Measures are usually implemented at the end of laboratory, greenhouse, and field trials to ensure that the GMOs are effectively removed from the experimental area. The required measures are determined by the type of organisms, their natural means of spread, and the environment in which testing was carried out. As such, the requirements for cleanup must be determined on a case-by-case basis.
For microorganisms, some form of disinfecting may be necessary. For plants, harvesting seed and ploughing in or burning residual plant material are usually effective where vegetative reproduction does not occur. This is followed by a fallow period during which volunteer plants arising from escaped seed or from vegetative reproductive structures are monitored and destroyed before the onset of flowering. The extent of the fallow period is dependent on the climate and crop. Cold winters are effective seed and tuber destroyers for many crops. Harvested seed and plant material must be documented and stored, or disposed of, according to the requirements of the regulators. This, too, is crop dependent.
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