Surviving a Global Financial Crisis
Policy reforms are often made individually, addressing a single issue at a time. However, because each issue has implications in other areas, reforms are sometimes more effective if they are designed and implemented jointly as part of an integral package, or strategy, for the sector. A strategy constitutes both a vision of what the sector should look like in the future and a 'road map' showing how to fulfill this vision. Its point of departure is the current situation of the sector and the issues that it faces. It should be firmly grounded in both history and an assessment of the sector's future potentials. The development of an agricultural strategy may be motivated by an economic crisis in the sector or by other problems
Bank regulations basically are designed to protect shareholders and, above all, depositors. They also have the purpose of protecting the integrity of the financial system as a whole. 'Problems in one bank can quickly spread through the entire financial system. Bank failures have monetary and macroeconomic consequences, disrupt the payments system, and lead to disintermediation (which decreases the mobilization of resources and the availability of finance for investment)'.81 The capacity for adequate bank regulation is a pervasive weak point in the developing world Liquidity management Liquidity problems are often early signals of bank failure. Many bank regulators ask for various liquidity ratios of supervised institutions. . . . Financial institutions that mobilize savings and lend in rural contexts face very particular liquidity issues. Regions dominated by agricultural production face seasonal cash flow fluctuations. A broad coverage of diverse regions and or access to a liquidity...
The Agricultural Biotechnology Intellectual Property Database Linking Technologies Ownership and Intellectual Property
The upward trend in agricultural biotechnology patents has outpaced the overall upward trend in patenting throughout the US economy. (From data compiled from records of the US Patent and Trademark Office.) Fig. 9.1. The upward trend in agricultural biotechnology patents has outpaced the overall upward trend in patenting throughout the US economy. (From data compiled from records of the US Patent and Trademark Office.)
Despite the economic crisis of 1997, biotechnology remains a high priority in Indonesia, although the focus and direction have been adjusted to the current economic conditions. The first priority is to apply existing biotechnologies for product(s) in response to the needs of the people, especially in food production, traditional medicine, and value-added agricultural products for import substitution and export. The second priority is strategic research in response to the rapid development of biotechnology for long-term investment and to improve national capabilities in biotechnology.
(1) The first challenge is to motivate a sufficient number of leading farmers and ranchers to commit themselves to the process and dedicate the time required to bring it to a successful conclusion. Since both agricultural entrepreneurs and peasant farmers have many claims on their time, it is not easy to satisfy this requirement. In some circumstances, an additional factor that can complicate the challenge is a prevailing attitude of cynicism about the prospects of being able to effect true reforms in the policy framework. On the other hand, if the rural sector is experiencing a deep economic crisis, that circumstance alone may motivate people to try their hand at reforming policies through a participatory process.
However, institutional reform and economic change did not stop after ten years. Much has happened since. As in the first decade of transition, important variations exist among the regions. There are many common themes. For example, overall the picture in the second decade is generally more optimistic than that of the first decade. China and Vietnam have continued to grow at rapid rates for twenty years now and there is no end in sight. In Central Europe, productivity growth in agriculture has also continued. And, as before, there are still systemic differences among the CIS nations as some countries appear to be succeeding while others are continuing to struggle. For several countries in the CIS, the late 1990s are beginning to be recognized as a turning point. Russia's financial crisis in 1998 was in some ways at the same time the worst moment of transition and the start of recovery. Economic growth in countries such as Russia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine has been strong since the crisis...
The financial crisis in East Asia led to widespread questioning of government attempts to mold the development of financial markets. In response to assertions of the need to intervene in cases of market failure, the general point has been made that 'Direct measurement of the existence and extent of market failure is difficult and uncommon'.163
In general, in several developing countries, mostly but not only within the urbanized group, an important percentage of both deposits and loans in the banking system are denominated in dollars. Although this seemingly takes care of the currency mismatch from the point of view of the banks, that problem is not significantly resolved if debtors have their incomes in domestic currency and would be forced to default in case of a large adjustment in the exchange rate. In turn, banks might not have enough foreign exchange reserves (neither the domestic economic authorities) to finance large withdrawals of foreign currency deposits from economic agents that see the deterioration of the banks' asset side and want out. Also, governments and private sectors that are increasingly indebted abroad and for which their tax receipts and sales, respectively, are denominated in local currency will also be affected by large devaluations. For a government with dollarized public debt, the devaluation...
First, new and fundamental changes in land and farm reform policies following the disappointments of the earlier attempts to reform land policies, and, second, fundamental improvements in the terms of trade for several countries following the Russian financial crisis in 1998 that have greatly benefited the farming sector. Second, during the second decade shocks external to agriculture began to have major impacts often positive ones on the sector in many CIS countries. In the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis in 1997, a financial crisis in Russia in 1998 caused a large devaluation of the Russian currency. The same effect occurred, although to a somewhat lesser extent, to countries close to Russia, such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Around the same time, world oil and gas prices started rising.
The recent financial crisis in the country and the region has also exposed the country's vulnerability to a possible food crisis as the cost of food has risen under depreciation of the Ringgit (RM). Food import bills have steadily escalated from RM3.5 billion in 1985 to RM7.7 billion in 1995 to RM10 billion by 1997. The RM was pegged at the rate of RM3.80 to the in mid 1998. Meanwhile, the population has increased from 17.6 million in 1991 to a current level of 22 million (National Census 2000). The higher demand for food has led to an increase in food prices.
Financial End Game
How to profit from the global crisis and make big bucks big time! The current global financial crisis has its roots embedded in the collapse of the subprime markets in the United States. As at October 2007 there was an estimated loss on the subprime market of approximately 250 billion. If you want to come out on top, you have come to the right place.