The temperature of the seawater is preferably kept in the range of 25 to 28°C; below 25°C cysts hatch more slowly and above 33°C cyst metabolism is irreversibly stopped. Optimal hatching salinity is within the range 5 to 35 p.p.t.; above a threshold of approximately 85 to 90 p.p.t., insufficient quantities of water can be taken up by the cysts to allow proper hatching metabolism. For convenience, natural seawater is mostly used to hatch cysts. However, at 5 p.p.t., the nauplii hatch faster, as less glycerol has to be built up. For some sources of cysts, hatching the cysts at low salinity results in higher hatching efficiencies and the nauplii have higher energy content.
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