International R&D programs using modern biotechnology are being conducted by the international agricultural research centers (IARCs), particularly the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), International
Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), and International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR). The Center for International Forestry Research also uses biotechnology in the characterization of forest diversity in its Asian program. The International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management is using new technologies in the improvement of fisheries and aquaculture systems. ILRI is initiating a program on Asian livestock improvement. The CGIAR centers invest approximately $30 million per year in modern biotechnology. Further details of the way the IARCs use biotechnology in their crop improvement programs are given in Appendix 11.
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