Environmentalism has arisen from two main motivations: (1) the interest in preserving species, environmental quality, and ecosystems and (2) the concern about environmental and health side effects of agricultural practices. The 1957 publication of Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring, was a major benchmark in the evolution of the environmental movement. It raised awareness about the negative side effects of pesticides and other agricultural practices. Over the last 30years, with a growing availability of information on the incidence and costs of environmental degradation, concerns over the necessity and means for controlling and reversing the process have become manifested in governmental policies from the international to the local level, as well as through activities in civil society. A key thrust of the environmental movement is the promotion of awareness of the nonmarket as well as market values of environmental goods and services and pressures to account for this value through government regulations as well as consumer behavior. Specific manifestations of the impacts of the environmental movement are considered in the next few paragraphs.

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