Enrichment of Artemia for 48 hours with a specific vitamin-boosting mixture (DHA-Selco, InveNV, Belgium) led to increased levels of thiamine, niacin and pantothenic acid but no changes in content of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, vitamin B6 or B12 (M®land et al. 2000). Better results for selected vitamins are obtained using specific enrichment preparations. Using the standard enrichment procedure and experimental self-emulsifying concentrates containing ascor-byl palmitate (AP) in addition to the fish oils, high levels of free ascorbic acid (AA) can be incorporated into brine shrimp nauplii. As shown by Merchie et al. (1997), a 10% AP inclusion (on a DW basis) in the emulsion enhances by 50% the natural levels occurring in freshly-hatched nauplii (500 |g/g DW), while a 20 or 30% addition increases AA levels in Artemia respectively three-fold and six-fold after 24 hours enrichment at 27°C; HUFA levels remain equal compared to normal enrichment procedures. Moreover, these AA concentrations do not decrease when the enriched nauplii are kept in the rearing tanks for 24 hours or cold-stored at 4°C. In the same way, vitamin E (a-tocopherol) levels can be boosted from 100 to 1000 |ig/g DW (Huo et al. 1996) and vitamin A from 1 to 1200 IU/g DW (Dedi et al. 1995) in brine shrimp metanauplii. Table 6.2 shows vitamin levels achieved through enrichment.
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