Safety of Bt cotton to nontarget Invertebrates

In two companion studies, the effects of Cry1Ac cotton on foliar-dwelling, nontarget invertebrate communities, with an emphasis on assessing effects on beneficial predatory and parasitic insects, were carried out over a period of five to six years in Arizona, where the primary target pest is the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypi-ella).112113 These studies were initiated during the late 1990s and carried out through 2003. The principal nontarget arthropod populations (22 species) monitored included numerous species of spiders, sucking insect predators (Heteroptera), predaceous coleopterans and lacewings (C. perla again), dipterans, and parasitic hymenopterans. When Cry1Ac cotton was compared to non-Bt cotton, no acute or chronic long-term

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