Let E%u =--Ni/—, Eh,=--tx/~T> and dNf dNi xj dxj x\

Mh j dh

E , =--—x; /—r. Introducing these definitions to the SOC results in

where E^D is the measure of the relative magnitude of change in the pest damage in response to an incremental increase in the pest population, Eh, is a measure of the effectiveness of pesticides (the relative reduction of the pest

Mh population in response to an increase in pesticides use), and E , is a measure of the relative reduction in pesticide effectiveness as the volume applied increases. The impacts of changes in w,p,[email protected],N, and Bi on pesticide use are obtained by total differentiation of (3) to yield:

(a) An increase in the price of the pesticides will reduce its optimal use dx■ x■ 1

level. This marginal response is (—— = —— E^j <0), where dw w

Ewl =--—--=-TTT- is the price elasticity oi pesticides xf'n E%DEh,+E, demand.

(b) An increase in the output price will increase pesticide use. This marginal response is dxj dp

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