Reading horizontally, the figures can be interpreted as measures of the extent (in percentages) to which a given region of production depends upon each of the regions of diversity. The column labeled "total dependence" shows the percentage of a given region's production that is accounted for by crops associated with nonindigenous regions of diversity. (This is the total of the figures in the row, except for the percentage of auto-dependence.) Due to rounding, the figures in each row do not always sum exactly to 100.

15 Extracted from Kloppenburg and Kleinman (1988). The figures are based on the 20 food crops of current economic importance that lead global production in tonnage. These are: wheat, maize, rice, potato, barley, cassava, sweet potato, soybean, grape, sorghum, tomato, oats, banana, orange, apple, cabbage, coconut, rye, millet, and yam.

Genetic Resources

(building blocks)



Benefit-sharing (collective rights) (e.g. Factors' Rights and the Global Plan of Action)

Intellectual Property

Rights ( [individual righ|s)% (e.g. Plant Breeder's Rights)!

Commercial Products

(markdt value)

Sutgmefis Systems (Rights)

F AO - ImernatioiialVeaty-Art. 9





Figure 20.1. Access to genetic resources and


Leslie Lipper,1 Joseph C. Cooper,2 and David Zilberman3

'Economist, Agricultural and Development Economic Analysis Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N., Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00100, Rome, Italy; 2Deputy Director, Resource Economics Division, Economic Research Service (United States Department of Agriculture), 1800 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-5831;3 Professor, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, 207 Ciannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

Abstract: This chapter synthesizes the arguments presented in 20 different chapters on various aspects of agricultural biodiversity conservation, managing biotechnology for development, equity issues in the management of plant genetic resources, and the policy implications associated with the respective analyses. Overall, the analyses in this book indicate that agricultural biodiversity and biotechnology are co-evolving, with a number of different points of intersection. Recognition of the inter-dependency between biotechnology and biodiversity is critical to the achievement of sound policy design for the management of agricultural biotechnology and biodiversity in the context of economic development. The analyses suggest that on efficiency as well as equity grounds, direct beneficiaries from agricultural biodiversity conservation should be made to reward the providers of the benefits, based both on actual and expected gains. However, benefit-sharing mechanisms must be designed to recognize the significant benefits associated with maintaining a free flow of genetic resources. Several directions for future research were identified including: the economic assessment of the impacts of adoption of various types of agricultural biotechnologies as they evolve, identification and assessment of the risks associated with biotechnology adoption relative to potential benefits, designing institutions for monitoring the environmental impacts of agricultural biotechnology, assessment of the contribution and value of various forms of genetic resources and the costs associated with their loss, including the local and global public good values of diversity in terms of

* The views contained herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent policies or views of the Economic Research Service or United States Department of Agriculture.

reducing vulnerabilities to pests and diseases, the value of maintaining diversity as an input to agricultural breeding programs. Combining research on valuation and costs could be a highly useful guide to developing countries on targeting strategies for conservation. Markets, due to their increasing importance as a mechanism for the allocation of resources, need to be analyzed in terms of their role in providing incentives and disincentives for conservation. Finally, an important area for further research is the equity implications of alternative management schemes for plant genetic diversity conservation and agricultural biotechnology. Designing incentives for in situ conservation, which address not only current but also future opportunity costs associated with conservation in the presence of economic development, is another important equity issue where the analysis in the book indicates the need for more economic research.

Key words: agricultural biodiversity; agricultural biotechnology; benefit-sharing;

developing countries ex situ conservation; in situ conservation; intellectual property; market institutions; plant genetic resources; technology adoption; technology diffusion; technology transfer.

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