Biotechnology Activities of the Cgiar Centers Relevant in Asia

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Table A11.1: CGIAR Centers with Crop Improvement Activities in Asia

Center

Full Name

Year Founded

Host Country

Mandate Crops

CIAT

Centro Internacional de Agricultural Tropical (International Center for Tropical Agriculture

I967

Colombia

Cassava

CIMMYT

Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)

I966

Mexico

Maize, Wheat

CIP

Centro Internacional de la Papa (International Potato Center)

I970

Peru

Potato, Sweetpotato

ICRISAT

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

I972

India

Sorghum, Millet, Groundnut, Chickpea, Pigeonpea

IPGRI

International Plant Genetic Resource Institute

I974

Italy

Genetic Resources, Cocoa, Coconut/Musa species

IRRI

International Rice Research Institute

I960

Philippines

Rice

CGIAR = Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, CIAT = Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (International Center for Tropical Agriculture), CIMMYT = Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center), CIP = Centro de la Papa (International Potato Center), ICRISAT = International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, IPGRI = International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, IRRI = International Rice Research Institute.

Notes:

(i) The CGIAR, established in 1971, is an informal association of 58 public and private sector members that supports a network of 16 international agricultural research centers.

(ii) The CGIAR's mission is to contribute to food security and poverty eradication in developing countries through research, partnership, capacity building, and policy support. The CGIAR promotes sustainable development based on the environmentally sound management of natural resources.

(iii) The CGIAR strives to make developing country agriculture more productive through genetic improvements in plants, livestock, fish, and trees. CGIAR centers conduct research programs in collaboration with a full range of partners in an emerging global agricultural research system. Food productivity in developing countries has increased through the application of research-based technologies. Experience shows that agriculture, including forestry and fisheries, is a powerful engine for development.

Source: CGIAR (2000).

Table A11.2: Biotechnology Methods Used and Developed in the

CGIAR Centers

Crop

Center

Research and Applications

Maize

CIMMYT

Rice

IRRI

Spring

Bread

Wheat

CIMMYT

Markers (SSR) for diversity studies and IPR purposes, for opaque 2 (improved nutritional quality); single gene markers available for seed color and certain level of herbicide tolerance; markers especially with nonradioactive detection: RFLPs, RAPDs, SSRs, AFLPs.

MAS on experimental bases (insect resistance, drought tolerance, Fusarium ear rot, maize streak virus, Striga).

QTLs identified for low soil pH and aluminum toxicity tolerance, stem borer, fall armyworm, Fusarium moniliforme, downy mildew, and Striga resistance; potential application for maize streak virus. Linkage maps.

Protocol for maize Bt and herbicide resistance. DNA chip and microarray technologies.

Anther culture for breeding and mapping; embryo rescue; in vitro pollination, ovary culture; regeneration for transformation. Molecular markers for germplasm characterization; FISH; RAPDs, STS markers. Markers (isozymes, RFLPs, AFLPs, STS) for development of genetic stocks; markers available for wide-crossability genes and for quality; MAS kits for two gall midge resistance genes. Alien genes mapped (e.g.,. Xa21); candidate genes. Genetic map for interspecific population; molecular maps for salinity tolerance, phosphorus deficiency tolerance, submergence tolerance, elongating ability; cytogenic stocks for mapping; mapping populations shared with NARSs. Identified favorable wild species' QTLs; identification and mapping of QTLs for orthologous loci governing agronomic traits. Transformation with Agrobacterium and biolistic methods; transformation for Bt, resistance to bacterial blight.

Novel genes, constructs and promoters (apomixis, methylation-resistant constitutive expression). Transgenic seeds transferred to NARSs. Knockout populations; near isogenic lines, recombinant inbred lines; cDNA libraries; DH populations (isogenic lines and pyramids); indica BAC library.

DH (maize system) for breeding, DHs being produced from key crosses; embryo culture for trans formation.

Molecular characterization (limited by cost).

Table A11.2: Biotechnology Methods Used and Developed in the CGIAR Centers (cont'd.)

Crop

Center

Research and Applications

Markers used (RFLPs, RAPDs, SSRs, AFLPs - especially with nonradioactive detection); MAS (SSR) used for BYDV; MAS for enhancing nonhomologous recombination (Phi gene). Finalizing marker for high protein gene and for CCN; sought Vrn/Ppd development genes; preliminary markers for resistance genes (leaf and stripe rust, Fusarium head scab, karnal bunt). Linkage maps.

Transformation protocol close to routine; transgenic wheat containing fungal resistance, Basta herbicide resistance, resistance genes (chitinase, glucanase, ribosome-inactivating protein, thaumatin-like proteins). ESTs for wheat.

Durum Wheat

CIMMYT

Sorghum ICRISAT

Pearl Millet ICRISAT

Cassava CIAT

Potato CIP

Testing DH system. Initiating MAS, QTL. Initiating transformation.

Identification of molecular markers for Striga resistance.

Identification of QTLs for mildew resistance.

Markers for downy mildew resistance; genetic maps; primers; work on markers for resistance gene pyramiding and drought tolerance; SSR markers being developed for pearl millet. Studies on QTLs for downy mildew, heat and drought tolerance, grain and stover yield components, ruminant nutritional quality in residues.

In vitro culture for multiplication; cryopreservation. Genetic map developed, saturated map under way. Adjusting protocol for transformation: herbicide resistance, Bt, novel starch forms. BAC library.

Hybrid clones; dihaploids.

Molecular characterization of pathogen populations.

Mapping populations produced; candidate genes for potato late blight; probes and primers corresponding to plant defense genes. Search for QTLs for resistance to potato late blight; association of several mapped QTLs with known defense genes.

Transformation efficiency needs improvement; work on selectable marker systems.

Table A11.2: Biotechnology Methods Used and Developed in the CGIAR Centers (cont'd.)

Crop Center Research and Applications

• Transformation for potato tuber moth resistance; work on bacterial wilt resistance.

• Rxadg and Rxacl genes cloned.

• BAC library containing Rysto gene.

Sweetpotato

CIP

• Meristem culture; micropropagation.

• Genetic linkage map produced.

• Tagging single/oligogenes; tagging QTLs.

• Success in transformation with weevil resistance (soybean proteinase inhibitor); safety testing needed; search for appropriate Bt gene.

Coconut

IPGRI COGENT

• Micropropagation.

• Molecular markers for diversity studies and characterization; microsatellite primers.

• Initial work on genome mapping.

Chickpea

• Molecular markers for diversity analysis.

• Preliminary, reasonably-saturated, marker-based chickpea linkage map developed.

• Transformation protocol available.

Groundnut

ICRISAT

• Tissue culture; embryo rescue.

• RFLP, some SSR markers, and a skeleton molecular map available; disease-resistant genes, and markers (RAPD) linked with resistance identified; SSR and AFLP markers specific to groundnut identified.

• Transformation employed for Indian peanut clump virus and groundnut rosette virus; materials evaluated in containment facilities.

Pigeonpea

ICRISAT

• Work elsewhere on markers and linkage maps.

• Transformation protocol, particularly regeneration under investigation.

AFLP = amplifiied fragment length polymorphism, Bt = bacillus thuriengiensis, cDNA = complementary DNA, CGIAR = Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, CIAT = Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (International Center for Tropical Agriculture), CIMMYT = Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center), CIP = Centro de la Papa (International Potato Center), COGENT = Coconut Genetic Network, DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid, ICRISAT = International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, IPGRI = International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, IPR = intellectual property right, IRRI = International Rice Research Institute, MAS = marker-assisted selection, NARS = national agricultural research system, QTL = quantitative trait loci, RAPD = randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, RFLP = restriction fragment length polymorphism, SSR = simple sequence repeats, STS = sequence-tagged sites.

Source: Consultants' assessment.

Table A11.3: Resource Commitments for Plant Breeding and Biotechnology in 1999 by Selected CGIAR Centers

Resource Commitments

CIAT

CIMMYT

CIP

ICRISAT

IPGRI

IRRI

Biotechnology3

1,324

3,280

1,469

698

853b

Crop Improvement Professional Staff

8,270

10,500

5,450

5,000

2,600c

11,440

Years in Biotechnology

12

na

14

8

2

38

Professional Staff

Years in Crop I Improvement

14

na

46

24

2

63

CGIAR = Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, CIAT = Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (International Center for Tropical Agriculture), CIMMYT = Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center), CIP = Centro Internacional de la Papa (International Potato Center), ICRISAT = International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, IPGRI = International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, IRRI = International Rice Research Institute, na = not available.

a Including salaries and running costs, excluding overhead and capital costs for research, development and applications. b Musa and coconut only.

c Including all IPGRI activities for crop improvement.

Source: Centre Medium-Term Plans 2001-2003: 1999 actuals (including overhead) for crop improvement output.

Table A11.4: Resource Commitments by Biotechnology Activity in 1999

Biotechnology Activity

CIAT

CIMMYT

CIP

ICRISAT

IPGRIa

(somaclonal variation, embryo rescue, haploids, micropropagation)

125

164

133

94

118

2. Tissue Culture (protoplast culture and fusion)

469

56

3. DNA Fingerprinting

163

492

-

27

-

117

4. Marker Identification and MAS

330

820

449

193

55

791

5. Gene Sequencing

133

492

124

-

-

304

6. Genetic Engineering

225

820

703

95

329

504

7. Diagnostics

205

164

-

201

-

196

8. Networks and Training

143

328

60

-

-

354

9. Others

-

-

-

88

-

190

Total Center

1,324

3,280

1,469

698

853

2,630

— = not available, CGIAR = Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, CIAT = Centro International de Agricultura Tropical (International Center for Tropical Agriculture, CIP =Centro Internacional de la Papa (International Potato Center), CIMMYT = Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center), DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid ICRISAT = International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, IPGRI = International Plant Genetic Resource Institute, IRRI = International Rice Research Institute, MAS = marker-assisted selection.

a Musa and coconut only.

Source: Centre Medium-Term Plans 2001-2003.

Table A11.5: Summary of Breeding and Biotechnology Capacities of Different NARS Types

Type 1 NARS— Very Strong

Type 2 NARS— Medium Strong

Type 3 NARS— Fragile or Weak

Market size Large to very large Medium to large Small to medium

Plant Breeding

Use of IARC Materials

Basic and

Strategic

Research

Private Sector

Biotechnology Research

Regulatory Framework for Biosafety and IPR

Strong national commodity programs with comprehensive breeding programs, including some prebreeding.

National commodity programs that are generally strong in applied breeding.

Used as parents to obtain specific traits for breeding and prebreeding, and sometimes released directly. Also use early generation materials.

Often considerable capacity that can match that in IARCs.

Private sector very active for hybrid crops and increasingly for nonhybrids.

Capacity in molecular biology as great or greater than most IARCs. Marker-assisted selection being incorporated into breeding programs. Considerable research on transgenics.

Framework in place although capacity to implement is modest and untried.

Very important as parents, and also as direct releases.

May have capacity in specific areas.

Private sector activity increasing and usually involved in hybrid crops.

Usually developing capacity in molecular biology, but with considerable support from donors and IARCs.

Most countries have or soon will have framework, but weak capacity to implement.

Usually small and fragile programs with success dependent on one or two persons. Usually conduct own crosses; value added of local adaptation often low due to small market size.

Mostly direct releases after local screening and testing.

No capacity.

Little private sector activity for food crops.

Very little capacity in molecular biology although many have tissue culture capacity.

Most countries do not have regulatory framework.

IARC = international agricultural research center, IPR = intellectual property rights, NARS = national agricultural research system.

Source: CGIAR (2000).

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