Combined Methods fOR Estimating Food Intake

Consumption data collection methods may be combined to improve accuracy and facilitate validity of the dietary data. Consumption data collection methods may also be combined for practical reasons. For example, some surveys, such as the USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), combine the food record with the 24-hour recall. FFQs that focus on selected nutrients have been used in addition to the 24-hour recall. The 24-hour recall is frequently used to help establish the typical meal plan. This information can be used for getting better information from the diet history method. The FFQ may also be used as a cross-check for the other three types of methods.

Examples of existing food consumption data include:

• The 1994-96, 1998 USDA CSFII10 and the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) survey,11 which provide two-day (CSFII) and one- or two-day (NHANES) food consumption data for individuals in the United States along with corresponding demographic and anthropometric data (age, sex, race, ethnicity, body weight, and height, etc.) for each individual.

• The 2000-2001 National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS), which provides seven-day record consumption data for adults in the UK12,13; the 1992-93 NDNS survey, which provides four-day record data for children 1// to 4i/2 years old in the UK14,15; and the 1997 NDNS survey, which provides seven-day record data for young people (ages 4 to 18 years old) in the UK.16

• The 1992-94 Hungarian Randomized Nutrition Survey, which provides 24-hour recall data and food frequency questionnaire data for Hungarian adults.1

• The 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey, which collected data on one 24-hour food recall for 13,858 individuals aged 2 years and above.1

• The 1997 New Zealand National Nutrition Survey, which collected data on one 24-hour food recall for 4636 individuals aged 15 years and above,19 and the 2002 children's' survey, aged 5-14 years.20

• The 2002-03 Brazilian Household Budget Survey (HBS), which provides the amount of food acquired during seven consecutive days by 48,470 households in all 27 Brazilian states.21

• Diet, Life-style and Mortality in China, which provides intakes and health statistics for households by provinces.22

• China Health and Nutrition Survey.23 The survey took place over a three-day period using a multistage, random cluster process to draw a sample of about 4400 households with a total of 16,000 individuals in nine provinces that vary substantially in geography, economic development, public resources, and health indicators. In addition, detailed community data were collected in surveys of food markets, health facilities, family planning officials, and other social services and community leaders.

• DAFNE Network for the Pan-European Food Data Bank based on Household Budget Survey.6

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