foreign exchange earnings. However, as noted above, this constraint is not as great as often imagined.

• Freshwater prawns require more care in processing than marine shrimp. This is only a constraint when this fact is not recognised by producers and processors, and poor-quality products are allowed to enter the marketplace. Simple precautions can ensure that premium-quality freshwater prawns are offered for consumption (Chapters 18 and 19).

• Some countries that are ideal for production but whose farming costs are high suffer from competition from 'cheap' imported freshwater prawns. Though this is a constraint for individual producers, the quality of locally produced prawns achieves a premium price. Globally, this phenomenon is not seen as important. Like any other commodity, prawn farming is subject to economic and market pressures.

1.3.3 Prognosis

Bearing both positive and negative factors in mind, it is believed that freshwater prawn farming has a bright future but the level of global production is unlikely ever to rise so high as that from marine shrimp farming. Further research (as indicated in other chapters of this book), and the more effective transfer of improved rearing and processing technology, is needed in order to exploit the opportunities for expansion in this sector of the aquaculture industry.

New & Csavas (1993) predicted that Asian freshwater prawn production would rise to nearly 68 0001 by the year 2000. New (1995) anticipated that the earlier forecast for Asia might be rather conservative and believed that a global production exceeding 70 0001 by the year 2000 was feasible if those countries with suitable sites and environment, and relatively cheap labour, could take advantage of the domestic and export market potential. In retrospect, both forecasts proved to be extremely conservative. Expansion was expected mainly in Bangladesh and India but the development (and rapid expansion) of M. rosenbergii and M. nipponense farming in China was not anticipated. Expansion indeed occurred in Bangladesh but has been exceeded in India; production from China is currently dominant (Tables 1.2 and 1.3). The output from Chinese farming is consumed entirely domestically. Bangladesh and India, as well as Thailand and Vietnam, may be better placed than China to develop their export trade in farmed M. rosenbergii.

The net result of recent developments in global freshwater prawn culture is that the highest production forecasts for the year 2000 by New (1995) and New & Csavas (1993), which only concerned M. rosenbergii, had already been reached by the year 1997 (FA0 2008). By 2007 global farmed output of giant river prawns was more than three times greater still (FAO 2009). In addition, the production of other Macrobrachium species, primarily the oriental river prawn M. nipponense, exceeded the level for M. rosenbergii.

The potential for the expansion of freshwater prawn farming in other regions, notably in South and Central American countries but also in Africa, while substantial and technically feasible, remains an opportunity yet to be seized. It is hoped that investors and exporters in these regions will exploit this opportunity as we move into the third millennium, particularly as the further expansion of marine shrimp farming has many social and environmental constraints.

How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

Lets start by identifying what exactly certain boats are. Sometimes the terminology can get lost on beginners, so well look at some of the most common boats and what theyre called. These boats are exactly what the name implies. They are meant to be used for fishing. Most fishing boats are powered by outboard motors, and many also have a trolling motor mounted on the bow. Bass boats can be made of aluminium or fibreglass.

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