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produces large quantities of an indigenous species, the oriental river prawn (M. nipponense); expansion was similarly meteoric, more than doubling from the 87 1001 reported for 2000 to 192 400tin 2007 (Table 1.3). By 2007, the value of freshwater prawn farming to Chinese aquaculture had exceeded US$ 1.15 billion/yr; farmed output of M. nipponense was valued at over US$ 698 million and farmed M. rosenbergii production at more than US$ 452 million (FAO 2009).

Though starting from a smaller baseline (1501 in 1989), expansion in India was even more explosive than in China, rising to a peak of 42 8001 in 2005. However, Indian freshwater prawn farming suffered severe difficulties in 20052007 (Chapter 17), leading to a reduced production of 27 3001 in 2007 (Table 1.2). Farmed output of its other large indigenous Macrobrachium species, the monsoon river prawn (Macrobrachium malcolmsonii) has also been reported by India since 2003; production was reported to be 41001 in 2007 (Table 1.3). Despite the fall in giant river prawn production, the total value of Indian freshwater prawn farming in 2007 was nearly US$ 118 million. Expansion has also been considerable in Bangladesh (although the huge output reported to FAO in the late 1990s has been corrected). Annual output had reached 23 2001 in Bangladesh by 2007. The other major producing countries of M. rosenbergii are Thailand, Taiwan and Vietnam. In Thailand, production was 27 7001 in 2007, worth approaching US$ 108 million. Taiwanese production has fallen from over 10 000 t/yr in 2003-2005 to 8300 t in 2007; however, its value was remarkably high, at over US$ 95 million (FAO 2009). This is equivalent to a 2007 farm-gate price for

M. rosenbergii of US$ 11.45/kg, comparable to its unit value in the USA (US$ 12.00/kg). In contrast, the farm-gate value of this species is only US$ 3.88/kg in India and Thailand and US$ 3.63 in mainland China, providing significant export opportunities. The farm-gate value of M. rosenbergii in Bangladesh is intermediary, at US$ 7.26/kg; this country has an established export market for this species. The output of Vietnam is more difficult to discern, as discussed below.

The production of farmed freshwater prawns is not always reported to FAO under the species name; instead, it is included in various general categories (Table 1.3). These categories include two significant items. One is the large production returned by China under the category 'freshwater prawns, shrimps, nei (Palaemonidae)'. It is not known for sure what species are included in this statistical return. M. rosenbergii and M. nipponense are not involved, their output being returned by China under the relevant species categories; it is possible that this category of production includes 'guesstimates' from systems that produce mixed crops (e.g. Macrobrachium lanchesterii and other Macrobrachium species from ponds and rice fields). The other important phenomenon is the inclusion of M. rosenbergii within the category 'freshwater crustaceans nei (Crustacea)' by Vietnam. Assuming that all of the output reported to FAO under 'freshwater crustaceans nei' consists of giant river prawns (and this may be an under-estimate - see Chapter 17), Vietnamese output in 2007 was 79001, worth over US$ 55 million.

Indonesia has recently become a significant producer, though at a lower scale than the major producers; its production averaged nearly 11001 between 2005 and 2007

Fig. 1.3 Production (t) of farmed giant river prawns (Macrobrachium rosen-bergil) in the major producing countries (FAO 2009)
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