International expenditures for PGRFA conservation

In addition to national activities, there are significant efforts taken at the international level to conserve the diversity of PGRFA. A significant amount of international funding and executing agencies are involved in activities relating to the conservation of PGRFA.

3.3.1 The flow of financial resources for the conservation of PGRFA

Fig. 8-4 depicts the flow of financial resources for conservation of PGRFA, which may be divided into two different groups. On the one hand, there are activities by international organizations, e.g., FAO or the CGIAR centers. Single countries or all countries benefit from the output of their work. This may lie in the access to unique accessions, conserved in one of the CGIAR centers' genebanks or it may lie in specific programs and projects implemented by FAO or other implementation agencies in single countries or specific regions. All these activities are financed by the contributions of member countries to the different organizations. Besides the

Low domestic expenditures in % of GDP/cap are less than 200% of GDP/cap for PGRFA conservation. High domestic expenditures in % of GDP/cap is more than 200% of GDP/cap for PGRFA conservation.

international organizations in charge of funds for contributing financial assistance, e.g., Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the regional development banks. Their contributions, either as grants or credits, may be implemented by national organizations or by international implementing organizations. The World Bank and other development banks and funds are major players in agricultural development projects and NARS capacity building. However it is difficult to assess the proportion related to PGRFA. It is estimated that international flows include about US$7 million annually channeled through the GEF for PGRFA-related activities4 (Virchow, 1996).

Bilateral financial assistance contributed by some countries for specific conservation activities in other countries also plays an important role. To quantify this contribution is difficult. For instance, the new genebank in New Delhi, India, which was inaugurated in November 1996, was financed mainly by the United States. The United States, however, did not mention the US$28 million nine-year program with India in their response to the expenditure survey, even though there were significant expenditures for the project in 1995 (Chandel, 1996).

Figure 8-4. Flow of funds for the conservation of PGRFA Source: Virchow (1999a).

This includes two projects specifically devoted to PGRFA, plus an estimated share (5%) of a number of projects for biodiversity conservation which are likely to contribute to PGRFA conservation.

Bearing the limitations of this survey approach in mind, the rough overall estimate of the expenditures in PGRFA conservation at the international level is summarized in Table 8-3. About US$83 million was channeled through international organizations to activities relating to the conservation of PGRFA in 1995. Most of the money was spent by the above-mentioned international funding and executing agencies for the conservation of PGRFA, mainly as an integrated element of larger development projects or programs. Only a minor part of the entire international expenditure, namely US$7 million, has been spent mainly for technical assistance by FAO, the UNDP, and the U. N. Environment Program (UNEP) financed projects, which represents 8% of all expenditures. The US$83 million (estimate includes the CGIAR's expenditures. The CGIAR's expenditures on PGRFA-related activities represent (with approximately 60%) the largest single expenditure share in all of the international expenditures (including core funds and complementary activities). The expenditures for the CGIAR

Table 8-3. Estimated international expenditures for the conservation of PGRFA (including indirectly related activities)

Table 8-3. Estimated international expenditures for the conservation of PGRFA (including indirectly related activities)

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