101 Toxic Food Ingredients
Different industries respond differently to the incentives offered by patents (Table 2.7). Firms with easily replicable products and technologies, such as pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, seed and software, would be more concerned with the local IPR system. These industries are also known for using and producing a great number of patents. In such cases, both the quantity and technological sophistication of FDI are reduced in countries with limited IPRs (Lee and Mansfield, 1996).
No matter how anecdotal the evidence, even the ancient societies recognized the use of fungal technology, in relationship with their agriculture and food. Knowledge of fungal diversity and distinguishing beneficial fungi for the biotransformation of food ingredients, helped to sustain and extend our food source. In spite of the powerful toxic secondary metabolites of many fungi, humanity survived these fungi and through innovative use of the beneficial micro and macro fungi found particular culinary and other uses of the mushrooms (see this volume, chapter by Rai).
In certain food production schemes, food additives and ingredients obtained through fungal fermentation technology contribute much to aroma and flavors. Fungi grown in either liquid cultures or in solid-state fermentation have the advantages of in situ contribution to the value of foods (see Arora 2004, chapters by Saxsena and Malhotra Nigam, Robinson, and Singh and Vinigera-Gonzalez). Several specific aspects of fungal biotechnology's contribution to functional attributes including taste and smell of foods are discussed in depth in the following chapters (see this volume, chapters Castrillo and Ugalde Agrawal and Hansen and Jakobsens see also chapter by Avalos, Arora 2004).
Recent advances in diagnostic biotechnology have revolutionized the procedures used in the identification of food fungi. Biochemical identification assays have been miniaturized and through automation and uses of robotics have become faster, reliable, and cost affordable. Rapid identification of fungi and yeasts from foods has become less cumbersome because of ease in sequestering of target fungi from the food ingredients and interfering compounds. In addition, biochemical tests which traditionally have been used in the identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi have been greatly aided by the introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology.
Sorbic acid at 1000ppm and pH 7.0 will not inhibit mold growth. However, if the pH is lowered to 5.0, growth of most molds will be inhibited (Liewen and Marth 1985). Antioxidants such as BHA and BHT have been shown to potentiate the action of sorbic acid (Scott 1989). In general, antifungal food additives become more effective as environmental conditions move away from the optimum for a particular organism.
Exploration of Gene Function and Organization During Developmental Events Studies on Gene Structure and Function Cloning, Sequencing, Expression, and Modification of Selected Genes from Bacteria and Fungi Application of Biotechnology for the Production of Flavor Ingredients Utilization of Microorganisms and Enzymes for the Production and Improvement of Starch-Based Foods and Food Ingredients Properties and Application of Starch-Based Food Ingredients Produced Through the Use of Microbial and Enzyme Technologies Development of Transformation and Regeneration System for Genetic Manipulation of Flowering and Insect Resistance in Teak (Tectona grandis)
Biochemical differences between proteins and lowmolecularweight chemicals impact on safety assessment of proteins
Chemical structures vary considerably and may be novel (not found in nature) or related to biochemicals found in nature. For example, the chemical structure of the insecticide chloropyriphos would be considered novel, whereas the herbicide glyphosate is structurally related to the amino acid glycine. Examples of food additives with novel structure could include the artificial sweetener saccharin, whereas another artificial sweetener, aspartame, is structurally related to the amino acid dipeptide aspartate-phenylalanine. 2. Low-molecular-weight chemical food additives and contaminants have molecular weights generally ranging from approximately 200-800 MW.
Maximum levels of Fusarium toxins are set for unprocessed cereals sold for first stage processing. Cleaning, sorting and drying procedures are not considered first-stage processing insofar as no physical action is exerted on the grain kernel itself. Scouring is considered first-stage processing. The degree to which Fusarium toxins in unprocessed cereals are removed by cleaning and processing may vary. Thus, to have enforceable legislation, maximum levels also have been set for final consumer cereal products and for major food ingredients derived from cereals. Maximum levels were established in 2005 for Fusa-rium toxins in cereals and cereal products, including maize and maize products. For maize, all of the factors involved in the formation of Fusarium toxins, particularly zearalenone and fumonisins B1 and B2, are not known precisely. The maximum levels in maize and maize products were implemented beginning 1 July 2007 for deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, and on 1 October 2007 for...
Specific rules on GMOs for human consumption were introduced in EU Regulation 258 9 7 EC on novel foods and novel food ingredients, which came into force in 199 7. This regulation distinguishes six categories of novel food products of which two refer directly to products derived from GMOs (European Commission, 199 7). In contrast to traditional food products, novel foods are subject to pre-market approval in the EU. In order to ensure the consumers' right to information and freedom of choice, EU legislation mandates labelling to indicate the presence of GMOs, which was laid down in art. 8 of Regulation 258 9 7 EC. According to this article 'additional specific labelling requirements shall apply to foodstuffs . . . which renders a novel food or food ingredient no longer equivalent to an existing food or food ingredient. A novel food or food ingredient shall be deemed to be no longer equivalent for the purpose of this Article if scientific assessment, based upon an appropriate analysis...
Microbial enzymes used in food processing are not pure substances. Rather, they are complex mixtures that include the desired enzyme as well as other metabolites generated by the production strain, in addition to intentionally added materials such as preservatives and stabilizers. Accordingly, safety evaluation of food enzyme preparations poses special challenges that are not typically encountered with other food ingredients. To address these challenges we developed a scientific framework1,2 that focuses on the safety of the production organism and its metabolites rather than simply on the desired enzyme. This framework may also serve as a model for evaluating the safety of other complex food matrices that contain intentionally modified proteins. In the United States, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory jurisdiction over the use of food ingredients, including, of course, enzymes used in food processing. The uses of most food ingredients are regulated...
Other than OA, Penicillia produce many mycotoxins with diverse toxic effects. Cyclochlorotine, luteoskyrin (LS), and rugulosin (RS) have long been considered to be possibly involved in the yellow rice disease during the Second World War. They are hepatotoxins and also produce hepatomas in test animals. However, incidents of food contamination with these toxins have not been well documented. Several other mycotoxins, including patulin (PT, Figure 6), penicillic acid (PA, Figure 7), citrinin (CT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, Figure 8), citreoviridin, and xanthomegnin, which are produced primarily by several species of Penicillia, have attracted some attention because of their frequent occurrence in foods. PT and PA are produced by many species in the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Byssochlamys nivea also produces PT (Tournas 1994). Both toxins are hepatotoxic and
Elevated rates of liver cancer in rural populations in Fiji as compared to Tonga have been attributed to the higher prevalence of food contamination with aflatoxin in the former, reflecting different storage practices. Men who used mainly dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) in an antimalarial campaign in Sardinia, Italy, during the late 1940s experienced an increased mortality from liver and biliary tract cancers. This increase, however, also occurred in nonexposed subjects and showed no dose response relation. The authors concluded that these cancers probably were unrelated to DDT and that other environmental exposures common to the Sardinian population accounted for the increase in risk (15,16).
The Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) is an intergovernmental body of 174 member countries with a joint FAO WHO secretariat (Codex Alimentarius, 2003a) that facilitates world trade and protects the health of the consumer by developing harmonized international standards for food. Within the CAC, the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC Codex Alimentarius, 2003c) sets maximum limits (standards) for additives and contaminants in food, which are critical in trade conflicts. CCFAC develops standards through a risk analysis process that follows the general Codex Procedural Manual and the Codex General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Food. Discussion papers on all relevant aspects of a food contaminant are requested when there is reason to expect health concerns or trade problems, followed by proposals for maximum levels when all the necessary requirements for standard setting have been met. Mycotoxin standards are set at the international level by the Codex...
Ochratoxin A, sometimes abbreviated as OTA, is a secondary metabolite produced by some Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. Ochratoxin A is found in a range of foods such as cereals, dried fruits, grape juice, coffee, cocoa, wine and beer with cereals providing the largest contribution to the intake of ochratoxin A in Europe (DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2002). Ochratoxin A's toxicological effects have been evaluated on several occasions by the Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the EU Scientific Committee for Foods (SCF) (DG Health and Consumer Protection, 1998 JECFA, 2001). SCF concluded in 1998 that ochratoxin A possesses carcinogenic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic and possibly neurotoxic properties. Based on this evaluation SCF recommended that ochratoxin A exposure should be reduced as much as possible ensuring that exposures are 5 ng kg bw per day (DG Health and Consumer Protection, 1998). Since 1998 further research, especially on
Its link to cancer and birth defects, was used illegally in Europe for veal production. Very high levels of DES were used and some of the contaminated veal was processed into baby food consumed in Europe. This illegal use raised considerable safety concerns, leading to the total ban of all steroid growth promotants used in beef cattle production. The ban in Europe remains in effect to this day despite aforementioned scientific reviews carried out by regulatory scientists both in Europe and the United States that continue to confirm the safe use of approved growth promotants such as estrogen in beef cattle production.36 The total ban in Europe on the use of growth promotants in beef cattle occurred around the same time the safety of bST was being reviewed by European regulatory scientists Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) . The public did not differentiate between protein and steroid hormone use in food production, which made the safety of bST an issue in Europe.
Despite many favorable characteristics of organic farming, one of several criticisms about organic farming is the increased potential for microbial food contamination. A French study in 1999 to 2000 warned that biological toxins in certain organic products (i.e., apples and wheat) should be closely monitored. Another major concern is the use of manure as a fertilizer in organic farming. Manure can carry human pathogens and mycotoxins from molds. It is well known that E. coli 0157 H7 originates primarily from ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and deer, which shed it through their feces. In addition, growers must also be alert to the potential contamination of produce growing and handling environments by human or animal fecal material, which is known to harbor Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, and other pathogens. However, properly treated manure (and other biosolids) can be an effective and safe fertilizer. Other sources of contamination related to organic farming may arise from nearby...
Organic acids, vitamins, nonvolatile and volatile flavor organic molecules (e.g., vanillin and 2-heptanone) are important compounds in food production and technology. They serve as food ingredients or as precursors for food ingredients. The major organic acids produced and used in the largest volumes function primarily as food acidulants. The means for organic acid and production methods rely on bacteria and fungi. If these ingredients are used as a food ingredient, they must have a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status. Although the use of Penicillium was the primary source for many organic acids, in recent years Aspergillus niger has become the preferred organism and riboflavin oversynthesizing strains of Pichia guilliermondii the preferred source.
Their mechanism of action thus awaits to be elucidated. 6-pentylapyrone is probably the most frequently studied of these metabolites, as it also exhibits a pronounced coconut-aroma which can be used as a (for humans) nontoxic flavoring agent. Its biosynthesis has been claimed to be derived from linolenic acid (Serrano-Carreon et al. 1993), but this conclusion was criticized by Sivasithamparam and Ghisalberti (1998), who consider it to be a product of polyketide biosynthesis. No other of the genes or proteins involved in Trichoderma secondary metabolism has as yet been characterized.
Benzoic acid also has widespread use in the food industry. It occurs naturally in raspberries, cranberries, plums prunes, cinnamon, and cloves (Doors 1993). As an antifungal food additives, the water-soluble sodium and potassium salts and the fat-soluble acid form are suitable for food and beverages with a pH below 4.5. Benzoates have little effect at neutral pH values. They are not as effective as sorbates at pH 5.0 (Table 2), but their effectiveness increases at lower pH values.
The antimicrobial activities of extracts from several types of plants and plant parts used as flavoring agents in foods and beverages have been recognized for many years. Some of these essential oils have antifungal properties. Conner and Beuchat (1984) documented the effects of garlic and onion against yeasts and other investigators have shown these extracts to be inhibitory to molds. Alderman and Marth (1976) examined the effects of lemon and orange oils on Aspergillus flavus and found when the citrus oils were added to grapefruit juice or glucose yeast extract medium at concentrations of 3000-3500ppm, growth and aflatoxin production was suppressed. When orange oil was added to either medium at concentrations up to 7000 ppm, growth and aflatoxin production were greatly reduced although still evident. Recent publications have reported that the essential oils of anise, coriander, Roman chamomile, basil, and oregano were inhibitory to food and industrial yeasts (Chao et al. 2000...
The intent of this model is to provide public health and food safety for the general population, but also to protect the interests of the supply side of the equation by making the regulations achievable. Balancing these interests has been the task of the WHO FAO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Implementation of their recommendations has required authorities to promulgate laws, and establish mechanisms for their enforcement. In the United States, for example, independent inspectors sample each batch of peanuts delivered by farmers to buying points and make measurements to determine quality, while port authorities and their proxies (certifying laboratories) operate at the international level to protect trader interests.
The European Commission legislation and Codex Alimentarius currently are evaluating ochratoxin A contamination of food commodities and raw material. Ochratoxin A can be found in cereals, wine, grape juice, dried vine fruits, coffee, spices, cocoa, and animal derived products, e.g., pork. The current European Commission legislation includes unprocessed cereals and cereal products, including baby food. JECFA (the Joint FAO WHO expert committee on Food Additives) evaluated ochratoxin A at its 56th meeting in 2001 (FAO WHO, 2001). They determined that ochratoxin A is nephrotoxic and causes renal cancer, but that the mechanism of action is not yet clear as both genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms have been proposed.
The FAO Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division, which hosts the Codex Secretariat, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA) and the food quality and safety capacity building work, was moved in 2006 from the Economic and Social Department to the Agriculture, Biosecurity, Nutrition and Consumer Protection Department. This move is consistently in line with the farm-to-table approach to nutrition, food safety and consumer protection along the food chain and provides new opportunities for cooperation between the units involved in the production, processing, handling, storage and distribution of food products as well as those in food safety control and standards development.
Acute and chronic urticaria and angioedema can result from exposure to a number of agricultural products. They may be caused by immunologic and nonimmunologic histamine releasers. Immunologic mechanisms involve type I (immunoglobulin G IgG -mediated), type II (cytotoxic antibody-mediated), or type III (immune complex-mediated) reactions. Nonimmunologic mechanisms usually involve substances such as aspirin that directly incite the release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells. Medications, foods, food additives, and the bites of insects and snakes have been implicated. Common food allergies include shellfish, fish, eggs, nuts, chocolate, berries, tomatoes, cheese, and milk (27).
The potential risks of biotechnology on human health may include toxic reactions, increased cancer risks, food allergies, food contamination, and antibiotic resistance (Table 4.1). There is also concern that GMOs in animal feed might present a health risk for consumers, or for the animal itself. Consumers are also concerned about the long-term health effects of genetically modified foods. (i) Some countries have regulatory procedures, institutions, and infrastructure in place to ensure food safety (OECD 2000). These regulations cover all aspects of the food chain, from farm inputs (including animal feed, feed additives, pesticides, fertilizers, veterinary drugs) through production and processing (including agricultural products, processed food, novel foods, food additives), to transportation, storage, and distribution.
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