3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Biology of Bacillus thuringiensis 47

3.2.1 Systematics, Nomenclature, and Insecticidal Protein Diversity 49

3.2.2 Toxicity and Mode of Action 53 Mode of Action of Cry Proteins 55 Mode of Action of Cyt Proteins 59

3.3 Safety of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticides 59

3.3.1 Safety of Bt Insecticides to Nontarget Invertebrates 63

3.3.2 Safety of Bt Insecticides to Humans 65 Commercial Bt Strains as a Putative Cause of Infections in Humans 68 Commercial Bt Strains as a Putative Cause of Food Poisoning 68 Epidemiology of Human Populations Exposed to Aerial Bt Sprays 76 Overall Assessment of Bt Insecticide Safety to Humans 79

3.4 Safety of Bt Crops 80

3.4.1 Safety of Bt Crops to Nontarget Invertebrates 80 Safety of Bt Cotton to Nontarget Invertebrates 85 Safety of Bt Corn to Nontarget Invertebrates 89

3.4.2 Safety of Bt Crops to Humans and Other Vertebrates 92

3.5 Discussion and Conclusions 93

References 96

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