National Early Warning Committee (NEWC). Land preparation, planting, and cropping pattern are monitored based on the area prepared for cultivation as compared with the normal and last-year equivalents. Moreover, area planted is compared with last year and normal year. Dates of planting are compared with the seasonal crop calendar to identify any delay in planting. Crop conditions during specific phenological phases are monitored, and poor very poor crop conditions are also identified. Based on such monitoring, recommendations are made for alleviating any crop damage. The availability of inputs, such as fertilizers, pesticides, and improved seeds and the financial ability of the farmer to use the inputs is explained in the monitoring report. Finally, estimates on crop productions are made and compared with the last year and also with a normal year.

Technical Overview Of Biotechnology

One of the main criticisms of the GR has been that it bypassed poor farmers living in marginal environments and those who cannot afford the cost of inputs such as pesticides, fertilizers, and infrastructure cost for irrigation. The gene revolution is actually providing some measures to address these concerns, with GM crops that produce their own pesticides (such as the current crops of GM crops with various Bt genes transferred from different strains of the soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis) and are efficient in nutrient uptakes. Concerning phosphorus, Mexican researchers at Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTA) have demonstrated that GM tobacco and tropical corn are highly productive under low phosphorus soil conditions. However, these lines have not been tested under field conditions since 1999 due to the pressure from anti-GM groups (Herrera-Estrella, 2002). In addition, a research group at Purdue University has cloned a phosphate transporter gene from...

Applications of Forest Biotechnology for Food and Wood Security

Advances in biotechnology have direct implications in food and wood security. Biotechnology can provide the tools needed for the proper selection of genetically superior trees for breeding purposes their mass propagation by macro- and micropropagation techniques the production of high quality biofertilizers including mycorrhiza and nitrogen-fixing organisms and the production of microbial pesticides for biological control. The long-term implication is on the use of biotechnology in the production of transgenic trees, which may contain genes tailored to produce their own insecticides or to tolerate biotic and abiotic stresses.

Results And Discussion

At the FICS, strong correlations were not found between ECa and individual soil properties at point sources. This is because ECa integrates multiple soil properties, wherein changes in one may be buffered by corresponding changes in another. In this semiarid environment, ECa is most useful for delimiting overall soil productivity and for defining distinct zones of within-field yield potential. Therefore, soil and residue sampling based upon ECa productivity zones appears to be a useful basis for (1) zone soil sampling, (2) tracking the temporal impact of farm management on soil productivity, and (3) assessing soil parameters to calculate fertilizer and herbicide inputs in site-specific management. (3) prescription maps for metering fertilizer, pesticide, and seed inputs.

Pigweed density number per m2

Even the timing of fertilizer application will determine the competitive outcome. For example, two cultivars of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris var. sacchariferal) were more competitive with wild mustard (Sinapsis arvensis) if there was a late season nitrogen fertilizer application, and more competitive with lambsquarters if nitrogen was applied earlier in the season (Paolini et al., 1999). Similar results were found when nitrogen was applied later in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), thereby reducing the competitive effect of ivy-leaved speedwell (Veronica hederifolia) (Agnonin et al., 1996).

Method 76 Determination of nitrate in plant material by autoanalysis

See the discussion with references in Chapter 4 'Nitrate and water soluble carbohydrate'. Soil extracts low in colour may also be analysed by this procedure by taking a 10-ml scoop of fresh or thawed soil. The official Bran+Luebbe AutoAnalyzer method for nitrate and nitrite in soil, plant and fertilizer extracts is reproduced with permission in Appendix 5.

Iowa grain cropping farmers design and run replicated trials

During the midwestern USA farm crisis of the 1980s, a group of Iowa farmers organized the Practical Farmers of Iowa (PFI) (Harp, 1996). They felt that university research and extension programs were unresponsive to farmers' economic and environmental problems. Organized in five chapters across the state, they test alternative management practices such as lower nitrogen fertilizer rates and ridge tillage without herbicides. Scientists from Iowa State University were recruited to collaborate on experimental design and data analysis. At an annual winter planning meeting in each chapter, farmers and scientists meet to discuss research ideas and to draw up experimental procedures. Individual farmers identify problems that interest them. The on-farm research is conducted in replicated trials, usually with two treatments and six replicates, on each farm. Plots are the length of a field and a single or double planter width (Thompson & Thompson, 1990). Farmers plant the trials and collect...

Agricultural Biotechnology

The post Green Revolution era is merging with the gene revolution for increasing crop productivity and improving quality. The exploitation of heterosis and development of new hybrids (including apomixis), genes for resistance to or tolerance for biotic or abiotic stress, developing planting material with desirable traits, and genetic enhancement of all-important crops will dominate the research agenda. Integrated nutrient management and development of new biofertilizers and biopesticides are important for ensuring sustainable agriculture, soil fertility, and a clean environment. Stress biology, marker-assisted breeding programs, and studying important genes will continue as priorities. In India, at least six genes have been cloned and sequenced. Regeneration protocols have been developed for citrus, coffee, and mangrove species. New types of fertilizers and new biopesticide formulations, including mycorrhizal fertilizers, have been developed Research to develop new transgenic...

Cover crops in Central America farmers show other farmers

Velvetbeans are aggressive annual vining legumes of the genus Mucuna. They originated in Asia and were introduced into Florida via the Caribbean in the 1870s for use as a cover crop in citrus groves. See Buckles (1993, 1994) for more details on the rise and fall of Mucuna in the USA and Central America. From 1900 to 1920 nearly 1500000 ha were planted with Mucuna spp. as green manure and animal feed in the southern USA. Numerous studies and extension bulletins were also completed on velvetbean in this period. By the 1940s velvetbean had disappeared in the southern USA due to the availability of cheap nitrogen fertilizers and the spread of soybean.

Httpebook8t9ucomsECND chance

If not, if open acreage continues to disappear and ecological quality continues to fall, then both the health of humanity and its ability to use and enjoy the earth will become further impaired. The vast scale of the planet and our short lifespan on it prevents us from understanding the long-term impacts of our actions in any great depth. But at the very least we must take on the short-term impacts. Farmers, for instance, have to deal with the immediate cost of topsoil erosion, the contaminants included in that soil, and the effects downstream when it gets into our waterways, lakes, and estuaries. Because of our history of poor soil management, farmers are forced to invest thousands of dollars annually in soil amendments, primarily fertilizers to boost productivity and pesticides to combat pests. These stop

Monitoring Pests and Disease from Satellite data

It is stated that the brown plant hopper (BPH) of rice is one of the dreaded insect pests in Asia. BPH is stated to be associated with synoptic weather conditions (depressions). Double cropping, extensive rice cultivation in the command area and indiscriminate use of fertilizers and pesticides aid the occurrence of BPH.

Trade in Agricultural Technology

Oping and transition countries strictly limit market access for new agricultural technologies. Restrictions are most common and problematic for seeds, but they also may interfere with machinery, fertilizers, low-risk pesticides, feed mixes and other items. Many developing countries maintain positive lists of allowed inputs, even those for which externalities are not a serious concern. For example, many countries list allowed plant varieties, and some also list allowed models of machinery, compositions of fertilizers, and feed mixes based on official performance tests . . Positive lists are far more restrictive than negative lists, which allow anything not listed.

Research Institutions Involved in Agricultural Biotechnology

Of 102 research centers related to agriculture, most carry out traditional biotechnology (tissue culture, biofertilizer). High-tech agriculture biotechnology is restricted to only two centers (CEMB and NIBGE). Though the facilities for genetic engineering of crops are excellent, some major weaknesses are inherent in their capabilities. For instance, the lack of consumables (chemicals, enzymes, plasticware) often results in considerable delay in completing experiments.

Mitigating Drought at a Farm Scale

At a property level, policies for stock, pasture, and crop management tend to be based on expectations of average climate rather than on an extreme event such as drought. There is also a degree of flexibility to cope with the eventuality of extremely dry periods, although there comes a point when the most economic approach is to deal with drought when it happens (e.g., Daly, 1994). Strategic and tactical responses to drought differ according to the type of enterprise, and a variety of information is synthesized on fact sheets on various state government Web sites (e.g., http Strategies in nonirrigated cropping lands may include diversification of crops with varying degrees of drought resistance, sequencing of crops and fallow, or adjusting fertilizer application.

The Benefits Of A General Template

The general template could easily be extended to accommodate other agricultural and environmental models. For example, models of crop nutrient uptake rely on the same basic system elements as soil water-balance models. They could be represented with little or no modification of the template, perhaps requiring a class to represent additional management practices such as fertilizer management. Ultimately, the template could be extended to include numerous classes representing all aspects of such systems.

Commercial Analytical Services

The BCSR theory originated in New Jersey with Bear and co-workers (e.g. Bear and Prince, 1945 Bear and Toth, 1948). Following work with lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), they proposed an 'ideal ratio' of cation saturation of 65 Ca, 10 Mg, 5 K and 20 H. One of Albrecht's colleagues at the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station was Dr E.R. Graham, who published an explanation of the BCSR theory and methods of soil testing (Graham, 1959). This theory was examined by researchers at the Department of Agronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, and at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Centre, Wooster. Trials carried out, with the results appearing in three papers by McLean (1977), Eckert and McLean (1981) and McLean et al. (1983), and a chapter by Eckert (1987). They compared the BCSR approach with the sufficiency level of available nutrient (SLAN) viewpoint, which is credited to Bray (1944, 1945). The 1981 paper found that lucerne grew well at several ratios, and the data...

Sources of tractordrawn drill seeders

Cole 250 Fertilizer Hopper

This unit is a hand-fed, double-drill, tuber-sowing machine. Sowing depth and row width as well as the depth of the covering layer are adjustable, by means of convex clutch discs. Fertilizer dispensers are optional extras, and the unit is attached to the tractor by a three-point hitch. Zita Sowing Machine With Fertilizer Distributor Even when fully loaded, this machine is tight enough to require only 1.6 h.p. to pull each drill (this model unit has seven drills). The seed tank is separated into two parts for seed and fertilizer, and each section can be regulated separately. The gear-type feeders for seed and fertilizer maintain a steady application rate independent of tractor speed. The Zita sowing machine can be operated by the tractor operator or by a second person sitting behind the unit. distance away from the fertilizer. The distance between furrows is adjustable with spring-steel tines. Construction of the unit was designed for simplicity, light weight, easy cleanability, and...

Sources of tractordrawn broadcast seeders and spreaders

Seeders And Spreaders

They call it a turf care model, but this 310-pound unit with a 7.7 cubic foot, 500-pound hopper capacity falls into the small farm category for us. With a 54-inch-wide coverage, this unit is ground driven and requires a minimum of 10 h.p. to pull it. The spreader is calibrated for seed as well as fertilizer distribution. A new product in their lawn and garden line, the I-bushel seeder, 100-pound fertilizer spreader constructed of polyethylene fits most lawn and garden tractors and riding lawn mowers. It has a 12-volt electric drive, mounts on a rear drawbar, and weighs pounds. Larger units are available. Gherardi Fertilizer Broadcaster Although this spreader is suitable for most types of fertilizer, it was designed chiefly for high-concentrate, granulated, pulled, or semi-pulled fertilizers requiring a high degree of The Midjet is a small, tractor-drawn, broadcast seeder-fertilizer designed as a lawn tool, which hitches to a small garden tractor.

Few Successfully Used Models In Agrometeorology

The traditional experimentation is time consuming and costly. So, systems analysis and simulation have an important role to play in fostering this understanding of options. The information science is rapidly changing. The computer technology is blossoming. So, DSSAT has the potential to reduce substantially the time and cost of field experimentation necessary for adequate evaluation of new cultivars and new management systems. Several crop growth and yield models built on a framework similar in structure were developed as part of DSSAT package. The package consists of 1) data base management system for soil, weather, genetic coefficients, and management inputs, 2) Crop-simulation models, 3) series of utility programs, 4) series of weather generation programs, 5) strategy evaluation program to evaluate options including choice of variety, planting date, plant population density, row spacing, soil type, irrigation, fertilizer application, initial conditions on yields, water stress in...

Discussion 710 Determination of total phosphorus in plant material and feeding stuffs

The AOAC alkalimetric ammonium molybdophosphate and photometric molybdovanadate methods for animal feed are described by Padmore (1990, pp. 87-88), and for plants by Isaac (1990, p. 56). A spectrophotometric molybdovanadate procedure is also described in MAFF ADAS (1986, pp. 181-182). The official Bran+Luebbe AutoAnalyzer method for phosphate in soil, plant and fertilizer extracts is reproduced with permission in Appendix 6.

Sources of cone seeders

Drag Chains For Planter

Craftsman also manufacturers a hand-pushed, single-row seeder with single- or doublemetering cones. It has a three-wheel chassis with 12-inch, double-disc openers. Sprockets are available to adjust for row length. The two-cone model is used for simultaneous fertilizer or insecticide treatments during seeding. fluted dispenser and a four-way spinning divider. It is designed for the exacting requirements of research plot experiments. Fertilizer may also be applied through a belt attachment. The four-row seeder pictured here is now obsolete because it was made to attach to a Bolens Ridemaster tractor, which is no longer being produced. However, models by other manufacturers are available. Plans are available from the Engineering Research Service, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario KIA 0C6 Canada, and similar seeders are commercially available. The Mat-OSU planter was developed at Oregon State University for fertilizer trials. Commercial planters were found unsuitable for the precise...

Sources of animaldrawn seederspunters

Old Wheel Seeder

An old horse-drawn corn seeder complete with fertilizer box, seed box, ftirrower, soil-packing bars, ground-drive wheels, seeder clutch on handles, and a variety of interchangeable seed metering plates. An old horse-drawn corn seeder complete with fertilizer box, seed box, ftirrower, soil-packing bars, ground-drive wheels, seeder clutch on handles, and a variety of interchangeable seed metering plates. Types ASD and RSD Seed and Fertilizer Drills With working widths of 1.25 to 2.50 meters and row spacing adjustable from a minimum of 154 millimeters, this unit is fitted with a steer-able front axle. Various types of furrow openers are available for different soil types. The fertilizer can be sown together with the seed or at the side of the seed rows, as required. This unit is available with either fluted roller seed metering or star wheel fertilizer metering. The Safaim Pitman Drive Planter is designed for maize planting but can be supplied with special attachments for cotton. It...

The Mochudi Toolbar The Makgonatsotlhe

The heavy angle iron frame of the Mochudi Toolbar is supported on two pneumatic tires which allow the frame to be lowered or raised mechanically for depth gauge control by pulling back on a lift handle. The frame will support a planter unit, fertilizer applicator, disc hiller furrowers, sweeps for stubble mulching, and a transport cart.

Tractordrawn Unit Punters

Almaco Cone Seed Extenstions

The planter simultaneously plants seed and side-dresses fertilizer. It has a single, inclined-plate seed hopper with a set of four seed plates for planting corn, large and small squash, small limas, okra, tomatoes, peas, and snap beans in hill or drill fashion. Other seed plates are avail- able. A set of four distance gears for changing spacing is included. Fertilizer is placed beside the seed to prevent any fertilizer damage in germination. The galvanized, fertilizer hopper has a 40-pound capacity and a rate of application adjustable from 34 to 650 pounds. It will apply any dry fertilizer. An opening shank is included (sweep is not included). allow the farmer to simultaneously plant and put out fertilizer. He has the option to use either one or two fertilizer hoppers, one of four planter chassis, and three seed hopper options. Fertilizer is placed by two disc-side placers and run by a ground-drive wheel. Seed spacing, seed depth, and seed plates may be changed without Model KK-310...

North American Sources Of Animaldrawn Equipment

Water Buffalo With Plough Png

Other pieces of horse-drawn equipment available through the Cumberland catalog are Ferguson single-row planters, Rex guano distributors, and Old Blue riding-type fertilizer distributors. International Modern Machinery, Inc. manufactures this complete set of implements for the small farm where water buffalo, cows, or oxen are used instead of tractors. The set includes plow, disc, harrow, row maker, cultivator, fertilizer and planter distributing unit, and a piece of equipment used for leveling and draining the field. This set of equipment will allow the world farmer to put in his crop within a six- to eight-day period rather than a forty-five-dav period usually required when using his existing equipment and hand labor, leaving enough time for another crop.

Ground cover in coffee farmers observe weeds and propose management alternatives

In Central America coffee is often produced on sloped land, either under shade with low inputs or in open sun with pesticides and high levels of fertilizers (Rice & Ward, 1996). Yields vary from 200 to 2700 kg of green beans ha_1, depending on soils, climates, farm size, and farmer resources. The diversity of growing conditions and the layout of coffee fields create spatial and temporal variability in weeds, insect pests, and diseases. Improving yields

Topographic Factor LS

MRU Moderate Residue Turned Under HRU Heavy Residue Turned Under RC Row Crop ROS Residue on Surface at Seeding Time MF Moderate Fertilizer WC Winter Cover. MRU Moderate Residue Turned Under HRU Heavy Residue Turned Under RC Row Crop ROS Residue on Surface at Seeding Time MF Moderate Fertilizer WC Winter Cover.

Agroecosystem redesign

Additional options have been proposed for ecological weed management in the Canadian prairies and American northern plains. Derksen, Blackshaw & Boyetchko (1996) suggested that increased use of residue-conserving tillage techniques in concert with moderate use of herbicides may improve habitat for insects, fungi, and bacteria that attack weed seeds and seedlings. The investigators noted that there is considerable potential to minimize herbicide use in conservation tillage systems through improved use of crop rotations, competitive cultivars, and crop densities and fertilizer placement strategies that enhance crop competitive ability against weeds.

The Handcranked Droadcast Seeder

A further refinement of the horn, the broadcast seeder hangs by a strap over the shoulder. Seed in the canvas bag or metal hopper flows through an adjustable hole in the bottom onto a distributing fan which is powered by a hand crank. The fan spreads the seed evenly over the ground. Adjustments let you alter your seeding rate to suit the crop. But remember that the speed with which you walk and turn the crank will also vary the seeding rate considerably. You have to learn to walk and crank uniformly and then match the seeder's adjustments to your motions. Cyclone and Universal are two popular brand names available from most hardware stores and country catalogs. Models are light- or heavy-duty, the former for sowing seed only, the latter for spreading fertilizer and lime. Don't try to spread fertilizer with the lighter models, though. Much larger broadcasters pulled behind a tractor and powered by a power take-off shaft are capable of extensive broadcast-planting coverage. Cyclone also...

Effects on the Environment

The most direct desired effect of perennial polyculture farming is to address many of the environmental problems that are evident in today's annual monoculture approach. These include soil erosion and degradation, water depletion, and water contamination from fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides. In thinking about replacing current annual, monoculture farming with perennial polyculture farming, it is important to understand what areas of the world are currently under cultivation. Figure 2 shows areas in which at least 30 percent of the landscape is under cultivation. The specific potential effects of perennial polycultures on the main types of environmental degradation throughout the world's cultivated lands follow. nitrogen, metals, pathogens, sediment, pesticides, salt, and trace elements (e.g., selenium). The agricultural sources of those contaminants are primarily fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. Maps of freshwater contamination would not tell the story of water...

Bouyer Tractor Type TE

Vides space for carrying a small load (500 kilograms maximum) without a trailer and provides a place for carrying extra weight in case more traction is required. The three-point hitch with hydraulic lift can be attached to a number of cultivation implements on a drawbar. A four-row seeder-fertilizer distributor is available along with a range c implements for tropical agriculture.

Sodium Omadine Spotrete Sst Sump Saver Storm Stain Super Adit Super Six Super

Rohm and Haas Griffin Corp. Gustafson, Inc. Mallinckrodt, Inc. Griffin Corp. Mallinckrodt, Inc. Miller Chemical & Fertilizer Pennwalt Corp. Griffin Corp. DuPont Calgon Corp. Gustafson, Inc. Calgon Corp. Mooney Chemicals, Inc. Bedford Chemical Division Mallinckrodt, Inc. Chapman Chemical Co. Gustafson, Inc.

Cropping and Management Factor CP

MRU Moderate Residue Under HRU Heavy Residue Under RC Row Crop ROS Residue on Surface at Seeding Time MF Moderate Fertilizer WC Winter Cover. MRU Moderate Residue Under HRU Heavy Residue Under RC Row Crop ROS Residue on Surface at Seeding Time MF Moderate Fertilizer WC Winter Cover.

Biological Removal of Nitrogen Nitrification and Denitrification

The goal of nitrogen removal, regardless of what exactly forms of nitrogen compounds in wastewater streams, has been the production of nitrogen gas, an inert, water-insoluble gas that is easily separated from liquid media. The necessity of producing nitrogen gas in the treatment processes of nitrogen removal is mainly due to high solubility of nitrogen compounds such as NO3 , NH4+, and NO2 present in the nitrogen removal. There is some indication that this old paradigm is being challenged. Because nitrogen gas, as in wastewater treatment operations, does not have economical value, some researchers are seeking to remove nitrogen compounds in dissolved forms (Aiyuk et al., 2004). The most promising method of removing dissolved forms of nitrogen compounds is the application of adsorption-employing zeolite columns in an integrated waste-water treatment process. The recovered nitrogen compounds can be used as fertilizers. However, due to high costs of zeolite columns, the most economical...

List of Producers and Formulators of Commercial AM Inoculum

Like pH, media manipulations (Douds 2002) can further increase the recovery of propagules. Recent report on the success of co-culturing two different genera together with single host under in vitro as it occurs in nature, opens a new scope of an in vitro consortium package as inoculum, which may prove more superior in varied edapho-climatic regions where multiple mycorrhizal isolates may function better than single isolate inoculation for future (Tiwari and Adholeya 2002). Industry-based research documentation's as such are not available to the end users but a recent brief insight into some of the potential techniques by Moutoglis and Beland (2001) along with other alternative production techniques such as bioreactor-based production techniques proposed by Jolicoeur et al. (1999) Jolicoeur and Pirrier (2001) making use of ROC proposes a bright future for AM biofertilizer.

Hydrogeology and Resource Availability

Around the world, intensive groundwater development without appropriate resource management regimes has resulted in resource degradation. In South Asia, this threat is growing. Besides non-point pollution of groundwater through chemical fertilizers and pesticides, intensive use of groundwater in agriculture gives rise to four resource management challenges (i) controlling resource depletion (ii) optimal management of conjunctive use of surface and groundwaters (iii) managing the productivity impacts of secondary saliniza-tion and (iv) managing natural groundwater quality concerns. The seriousness of each of these varies across regions depending upon their hydrogeology and the degree of groundwater development as set out in Fig. 2.3. It is clear that even in upper-right quadrant regions, which provide robust hydrogeologic platforms for intensive groundwater irrigation, socio-ecological and public health problems need to be managed as groundwater irrigation expands. In the eastern...

Calibrating Grain Drills

Drills also use bulk or volume metering. The rows are usually spaced 6-10 inches (15-25 cm) apart. Combining the row spacing and number of metering units is the traditional method for indicating the width of the drill. A drill identified as 13-6 would have 13 metering units spaced 6 inches apart or a width of 18 x6 12 9 ft. The calibration of grain drills is more critical than the calibration of fertilizer spreaders because drills dispense seeds. A small error in seeding rate can have a greater impact on the yield than an error in fertilizer application. In addition, it is more important that the seeds are planted uniformly. Grain drills can be calibrated stationary or mobile. The units cancellation method can be used in either situation. For both the stationary and mobile methods a container is attached to each metering unit, the drill is driven a measured distance (mobile), or the drill is jacked up and the drive wheel is turned (stationary) for a selected number of revolutions.

Weed patchiness and uncertainty the challenge to improving weed management

Since the early 1900s, the routine use of uniformly applied agrichemical inputs on the better croplands has produced impressive increases in yields and labor productivity, first in temperate and later in tropical agriculture. Through multiyear replicated experiments, scientists conducted input-output research to identify the best broadly applied levels and combinations of different inputs, each of which has a specific, short-term purpose. Extensionists and later private crop consultants promoted the use of improved varieties, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides. This simple production model based on the efficient assemblage of purchased inputs into an end product resembles an industrial process (Levins, 1986). In the USA maize production quadrupled from 1940 to 1990 with fewer farmers and less land in production (Hossner & Dibb, 1995). In more recent years, in China rice and wheat yields have doubled and quadrupled, respectively (Hossner & Dibb, 1995).

Stationary Calibration

Both bulk and singulating row crop planters can be calibrated stationary by following the procedure used for stationary calibration of fertilizer applicators and grain drills. When the stationary method is used, the seeding rate is calculated by dividing the seeds planted per revolution of the drive wheel by the simulated acres covered per revolution of the drive wheel, when the stationary method is used or

Definition of Agricultural Waste

A general definition of 'agricultural waste' is not available in the literature. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), agricultural waste is the byproducts generated by the rearing of animals and the production and harvest of crops or trees. Animal waste, a large component of agricultural waste, includes waste (e.g., feed waste, bedding and litter, and feedlot and paddock runoff) from livestock, dairy, and other animal-related agricultural and farming practices. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) defines 'agricultural waste' as waste produced as a result of various agricultural operations including manure and other wastes from farms, poultry houses and slaughterhouses harvest waste fertilizer run-off from fields pesticides that enter into water, air or soils and salt and silt drained from fields. In the context of this chapter, agricultural waste is defined as waste in the form of the crop residues in the farm, manure from...

The green revolution research paradigm

Most of the conventional breeding research that launched the green revolution was conducted by the public sector with the explicit goal of creating technologies that could be transferred internationally. International and national public sector researchers bred dwarfing genes into elite wheat and rice cultivars, causing them to produce more grain and shorter stems and enabling them to respond to higher levels of fertilizer and water. These semidwarf cultivars were made freely available to plant breeders from developing countries who further adapted them to meet local production conditions. Private firms were involved in the development and commercialization of locally adapted varieties in some countries, but the improved germplasm was provided by the public sector and disseminated freely as a public good.

Indirect Gpr Applications To Agricultural Investigations

Identifying subsurface flow pathways is a very important application of GPR because of what (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides) may move with the soil water. Several investigations (Collins et al., 1994 Gish et al., 2002, 2005 Kowalsky et al., 2004) documented potential subsurface water movement. Collins et al. (1994) was one of the first to do so and will be discussed as an example. Initially, the 900 MHz antenna was used because of its ability to detect shallow features with high resolution, but it was not successful because of a recent application of granular fertilizer. The fertilizer (high salt content) created noise and distortion to the radar data. As a result, the 400 MHz antenna was used for the study. A discontinuity was located where the golfers would exit the greens.

Irrigation Management Under Water Shortage Conditions

Planning for deficit irrigation entails a greater challenge than for full irrigation, because it requires the knowledge of the appropriate MAD and how this deficit will affect the yield. Deficit irrigation may call for changes in cropping practices, such as moderation of plant population density, decreased application of fertilizers and agrochemicals, flexible sowing dates, and the selection of shorter-cycle varieties.

Bradysia paupera Toumikoski

Adult sciarids are very active, and are often seen flitting or scurrying about at the base of cuttings, seedlings or older plants. The egg-laying females are much attracted to dried blood fertilizer and to steam-sterilized soil each will deposit 100 or more eggs in the soil close to host plants. Eggs hatch several days later, the incubation time varying considerably according to temperature. The larvae feed for 3-4 weeks and usually attack the root hairs when fully fed, they construct

A chronological narrative 521 The 1960s and the 1970s

Besides high growth, a depreciating dollar, and expanding inflationary pressures, the jump in agricultural prices was also related to poor weather conditions in many parts of the world (a cyclone in Bangladesh, 1970 a long drought in sub-Saharan Africa partial failure of the Soviet cereal crop in 1972 floods in India) and a hike in fertilizer prices, partly due to problems with Morocco's industry. Regarding primary agricultural prices and agricultural growth, during the 1970s energy prices affected these issues mostly through the costs ofproduction (through inputs such as fertilizers and gas oil) while consumer prices were also influenced by transportation and processing costs. Now the energy-agriculture equation is more complex In addition to the same production, transportation, and processing links, we have two other channels. First is the competition for land, water, labor, capital, and inputs in the production of biofuels. Second is the impact on climate change of the energy...

Uses diseaseresistant varieties

Wisconsin fruit grower Eric Carlson pays twice the price of conventional fertilizers to feed his half-acre of transitional-organic blueberries with composted poultry manure, augmented with elemental sulfur, potassium and magnesium. He calculates that those blueberries need a half-mile of weeding every two or three weeks a full mile if you figure both sides. The semi-load of mulches he buys each year suppresses his annual weeds, but perennials like sorrel and quackgrass the latter so tenacious he's come to admire it persist. At 8 an hour, Carlsons hand weeding costs five to 10 times as much as herbicide treatments.

Mycorrhizal Associations

Papers advocating the valuable potential of mycorrhizal inoculations in plant establishments have been published since the 1960s but comprehensive information on their practical exploitation by multiple field trials has not been presented so far (Findlay and Kendle 2001). Immense potential of mycorrhiza has not been so far exploited due to its uncultivable nature unlike other biofertilizers. Mycorrhizas are conventionally propagated using pot-based methods with host trap plants. The disadvantage of this mode is the low recovery of mycorrhizal propagules, contamination by saprobes, pathogens and other mycorrhizal fungi because of improper management techniques and long gaps duration between setup and harvest. Several alternatives to this mode have been designed, but in all current methodologies of cultivating AM fungi, host plant is indispensable. Many variants of these methods have been proposed by various workers to culture glomalean endomycorrhizal fungi, with a bewildering array of...

Pioneer HiBred International Inc Miami Florida and Johnston Iowa USA

A second agricultural revolution began in the mid-17th century in Europe. During this and the next century, new arable rotations, new crops (potato, maize, marigolds, sugar beet, coleseed), and new seed drills, hoes and ploughs were introduced. The 18th and 19th centuries witnessed the use of improved fertilizers and mechanization.

Calibrating Row Crop Planters

Row crop planters are used to plant crops in wider rows than those planted by grain drills. Row crop planters are commonly used to plant large seeds, such as corn, soybeans, and sunflowers, but are used for small seeded vegetable crops such as radishes. Row crop planters will have a speed hopper, a metering unit, a seed tube, a furrow opener and some type of closing or press wheels. Additional hoppers are sometimes used for fertilizer or insecticides, Figure 8.5. The common metering units for row crop planters are plate, disc, drum, and volume or bulk, but other mechanisms are available. Plates are the traditional method for metering seeds, but for most crops they have been replaced with discs. One style of antique plate planter was designed to plant hills of seeds, but most plate and the modern disc metering units singulate seeds. Singulating means each seed is selected from a small volume of seeds and transferred to the furrow. When plates are used the seeds are deposited in holes...

Sludge Quality and Characteristics

The characteristics of stabilized or raw sludge that affect its suitability for land application and beneficial use include organic content, nutrients, pathogens, metals, and toxic organics. The fertilizer value of sludge, if evaluated and found to be suitable, is based mainly on the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. In food and agricultural wastewater treatment, sludge may not have sufficient phosphorus and potassium contents to provide good plant growth. Trace amounts of inorganic compounds in the sludge may spur or stunt growth of plants. Heavy metals in sludge, a perennial problem of municipal wastewater treatment plants, is less severe a problem in most food wastewater treatment processes. Detailed information regarding typical wastewater characteristics, including heavy metals, can be found in Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. (1991).

Why Hasnt Anybody Tried This Before

If perennial polycultures are such a good idea, why haven't they been developed before now Certainly the polyculture part has been explored and developed to some extent. One source suggests that humans have produced food from integrated polycultures for approximately 98.5 of farming history.26 Modern farmers use a wide variety of techniques today that emulate aspects of a perennial polyculture. They use crop rotations to reduce the need for pest control and fertilizer use cover crops to improve soil quality, prevent soil erosion, and minimize weed growth use no-till and low-till farming to minimize soil erosion and increase retention of water and nutrients practice soil management to improve fertility employ diversity to protect against monoculture vulnerabilities use integrated pest management to reduce the need for pesticides and employ rotational grazing to prevent soil erosion and contribute to soil fertility.27

The New American Farmer

Many producers cut costs with new management strategies, such as replacing purchased fertilizers and pesticides with cover crops and crop rotations, or raise animals on pasture rather than in confinement. Some developed innovative marketing strategies to gain a better end price for their products. Others combine trimming production costs with alternative marketing, doubling their efforts to boost profits.

Use Of Mycorrhizal Inoculum 81 When is it Appropriate

Large-scale disturbances always change soil characteristics, alter plant communities, and reduce mycor-rhizal abundance and diversity. Where native fungi have low colonization capacity, but provide benefits to host plants, managing to increase the abundance of fungal populations may be more appropriate than augmenting with nonnative fungi (Dodd and Thomson 1994). Most areas to be restored vary greatly from their predisturbance state. Native ecotypes may or may not be better adapted to the prevailing site conditions (Azcon-Aguilar and Barea 1997). Consequently, using nonnative mycorrhizae better adapted to the current environmental conditions is an important consideration. For instance, management for native populations of mycorrhizal fungi may not be appropriate where exotic trees are planted on disturbed sites. Dunstan et al. (1998) noted that the first attempts to establish pine plantations, especially Pinus radiata, in Western Australia were large-scale failures, and...

Planning for the Opening Up of Agricultural Areas

This difference is explained by the burden of the harvest. Instead of a second public road, private farm roads on the field may be an alternative in arable farming. Further, Boss and Flury 4 state that the field lengths are dependent on the cultivated area per farm, the degree of mechanization, the soil utilization system, and the crop rotation. Figure 3.7 demonstrates the various effects of these factors on a 16-ha farm. The optimum field length is based upon the cost of turning (related to reduced yields at field edges and in the turning area), empty trips (due to additional filling and emptying during fertilizer application, spraying, and harvesting), double work during turning at field edges, and the additional expenditure of seed and fertilizer during an entire crop rotation. In addition to the 16-ha farms in the figure, it can be summarized that for 9-ha farms and 25-ha farms, respectively

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