Ph For Fresh Water Prowns

The pH must remain above 8 during the hatching process in order to ensure optimal functioning ofthe hatching enzyme. If needed (e.g. when low salinity water is used), it is necessary to increase the buffer capacity of the water by adding up to 1 g NaHCO3 L. Increased buffer capacities can also become essential when high densities of cysts are hatched ( high CO2 production). Strong illumination ( 2000 lux at the water surface) is important, at least during the first hours after complete...

Table 53 Criteria to determine the condition index for evaluating the larval quality of M rosenbergii Reproduced from

Abdominal muscle appearance (appearance of abnormal muscles) Melanisation (presence of black spots) Fouling organisms Swimming behaviour (between stage Vfff to X) Photo positive response (between stage i to Vf) No colour pigments (fully contracted chromatophores) Grey or dark bluish on abdominal segments Disfigured or damaged setae on rostrum, pereopods, telson, uropods Gut appears wide, muscle narrower on Vf abdominal segment Appendages and parts of body affected Moderately full (30-60 ) Very...

Nomenclature and historical perspective

Macrobrachium rosenbergii was one of the first species of the genus known to western science. The first recognisable figure of it was published (as Figure B of Plate 1) in 'D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer' (Rumphius 1705). However, this excellent figure did not originate from Rumphius' original manuscript but was added later by the editor, Simon Schijnvoet, who wanted the book more richly illustrated. To that end he had figures made of a number of specimens in the many Dutch cabinets of natural...

Amino acids

Although protein levels and amino acid profiles in Artemia may show fluctuations between strains and life stage, these fluctuations are generally much less pronounced than for the lipid fraction(Table 6.1). Generally, Artemia nauplii as well as adults contain sufficient levels of the 10 amino acids that are considered essential for fish larvae. Even so, methionine seems to be the first limiting amino acid when feeding nauplii to fish larvae (Fynh et al. 1993 Concei o 1997 Helland et al. 2000)...

Larval hatching systems

Larval hatching systems come in many shapes, sizes and configurations, which depend on the needs of the hatch ery. Larvae may be allowed to hatch in the tank in which they will be cultured. They may also be hatched in the broodstock holding system and then transferred to the larval culture tank. When larvae are to be hatched within the culture tank, females with brown to grey eggs are collected and placed into enclosures (nets or cages) within the tank. Once hatching has occurred, the females...

Habitat and life cycle

M. rosenbergii lives in tropical freshwater environments with access to adjacent brackishwater areas, because its larval development must take place in low salinity water (John 1957 Ling & Merican 1961 Sandifer et al. 1975). Gravid females migrate downstream into estuaries, where the eggs hatch as free-swimming larvae. From egg hatching until metamorphosis into postlarvae (PL), the planktonic larvae pass through several zoeal stages (Ling 1969 Uno & Kwon 1969). The larvae actively swim...

Autotomy and regeneration

Autotomy refers to the process by which animals shed a part of their body, either as a result of damage or as a voluntary (spontaneous) act. It involves breaking part of the skeleton, whether internal or external, as described in detail by McVean (1982). In decapod crustacea there is a specific fracture plane for each appendage that can be au-totomised. The process of autotomy occurs at the base of the ischial joint with the involvement of the levator muscles which, through their acute...

Preface

Since 2000 the global farming of Macrobrachium rosen-bergii has expanded considerably, production of a second major species (M. nipponense) has soared to essentially equivalent levels in China, and other species of existing or potential commercial importance (M. malcolmsonii and M. amazonicum) have also emerged. By 2007, total annual global production of all freshwater prawn species was nearly 460,000 t, with a value exceeding US 1.86 billion. Further expansion has undoubtedly occurred since...

Packing and transportation

Once harvested, careful packaging and transportation are important to maintain the quality of the PL. Usually, PL and juveniles aretransportedinplasticbags filled with water and oxygen (New 2002). In Thailand, PL are harvested from larval or holding tanks by using a large dip-net (0.7 x 0.4 m) and their numbers estimated before they are immediately packaged. Two thousand PL are allocated to each plastic packing bag (0.3 x 0.4m) containing 3 L of water. The bags are oxygenated for 3 to 5...

Daily operations

Daniels etal. (1992) and Valenti et al. (1998) supplied step-by-step guides for daily tasks associated with freshwater prawn recirculation systems. Morning duties include monitoring both the system and the larvae. Water temperature, flow and level of water should be checked and screens cleaned or changed. Water losses by evaporation should be replaced with freshwater. Care should be taken to ensure that water replacement does not shock either the larvae or the biofilter. Mechanical filters...

Enumeration of larvae

The number of larvae collected in either a collecting device or from a hatching system can be determined by enumerating the number of larvae in a known volume of water following a procedure similar to that described by Aqua-cop (1983). However, commercial hatcheries often omit the enumeration of larvae in every batch, believing that it is the number of PL produced that is important, not the number of larvae stocked (New & Singholka 1985 S. Suwannatous, pers. comm. to M. New, 1998). It is...

Supplemental diets microbound feeds

From rearing day 10 onwards in a recirculation hatchery, Daniels et al. (1992) used a supplemental diet, consisting of 85 cleaned squid, 10 chicken eggs, 3 beef liver powder and 2 cod liver oil bound with an alginate hardened by CaCl2. This semi-moist feed was separated through 250, 425, 600, 850 and 1000 m sieves and partially air dried before use. In an effort to produce a more uniform feed particle, a field trial was conducted (M. Frinsko, pers. comm. 2008), which included cooking the squid...

Enrichment

Taking advantage of the primitive feeding characteristics of Artemia nauplii, it is possible to manipulate the nutritional value of deficient Artemia, for example HUFA deficiency in the GSL strain. Since brine shrimp nau-plii that have moulted into the second instar stage (i.e. 8 hours following hatching) are non-selective particle feeders, simple methods have been developed to incorporate different kinds of products (HUFA, amino acids, vitamins) into the Artemia prior to feeding to predator...

Info

A Data are arranged in ascending order by prawn m2 (total surface). b With fertiliser, no feed. c With fertiliser and trichlorfon, no feed. d Tanks were covered with Eichornia crassipes but only the surface area of plants was used in total surface area calculation. e Temperature maintained at 24 C. f Temperature maintained at 28 C. g Reared under continual light (L24 D0). h Reared under 12 hours light and 12 hours darkness (L12 D12). 1 Reared under continual darkness (L0 D24). ' Plastic mesh...

Fig 52 Simplified layout of a flowthrough hatchery systemNot In Scale

And mixing tanks are constructed in cement-covered brick and elevated to permit water to be supplied to the larval rearing tanks by gravity. The volume of freshwater and sea-water holding tanks naturally depends on the anticipated demand for rearing purposes. Efficiently managed recirculation systems require less than 10 daily water exchange, with additional water needed for live feed culture. For extra security in hatcheries using flow-through systems, it is recommended that two water...

Feeding strategies

Newly-hatched M. rosenbergii larvae are around2to2.2 mm in length. They normally start feeding about 1 day after hatching and initially require live zooplankton. Their prey should be of a suitable size for ingestion the optimal size is estimated at 300 to 500 im. Newly hatched Artemia nauplii are considered the most successful starter diet but, after the first rearing week, are usually fed in combination with prepared diets. Sick & Beaty (1975) maintained an Artemia density of 0.1 nauplii ml...

Taxonomy

The genus Macrobrachium is rather easily distinguished from allied genera. It can be characterised by the presence of a hepatic spine, absence of supraorbital and branchiostegal spines and a simple dactylus of the last three legs. The rostrum is well developed, compressed and toothed. The telson is provided with two pairs of dorsal and two pairs of posterior spines. Some authors synonymised Macrobrachium with Cryphiops Dana, 1852, the name of a South American genus. However, Cryphiops can...

Dr Devika Pillai

North Carolina State University, Cooperative Extension, Jones County Extension Center, Trenton, North Carolina 28585, USA. Email Mike_Frinsko ncsu.edu 203 Swingle Hall, Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures, Auburn University, Alabama 36849, USA. Email hansontr auburn.edu School of Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point Campus, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434 Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia. Email d.hurwood...

Broodstock Management

Cavalli and Richard P. Smullen This chapter provides information on the source, selection, collection, handling and management of broodstock prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Future research avenues are also discussed, including the necessity to develop a nutritionally complete broodstock diet (see also Chapter 12). Systems for hatching freshwater prawn larvae and for their enumeration are described, while details of larval rearing technology are contained later...

C

Fig. 8.4 Average depth, bund internal slope and freeboard. Key a inlet system b outlet system. major factor. Here the aim is usually to withstand 10-year floods (according to local experience), and thus the bunds may be elevated 1 m or more above surrounding levels. Internally, depths may be defined by the relative areas of higher rice-growing areas, which are usually at about the original land level. The excavated areas, typically 0.3 to 1.0 m below this, occupy 15 to 40 of the interior...

Holding systems

Holding systems vary in size and configuration, depending on how many broodstock need to be held and the length of time required for holding. Holding systems can be relatively small and stocked at high densities, unless prawns need to be maintained for extended periods of time, such as for overwintering in temperate climates. For overwintering, holding systems must be able to maintain broodstock for up to 6 months. Water temperature must be maintained above 25 C to prevent loss of eggs and...

Requirements for enriched Artemia by freshwater prawn larvae

In contrast to penaeid shrimp, the (n-3) HUFA requirements of M. rosenbergii were not expected to be very critical, because they spend most of their life in fresh water. Roustaian et al. (1999) concluded that the larvae of M. rosenbergii have sufficient capability to convert dietary linoleic acid (18 2 n-6) and linolenic acid (18 3 n-3) to arachidonic acid (20 4 n-6) and EPA to meet larval demand for HUFA, although there was no assimilation and consequent tissue storage of DHA. As a result it...

Artificial seawater

Artificial seawater has been successfully used in closed system hatcheries. This makes it feasible to set up hatcheries far from coastal areas and close to, or integrated with, grow-out farms. The use of artificial seawater also considerably reduces risks, such as pollution, parasites, and the presence of prawn competitors and predators in larval rearing tanks. Productivity, using artificial seawater, can be higher than 40 PL L however, the cultivation period may be about 10 longer than when...

References

Boonyaratpalin, M. & Vorasayan, P. (1983) Brief note on the state of the art of Macrobrachium culture in Thailand. NACA Working Paper WP 83 7. Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), Bangkok. Brown, J.H. (1991) Freshwater prawns. In Production of Aquatic Animals, World Animal Science, C4, (Ed. by C.E. Nash), pp. 3143. Elsevier Scientific Publishing, Amsterdam. Cavalcanti, L.B. (1998) Hist rico. In Carcinicultura de .Agua Doce Tecnolog a para a Produ o de Camaroes, (Ed. by W.C....

Freshwater Prawns In Myanmar

A The species is also indigenous in these countries. a The species is also indigenous in these countries. the recruitment of Michael New by the FAO in 1979, he and Somsak Singholka managed this project jointly until 1981, after which the Thai government continued this initiative alone. Here, as in Hawaii, the major stimulus for the development of prawn farming was the provision not only of technical advice but also of free PL for stocking the initial commercial grow-out operations on each farm....

Small recirculation hatcheries

In many parts of the world, postlarval M. rosenbergii are predominantly produced in very small 'backyard' hatcheries, particularly in Asia. These systems involve cheap and simple structures, use existing farm infrastructure, and are operated using either family labour or cheap labour. In Brazil, backyard hatcheries using recirculation systems have been proposed as a solution that would allow small grow-out farmers to become independent of large commercial hatcheries (Mallasen & Valenti...

Contents

1 History and Global Status of Freshwater Prawn Farming 1 1.1 Origins of modern freshwater prawn culture 1 1.2 Global production status 5 1.3 Summary of opportunities and constraints 8 2 Nomenclature and Taxonomy 12 Lipke B. Holthuis and Peter K. L. Ng 2.1 The genus Macrobrachium in aquaculture 12 2.2 Nomenclature and historical perspective 13 Janet H. Brown, Michael B. New and Deborah Ismael 3.1 Habitat and life cycle 18 3.2 Morphology and related topics 18 3.5 Autotomy and regeneration 31 3.6...

Hatchery design

Hatcheries are designed to match the desired rate and timing of the production of postlarvae (PL). Past experience and literature reviews suggest that stocking rates of 40 to 100 stage I larvae L and survival rates ranging from 40 to 80 are typical. Success is principally dependent upon hatchery location, design and management. Access to high-quality water supplies is critical and hatcheries need to be located where there is power supply, because continuous operation of the aeration system is...

Collection of broodstock 411 Source

Female prawns carrying eggs attached to the abdomen are commonly termed berried or ovigerous females. In practice, the most common source of broodstock for commercial hatcheries is adult prawns obtained from grow-out ponds. It is also prevalent for farmers to obtain a number of wild broodstock from rivers and lakes every season. Phuong et al. (2006) reported that 52 of hatcheries in Vietnam used wild broodstock while 48 used farmed broodstock. Broodstock normally includes only berried females...

Osmoionic regulation

M. rosenbergii inhabits both freshwater and brackishwater environments during its life cycle. Therefore, each larval developmental stage, in addition to juveniles and adults, must be able to face the problems related to a hypo-osmotic medium, i.e. control of the volume of the haemolymph, prevention of ion loss and compensatory uptake of ions from the medium. Although knowledge about larval osmoregulatory capability of this species is of great importance, there is a general lack of information...

Light requirements

The topic of light requirements remains controversial. The greenwater larval rearing system, which generally fell out of favour in commercial hatcheries in the last decade of the 20th century (New 1990, 1995), requires light and the phytoplankton bloom provides shade for the larvae. However, light is consciously kept to a minimum to prevent the growth ofphytoplankton in clearwater systems. In Thailand, some hatcheries use asbestos or plastic sheeting to cover open-air tanks and light seems to...

Desirable food characteristics

The cultivation of the larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii is performed under controlled hatchery conditions, which are quite distinct from grow-out techniques, including feeding strategies. The developing larvae are very small, extremely fragile and remain quite primitive during the early stages using partially developed systems (e.g. digestive organs, eyesight and chemoreception). In addition, larvae have to pass through different developmental stages with distinct properties. Therefore,...

Disinfection decapsulation and hatching of cysts

Although using Artemia cysts appears to be simple, some procedures are critical for successfully obtaining Artemia nauplii at the quantities needed in larval crustacean production. These include cyst disinfection or decapsulation prior to incubation, and hatching under optimal conditions. A major problem in the early rearing of prawns is the susceptibility of the larvae to microbial infections. It is recognised that live food can be an important source of potentially pathogenic bacteria, which...

Feeding strategy

One of the most important aspects of larval culture is the feeding strategy. Larvae should neither be overfed nor underfed. Overfeeding results in accumulation of ammonia and or nitrite and a build-up of organic material, which causes a proliferation of bacteria and fouling of the water and filtration material. Underfeeding results in poor growth, weak animals, cannibalism and an extended larval culture cycle. In the vast majority of hatcheries, larvae are fed newly hatched nauplii of Artemia...

The genus Macrobrachium in aquaculture

All the freshwater prawns that have been used in aquaculture and associated experiments belong to the genus Macrobrachium Bate, 1868. This is the largest genus of the family Palaemonidae Rafinesque, 1815 (superfamily Palae-monoidea Rafinesque, 1815 infra-order Caridea Dana, 1852 order Decapoda Latreille, 1803 sub-order Pleocye-mata Burkenroad, 1963), and about 230 species have been described so far (C. Fransen & S. De Grave, pers. comm. 2008). Almost all of them live in freshwater, at least...

James F Muir and Julio V Lombardi

In this chapter, we describe a range of practical site selection, design and construction issues which affect both the small artisanal pond systems that characterise a large part of the present-day Macrobrachium sector, and large commercial farms. Whatever the format, the planning, design and development of ponds for grow-out is clearly an important aspect of any Macrobrachium project, in terms of the costs of development, the ease and effectiveness of management, productivity, economic...

Water treatment

Both freshwater and seawater should be treated before usage. Initially, the water should be allowed to settle and filtered to remove suspended solids and parasites or predators, including eggs and larvae. New & Singholka (1985) described filters suitable for this purpose, including a simple beach filter. Valenti (1996) recommended passing water through a gravel sand filter to remove larger particles and then through a series of cellulose filters with a porosity of 5 and 2 im. Subsequently,...

Indoor nurseries

Indoor nurseries (Fig. 7.1), also known as primary nurseries in tropical regions, vary according to country, climate, region and management strategy. Short-term indoor nurseries may serve as an extension of the hatchery phase (Cohen & Ra'anan 1989) to adapt PL to freshwater and maintain PL until sold. Aquacop (1983) found that maintaining high densities of PL (10 000 PL m3) in hatcheries for more than a few days leads to high mortality. Typically, when the PL density in larval tanks is above...

Origins of modern freshwater prawn culture

Freshwater prawns have been reared in captivity, either through introducing wild-caught juveniles or by trapping them, along with other crustaceans (e.g. Penaeus spp. and Metapenaeus spp.) and fish, in tidal ponds and paddy fields, for example in the Indian sub-continent and Malaysia (Wickins 1976), from time immemorial. However, modern aquaculture of this species has its origins in the early 1960s. Ling & Costello (1979) and Ling (1977) recalled that experiments on the rearing of prawn...

Cyst market

Back in the early 1950s, the only commercial sources of cysts originated from the coastal saltworks in the San Francisco Bay (SFB) in California and an inland biotope, the GSL in Utah. Artemia were marketed for the aquarium pet trade at a low price, i.e. less than US 10 kg (Bengtson et al. 1991). Cyst prices increased considerably in the mid-1970s as the combined result of increased demands from the emerging hatchery activity, decreased harvests from GSL and possibly simulated shortages by...

Functions Of Monk As Water Control Device In Fish Ponds

The Main Diagram Pond Monk

D bund landfill volume, compensated (f 1.43, where f expansion factor for loose soil). E number of hours of Caterpillar tractor use (86 HP) needed for construction. F number of hours of scraper tractor + number of hours of Caterpillar tractor needed for construction. Key a collection point b transport channel c flow distribution. Key a collection point b transport channel c flow distribution. anchor blocks), with at least one fixing for every pipe section (typically 6 m). Special care should be...

Anterior aorta artery heart stema artery

Fig. 3.4 The circulatory system of caridean prawns. Fig. 3.4 The circulatory system of caridean prawns. Venous return occurs via distinct channels into the collecting sinuses that supply the gills and branchiostegal circulations, and then to the pericardial cavity and finally to the heart. As a result of this arrangement, the heart is directly supplied with oxygenated blood from the gills, which is pumped to the tissues. McMahon & Burnett (1990) reviewed the physiology of several advanced...

A

Fig. 5.3 Brick larval rearing tanks. and size of tanks. Tanks may be oval, cylindrical or rectangular (with smooth corners), and may have flat, conical or U-shaped bottoms. They may be constructed of fibre-glass, polypropylene, epoxy-painted wood, cement-covered brick (Fig. 5.3) or asbestos (Fig. 5.4), or some other nontoxic material. It is essential that the materials used are inert. In particular, the interior of cement or cement-lined tanks must be painted with epoxy resin to avoid toxic...

Mechanism Of Digestion In Macrobrachium Rosenbergii

Abdu, U., Takac, P., Yehezkel, G., Chayoth, R. & Sagi, A. (1998a) Administration of methyl farnesoate through the artemia vector, and its effect on Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh 50 73-81. Abdu, U., Takac, P., Laufer, H. & Sagi, A. (1998b) Effect of methyl farnesoate on late larval development and metamorphosis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) a juvenoid-like effect Biological Bulletin 195 112-19. Adiyodi, K.G....

Ecdysis and growth

Ecdysis Diagram

Since crustaceans have an external exoskeleton they can only increase in size by shedding this and growing a new exoskeleton which they can expand to a larger size. The actual shedding of the old exoskeleton or exuviae is known as ecdysis (moulting) but this is only the visible sign of what is a more or less continuous process in the life of crustaceans -the moult cycle. The decapod moult cycle can be divided into stages and substages originally classified by Drach (1939). Drach used 4 stages,...

Correspondents contributing to chapter

Many correspondents provided substantial information relating to this chapter. Those who have contributed to Chapter 17 are included in the following list in alphabetical order under each location. Some information was also provided from the personal experience of the editors of our book, whose names are not repeated here. Argentina Gustavo Wicki Australia Chan Lui Lee amp Peter Mather Bangladesh Mahmadul Karim, Anwara Begum Shelly amp Md. Abdul Wahab Brazil Helenice Pereira de Barros, Eudes...

Dr Sergio Zimmermann

215 Palm Street, Fillmore, California 93015, USA Email halphillips yahoo.com Department of Economics and Finance, College of Charleston, 66 Georgia Street, Charleston, South Carolina 29424, USA. Email rhodesr cofc.edu Department of Life Sciences and the National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel. Email sagia bgu.ac.il College of Fisheries, Kerala Agricultural University, Panangad PO Kochi 682 506, India. Universidade Estadual...

Reproduction

According to Nagamine amp Knight 1980 , M. rosenbergii can be sexually distinguished with the first appearance of gonopores in juveniles, at 5.9 mm carapace length for males and 7.6 mm for females. Male gonopores are situated at the base ofthe coxae ofthe fifth pereopods andare covered by flaps, while female gonopores appear as oval apertures on the coxae of the third pereopods and are covered with a membrane. New amp Singholka 1985 illustrated the fact that the ventral side of the first...

Digestion And Absorption Of Food In Macrobrachium Rosenbergii

S Jones, D.A. 1992 Functional morphology and ultrastructure of the anterior midgut diverticulae of Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1789 larvae. Crustaceana 62 142-58. Adisukresno, S., Escritor, G.L. SMintardjo, K. 1982 Mass production of Macrobrachium post larvae in the Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Center BADC , Jepara, Indonesia. In Giant Prawn Farming, Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, Vol. 10, Ed. by M.B. New , pp. 143-56. Elsevier Scientific Publishing,...

Wagner C Valenti Michael B New KR Salin and Jinyun Ye

Freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii have been grown to market size in several types of monoculture systems, in both commercial farms and research centres. They have also been grown in brackishwater, in cages and in pens but this species is normally monocultured in earthen ponds supplied with freshwater at a wide range of temperatures. This type of grow-out procedure forms the major subject covered in this chapter. The grow-out of M. rosenbergii in ponds has been described in detail in a...