in which:

Freshwater can be supplied by either ground or surface water. Municipal water should be avoided because of residual chlorine and the potential of toxic substances from treatment processes and pipes (Valenti 1985). New & Singholka (1985) recommended avoiding surface water, which may be contaminated. Generally, groundwater is free of solids, organics and pollutants. Therefore, wells often supply the best freshwater for hatcheries. However, well water may contain toxic levels of some minerals. In intensive agricultural areas, well water should be monitored for pesticides contamination and high levels of nitrates and phosphorus, which result from high nutrient loading.

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