Modes of Gene Movement

Genes may move out of the test areas by pollen or by seed. Because insect-vectored sunflower pollen may readily transfer genes to wild, weedy, or cultivated H. annuus, or other Helianthus spp. outside test areas, some means, such as flower removal, caging, etc., must be used to prevent such movement. Spatial isolation may not be realistic for some test sites. Seeds may serve as a means of movement either by bird dissemination, or simply by falling to the ground. Some means, almost certainly physical, must be implemented to prevent seed from falling and to prevent birds from taking seed.

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