Tier I safety Tests required for the registration of Bacterial Insecticides Based on Bacillus thuringiensis in the united states and canadaa

Toxicology

Acute oral exposure Acute dermal exposure Acute pulmonary exposure Acute intravenous exposure Primary eye irritation Hypersensitivity

Nontarget organisms/Environmental fate

Avian oral exposure Avian inhalation Wild mammals Freshwater fish

Freshwater aquatic invertebrates Estuarine and marine animals Nontarget plants Nontarget insects including honeybees

Adapted from Betz, F.S., Forsyth, S.F., and Stewart, W.E., Registration requirements and safety considerations for microbial pest control agents in North America, in Safety of Microbial Insecticides, Laird, M., Lacey, L. A., and Davidson, E.W., Eds., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1990.

To date, none of the registered bacterial insecticides based on Bt has had to undergo Tier II testing. Their use has been judged to pose minimal risk (hazard x exposure). As a result, all Bt insecticides are exempted from a tolerance requirement, i.e., a specific level of insecticide residue allowed on a crop just prior to harvest. Moreover, no washing or other requirements to reduce levels consumed by humans are required. In fact, Bt insecticides can be applied to crops such as lettuce, cabbage, and tomatoes just prior to harvest. It is important to realize that such a statement cannot be made for almost any chemical insecticide. This does not mean that registered bacterial insecticides do not have any negative impacts on any nontarget species but, rather, that these materials pose no significant or long-term risk to populations of these organisms.

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