Contents

Preface x

Contributors xi

Acknowledgements xiv

1 History and Global Status of Freshwater Prawn Farming 1

Michael B. New

1.1 Origins of modern freshwater prawn culture 1

1.2 Global production status 5

1.3 Summary of opportunities and constraints 8

1.4 References 9

2 Nomenclature and Taxonomy 12

Lipke B. Holthuis and Peter K. L. Ng

2.1 The genus Macrobrachium in aquaculture 12

2.2 Nomenclature and historical perspective 13

2.3 Taxonomy 14

2.4 References 16

3 Biology 18

Janet H. Brown, Michael B. New and Deborah Ismael

3.1 Habitat and life cycle 18

3.2 Morphology and related topics 18

3.3 Reproduction 25

3.4 Ecdysis and growth 28

3.5 Autotomy and regeneration 31

3.6 Osmo-ionic regulation 31

3.7 Larval development 32

3.8 References 34

4 Broodstock Management 40

William H. Daniels, Ronaldo O. Cavalli and Richard P. Smullen

4.1 Collection of broodstock 40

4.2 Broodstock management 43

4.3 Larval hatching systems, collection and enumeration 48

4.4 Future research avenues 50

4.5 References 51

5 Hatchery Systems and Management 55

Wagner C. Valenti, William H. Daniels, Michael B. New and Eudes S. Correia

5.1 Hatchery design 55

5.2 Facilities 57

5.3 Water source and treatment 64

5.4 General management 67

5.5 Growth, survival, production and harvesting 76

5.6 Small recirculation hatcheries 80

5.7 Further developments 80

5.8 References 81

6 Larval Feeds and Feeding 86

Jean Dhont, Mathieu Wille, Mike Frinsko, Shawn D. Coyle and Patrick Sorgeloos

6.1 Desirable food characteristics 86

6.2 Supply, preparation and nutritional enhancement of brine shrimp (Artemia) 87

6.3 Other larval feeds 97

6.4 Feeding strategies 102

6.5 References 103

7 Nursery Systems and Management 108

Shawn D. Coyle, Dallas E. Alston and Celia M. S. Sampaio

7.1 Indoor nurseries 108

7.2 Outdoor nurseries 109

7.3 Nursing in cages 109

7.4 Multi-phase nursery systems 110

7.5 Facilities 110

7.6 Waterquality 111

7.7 Controlling predaceous insects in nursery ponds 113

7.8 Stocking and the use of substrates 113

7.9 Feeding strategies 117

7.10 Survival 118

7.11 Harvesting 119

7.12 Size grading 120

7.13 Transporting juveniles to grow-out ponds 121

7.14 References 122

8 Grow-out Systems - Site Selection and Pond Construction 127

James F. Muir and Julio V. Lombardi

8.1 Site selection 128

8.2 Site development 134

8.3 Pond system construction 139

8.4 References 152

9 Grow-out Systems - Monoculture 154

Wagner C. Valenti, Michael B. New, K.R. Salin and Jinyun Ye

9.1 Rearing systems 154

9.2 Operation 160

9.3 Prawn growth and survival 167

9.4 Production models and productivity 169

9.5 Monosex culture 171

9.6 Environmental protection 172

9.7 References 173

10 Grow-out Systems - Culture in Temperate Zones 180

James H. Tidwell and Louis R. D'Abramo

10.1 Culture in temperate zones: problems and opportunities 180

10.2 Temperate production cycle 181

10.3 Low input approach 185

10.4 High technology culture 187

10.5 Marketing strategies 192

10.6 Summary of the potential 192

10.7 References 193

11 Grow-out Systems - Polyculture and Integrated Culture 195

Sergio Zimmermann, C. Mohanakumaran Nair and Michael B. New

11.1 Fish and prawn interactions 196

11.2 Management of prawn polyculture systems 197

11.3 Integration of prawn culture with crop production 208

11.4 General conclusions 211

11.5 References 211

12 Nutrition, Feeds and Feeding 218

Louis R. D'Abramo and Michael B. New

12.1 Diet and digestive physiology 218

12.2 Nutrient requirements 219

12.3 Grow-out feeds 224

12.4 Feeding strategies 231

12.5 Conclusions 232

12.6 References 233

13 Grow-out Systems - Water Quality and Soil Management 239

Claude Boyd and Sergio Zimmermann

13.1 Water quality: impact and control 239

13.2 Pond soil and sediment management 246

13.3 Miscellaneous water and soil treatments 250

13.4 Environmental issues 253

13.5 References 253

14 Health Management 256

Devika Pillai, SterlingK. Johnson and Sergio L.S. Bueno

14.1 Health and defence 256

14.2 Diagnosis 260

14.3 Prophylaxis 261

14.4 Therapeutic treatment 262

14.5 Diseases 263

14.6 Final considerations 270

14.7 References 271

15 Genetics 278

Spencer Malecha, Peter Mather and David Hurwood

15.1 Overview 278

15.2 Populations genetics 279

15.3 Genetic management of broodstock 285

15.4 Sex reversal and monosex culture 290

15.5 References 306

16 The Biology and Management of Size Variation 316

Ilan Karplus and Amir Sagi

16.1 Male morphotypes 316

16.2 Structure of mature populations 321

16.3 Ontogeny and development 323

16.4 Factors controlling growthvariation 327

16.5 The biological significance of size variation 331

16.6 Commercial significance and management of size variation 332

16.7 References 338

17 Commercial Freshwater Prawn Farming and Enhancement around the World 346

Michael B. New and Methil Narayanan Kutty

17.1 Asia 347

17.2 South America 375

17.3 Central America and the Caribbean 380

17.4 North America 385

17.5 Africa 389

17.6 Europe 391

17.7 Oceania 393

17.8 Citations 396

17.9 References 396

18 Post-harvest Handling and Processing 400

Juan L. Silva, Harold Phillips and RaUlM. M. Madrid

18.1 Intrinsic characteristics 400

18.2 Post-mortem changes 407

18.3 Preservation 409

18.4 Handling for live sales 416

18.5 Practical processing techniques 416

18.6 References 416

19 Marketing and Preparation for Consumption 420

Harold Phillips, Terrill R. Hanson, Siddhartha Dasgupta and Cortney Ohs

19.1 Historical perspective 420

19.2 Reports on freshwater prawn marketing in selected countries 421

19.3 Marketing live or fresh prawns 426

19.4 Marketing frozen prawns 430

19.5 Marketing at grocery stores in the USA 431

19.6 Marketing at food festivals in the USA 431

19.7 Marketing at harvest festivals in the USA 432

19.8 Developing a marketing strategy for freshwater prawns 434

19.9 Developing marketing plans 437

19.10 Marketing case studies 438

19.11 Preparing freshwater prawns for consumption and traditional prawn recipes 440

19.12 References 446

20 Economics and Business Management 448

Raymond Rhodes, Terrill R. Hanson and Siddhartha Dasgupta

20.1 Aquaculture business planning and management 448

20.2 Financing commercial aquaculture projects 450

20.3 Commercial prawn farming: costs and profitability 452

20.4 Polyculture and integration 464

20.5 Economic modelling of commercial prawn farming 468

20.6 References 469

21 Culture of the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense 475

Methil Narayanan Kutty and Miao Weimin

21.1 Farming of M. nipponense in China 476

21.2 Oriental river prawn culture in Vietnam 480

21.3 Constraints and future prospects of M. nipponense farming 481

21.4 References 483

22 Culture of the Amazon River Prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum 485

Patricia Moraes-Valenti and Wagner C. Valenti

22.1 Biology 486

22.2 Broodstock 489

22.3 Hatchery 489

22.4 Nursery 492

22.5 Grow-out 493

22.6 Perspectives 496

22.7 References 497

23 Culture of Other Freshwater Prawn Species 502

Methil Narayanan Kutty and Wagner C. Valenti

23.1 Monsoon river prawn (Macrobrachium malcolmsonii) 504

23.2 African river prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) 509

23.3 Painted river prawn (Macrobrachium carcinus) 511

23.4 Cinnamon river prawn (Macrobrachium acanthurus) 513

23.5 Other species 515

23.6 References 517

24 Sustainability of Freshwater Prawn Culture 524

Michael B. New, Louis R. D'Abramo, Wagner C. Valenti and Somsak Singholka

24.1 Environmental and social benefits of freshwater prawn farming 525

24.2 Areas of concern 527

24.3 Ancillary benefits 528

24.4 Conclusions 528

24.5 References 528

Index 531

A colour plate section falls between pp. 254 and 255

How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

Lets start by identifying what exactly certain boats are. Sometimes the terminology can get lost on beginners, so well look at some of the most common boats and what theyre called. These boats are exactly what the name implies. They are meant to be used for fishing. Most fishing boats are powered by outboard motors, and many also have a trolling motor mounted on the bow. Bass boats can be made of aluminium or fibreglass.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment