The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System developed by Danie Wium is an excellent guide with comprehensive details to assist the enthusiast grape grower in achieving a successful outcome for years. It's designed for the absolute newbie but also contains information even the most experienced grape grower can use to boost their own grape farm. This book is so well written that even a person with no knowledge at all about growing grapes can easily understand and follow the directions given. The drawings and photographs are excellent and make this a very user friendly book indeed. The written work is very easy to understand and is not complicated by a lot of scientific jargon. Danie is a professional grape grower and has put together a course to help people grow grapes at home. His course also includes a video series that shows professional tips all recorded on his own farm. I recommend anyone considering growing their own grapes to buy this e-book. Read more...

The Complete Grape Growing System Summary


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Author: Danie Wium
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Grape Growing And Making Your Own Signature Wine

Here's just a taste of what you'll discover: A complete guide to selecting the perfect location and setting up your vineyard. The 4 factors you Must consider before you plant your grapes. The types of grapes you plant determine the type of wine youll eventually have. Learn how to determine which grapes are best for you! Learn the single most important factor that determines the quality of your wine grapes and how to preserve it! The importance of three climate factors in growing grapes. The more than 40 types of grapes that are suitable for wine making. The 5 essential aspects of ensuring healthy, vibrant grapes (and in turn delicious wine). Without these, your venture just cant succeed. An entire chapter devoted to vineyard care, starting with the first year of cultivation. The 5 most efficient ways to control weeds in your vineyard. A complete guide to disease and pest control practices for your vineyard. Vital information on vineyard design and layout. The 5 basic sure-fire steps to creating a perfect bottle of wine. All the necessary tools youll need for wine making. A complete list of all the wine making ingredients youll need for the process. An entire chapter devoted to harvesting grapes for the wine making process. A crash course on the role acidity plays in the ultimate taste and success of your wine. All about the process of alcoholic fermentation, including a guide to its two essential ingredients. What malolcatic fermentation is and the effects it has on wine. The importance of racking and what it ultimately means to the quality of your wine. How oxygen affects the taste of your wine. An entire chapter devoted the two principle methods of producing white wines. The variety of sweeteners you can use in your wine making process and those you cant! An entire chapter devoted solely to the creation of red wines from the picking of the grapes to the final process. The two types of wine presses and which one is the better choice for you. How to properly transfer pressed wine to your storage vessel and why settling is an essential part of the process.

Grape Growing And Making Your Own Signature Wine Summary

Contents: 121 Page Ebook
Author: Kacy Waters
Official Website:

The Polysemic and Increasingly Useless Concept of Overexploitation Overview

For example, in a research study on groundwater-fed catchments, called Groundwater and River Resources Action Programme at the European Scale (GRAPES) (Acreman, 1999), three pilot catchments were analysed the Pang in the UK, the Upper Guadiana in Spain and the Messara in Greece. The main social value in the Pang has been to preserve the amenity of the river, related to the conservation of its natural low flows. In the Messara, the development of irrigation is the main objective and the disappearance of relevant wetlands has not been a social issue. In the Upper Guadiana the degradation of some important wetlands caused by groundwater abstraction for irrigation has stirred an ongoing conflict between farmers and conservationists (Bromley et a ., 2001).

Eupoecilia ambiguella Hiibner Vine moth

In continental Europe, this species is a pest of grape vines. Larvae of the first generation damage the flowers those of the second generation feed directly on the developing grapes. This species occurs on various wild hosts in the British Isles, where it is univoltine and not recorded as a pest. Adults occur in the spring, the period of activity varying from region to region. Eggs are laid on the buds of grape vines and hatch 1-2 weeks later. Larvae then spin several buds together and commence feeding, the shelters becoming more dense and larger as larval development progresses. Larvae eventually pupate in folded leaves, usually after feeding for up to a month, and adults appear about 2 weeks later. Second-generation larvae feed on immature fruits and complete their development in the autumn. They then spin overwintering cocoons, hidden in or beneath the bark of older vine stems, or in cracks on supporting posts.

Toxic Effects of Plant Growth Regulators

A good example is hydrogen cyanamide. This PGR is considered very effective and economical in assuring uniform bud break in crops including peaches, kiwis, and grapes. Uniform maturation of buds results in the uniform ripening of the fruit so that all the fruit on one tree can be harvested at blueberries with insufficient pollination used for better color, firmer fruit, larger fruit, and to prolong the harvest period of cherries used to reduce cherry flowering and fruiting to minimize the competitive effect of early fruiting on tree development for cluster loosening and elongation and berry size increase of grapes Used on fruit-bearing trees, peanuts, ornamentals, grapes, and tomatoes daminozide has a wide range of effects, from retarding vegetative growth, to controlling harvest quality factors, increase red color in apples, to concentrating maturity

The Hold Model A18 Tractor

The Model A-18 was designed by the Gehruder Holder Company in Germany for use on hilly vineyard terrain, tree plantations, nurseries, berry farms any situation requiring the combined features of maneuverability, stability, and power in a compact unit to operate in high-density plantings. Its 13 h.p., four-stroke, air-cooled, cliesel engine claims to have the power of a 25 or 30 h.p. gasoline engine while con

The Ocean Pickup in Guyana

In early May 1983 the Ocean Pickup, our thirty-two foot trimaran fishing vessel sailed from Martha's Vineyard in New England to Guyana in South America, a voyage of over three thousand five hundred miles (5,632 km). At the request of the Guyanese government and with support from the Canadian International Development Agency, we were to introduce our sailing technology to Guyanese fishermen.

Viteus vitifoliae Fitch Grape phylloxera

This notorious pest was introduced into Europe from North America in the mid-nineteenth century. The pest destroys the young roots of grape vines and also produces extensive callusing of the older roots. European grape vines are especially susceptible to attack and their complete destruction is possible unless they are grafted onto phylloxera-resistant rootstock. The pest can also produce greenish or reddish, wart-like galls on the underside of leaves (cf. galls formed by the grape erineum mite, Colomerus vitis, p. 258) but these are of little or no direct significance. In Europe, this pest persists as radicicolae (which breed asexually on the roots of grape vines), each female laying eggs which normally give rise to nymphs that develop into further radicicolae. There are several such generations annually. Occasionally, eggs laid by radicicolae produce nymphs that, instead of becoming radicicolae, invade the aerial parts of the plant and develop into gallicolae. These gallicolae feed...

Methods for Yeast Characterization

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Element Delta

Methods by which strains of the same species can be differentiated have been shown to be very important for yeast strain characterization. In winemaking, several studies have analyzed the diverse microflora of grapes and musts and several interesting methods have been developed (Figure 2).

Categories of Tractors

The diversity of modern agriculture requires many tractor designs. Historically, utility (use) has been the basis of tractor classification schemes. Based on utility, there are six categories of tractors general purpose, row crop, orchard, vineyard, industrial, and garden. The designers of modern tractors have attempted to produce tractors with the broadest possible uses, but these categories are still applicable if a sub-category is added for each type of propulsion system rear wheel drive (RWD), four wheel drive articulating steering (4WDAS), four wheel drive four wheel steer (4WD), tracks (T), and rear wheel drive with front wheel assist (FWA).

Start with cover crops

At the very least, Berkowitz says all grape growers can sow a no-till cover crop in the highly trafficked avenues surrounding their vineyards. If those areas are seeded and mowed, that helps keep down dust, which helps keep down mites. He also advises his clients to plant either annual or perennial cover crops in their vineyard rows preferably between mid-September and mid-October. For vineyards whose soil is shallow or whose vines aren't strong, he recommends an annual mix of 'Zorro' fescue, 'Blando' brome By curbing the vines' excessive vigor, these cover crops boost the grapes' appeal to wine drinkers and diminish their palatability to western grape leafhoppers. Berkowitz suspects that cover crops especially insectary blends of flowering plants also intensify populations of spiders, lacewings and other natural enemies of leafhoppers, thrips and mites. Densely forested creeks surround many North Coast vineyards. We're not cultivating fenceline to fenceline we're striving to avoid...

Impact of Drought on Agriculture

Impact Drought Soil Crops

The major crops of the Near East include cereals (wheat, barley, maize), potatoes, olives, sugarcane, sugar beets, fruits (especially citrus, grapes, and watermelons), cotton, and vegetables (especially onions). The relative importance of each of these crops is shown on a country basis in table 16.2. Of these crops, barley is one of the most important in the Near East because of its link with livestock production and its value for the economic exploitation of agriculturally marginal lands. It covered about 11 Mha (during 1995-2002), accounting for approximately 13 of the region's total cropland as calculated from the FAOSTAT on-line database (FAOSTAT, 2002 http

New South Wales An Example of Integrating State and National Groundwater Policy

In 1990, there were 70,000 licensed bores operating in the state of NSW, extracting 530 million cubic metres per year for irrigation, 15 million cubic metres per year for industry, commerce, mining and recreation and 60 million cubic metres per year for rural towns. Through the 1990s there has been increasing emphasis on high-value agriculture, with vegetables and fruits (grapes) leading the value table, and attracting higher-technology irrigation inputs (micro-sprinkler and drip irrigation) and accounting for a significant proportion of groundwater use. There has also been rapid development of groundwater since the early 1980s for conjunctive use on cotton and other commercial crops in the northern part of the state. There are few large dams in the northern river valleys and river flows are directly diverted, or harvested and stored in Grapes

Ametastegia glabrata Fallen Dock sawfly

Dock sawfly is a widely distributed but minor pest of fruit crops, especially apple and grape vines. The larvae feed on various weeds and, when fully grown, sometimes bore into mature apple fruits larvae may also bore into the pith of shoots or branches of young fruit trees, vines and other cultivated plants, often entering through pruning cuts. Damage in apple fruits is characteristic, and consists of a straight, often deep tunnel (up to 5 cm long), surmounted by a red-ringed entry hole about 2 mm in diameter however, larvae are rarely found inside damaged fruits. The larvae have also been reported burrowing into plastic irrigation pipes.

Yeast Biodiversity In Wineries 21 Yeast Species Diversity During Vinification

Pulcherrima is often present, followed by a group of film-forming yeasts (Pichia anomala) or pigmented species (Rhodotorula sp.). In a general study of yeasts isolated from grapes, however, it was noticed that the profile of yeast species may also vary from region to region (Martini and Vaughan-Martini 1990). Numerous factors affect the total yeast population and the relative proportions of individual species on the grapes. These factors include climatological conditions, the grape variety and the degree of maturity at harvest, the use of fungicides and the physical damage of the grapes (Fleet and Heard 1992). The yeast diversity found in wine-producing regions is strongly related to the quality and organoleptic characteristics of the wine produced from one year to another. However, the most significant finding was that S. cerevisiae is practically absent from grapes and vineyard soils (Martini and Vaughan-Martini 1990). The presence or absence of S. cerevisiae on grapes is the...

Intraspecific Variabilities

The use of active dry yeasts is of particular interest to the wine industry, since the sensory properties of the final product vary considerably from one year to another depending of the microbial flora present on the grapes (Querol et al. 1990). It is generally assumed that indigenous yeasts are suppressed by the starter however, different studies show that indigenous yeasts can still participate in the fermentation (Schiitz and Gafner 1993 Querol et al. 1992a), although an implantation of only 50 was observed when fermentations were conducted by some commercial strains (Esteve-Zarzoso et al. 2000). For these reasons, rapid and simple methods for the routine verification of yeast strain present in fermentations would be useful to check the implantation of the starter.

Screening of Potential Leads from Diverse Microbial Sources

Bacillus subtilis is known to produce diverse antifungal peptides represented by inturins. A series of fungicidal metabolites, named rhizocticines, were identified from B. subtilis ATCC6633 (Figure 2) (Fredenhagen et al. 1995). These peptides showed control efficacy against B. cinerea on apples and vines in the greenhouse. The proteolytic digestion test of the compound revealed that L-2-amino-5-phosphono-3-(Z)-pentenoic acid was the actual structure active against B. cinerea. The antifungal activity was proven to be stereo specific, since the corresponding 3-(E) compound did not show any antifungal activity. The mixture of rhizocticines A, B, and D also showed control efficacy against gray molds on grapes in the field.

National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

In 1996, Thailand imported 38,000 t of chemicals, mainly insecticides and herbicides. The global trend of going organic is an opportunity for Thai farmers to supply fresh organic produce, especially fruit and vegetables, to the world. Over the past decade, developmental work on biocontrol in Thailand has continued to receive active support from BIOTEC and the Thailand Research Fund. Two companies are now commercially producing Trichoderma to control Sclerotium rolfsii, and Chaetomium to control soil fungi such as Phytophthora (Yuthavong 1999). BIOTEC and the Department of Agriculture have set up a pilot-scale production facility to produce nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), Bt, and Bacillus sphericus. NPV is widely used to control Spodoptera moth in grapes. Bt produced locally has gained popularity over the last few years. The capacities of pilot plants at Mahidol University and King Mongkut's University of Technology, Thonburi, are fully taken up with Bt production. Commercial...

Manage flexibly and responsively

On the rare occasions that leafhoppers or thrips exceed economic thresholds in his clients' vineyards, Berkowitz recommends insecticides. We try to use systems that control pests without chemicals, but sometimes you're just stuck. That's often the case with Pierces disease, whose damage can force frequent replanting. Berkowitz says insecticide treatment for the blue-green sharpshooter during the first hot spells can regulate this vectors early movement into vineyards. Another approach showing some merit is riparian vegetation management replacing host plants with non-hosts. This reduces the sharpshooter's populations while broadening diversity. Today we try to manage the vector, but someday we hope to be able to control the disease itself, he says. Over the years, Berkowitz has learned not to include 'Berber' orchard grass or annual ryegrass in cover crop mixtures because they're simply too competitive with grapevines. He has also observed that using sulfur to organically control...

Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

Glomus mosseae prevented the infection of soybean plants by P. syringae (Shalaby and Hanna 1998), by suppressing the population density of the pathogen in soybean rhizosphere. Li et al. (1997) also found that G. macrocarpum reduced the infection caused by P. lacrymans in eggplant and cucumber, although no positive growth or yield effect was noted, indicating tolerance to the pathogen as a possible mode of action. Inoculation of mulberry with G. fasciculatum or G. mosseae in combination with 60-90 kg of P per hectare per year reduced the incidence of bacterial blight caused by P. syringae pv. mori (Sharma 1995). Inoculation of grapevines with AMF reduced the number of fluorescent pseudomonads on the rhizoplane thereby reducing the incidence of grapevine replant disease (Waschkies et al. 1994). Similarly, a reduction in the colonization of apple seedling rootlets by actinomycetes causing replant disease was reported, while a proportionate increase in root colonization by AMF was noted...

Ecological impacts on groundwaterdependent ecosystems

The social perception of the ecological impacts of groundwater abstraction may differ from region to region and result in very different management responses. GRAPES, an EU-funded project previously mentioned, looked at the effects of intensive groundwater pumping in three different areas Greece, Great Britain and Spain (Acreman, 1999). In the Pang River in Britain, conservation groups and neighbourhood associations with an interest in conserving the environmental and amenity values of the river that had been affected by groundwater abstraction mainly drove management decisions. In the Upper Guadiana basin, dramatic drawdown in the water table (30-40 m) caused jointly by groundwater abstraction and drought (see Fig. 13.8) resulted in intense conflicts between nature conservation officials and environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs), irrigation farmers and water authority officials. The conflicts have been ongoing for the last 20 years and have not yet been resolved....

Different Form Of Aspergillus Uniseriate And Biseriate

Conidial Shapes

The taxonomy of this group of fungi depends on the shape of the conidial heads with the distinction between uni- and biseriate conidial heads of particular importance (Raper and Fennell, 1965). Among the uniseriates, Aspergillus aculeatus and Aspergillus japonicus have been isolated from grapes. Identification of these species based on morphology is not easy, but is not particularly relevant since their ability to produce ochratoxin A has never been confirmed. Among the biseriates, Aspergillus carbonarius is easily distinguished by its large conidia. A high percentage of these strains (Teren et al., 1996 Heenan et al., 1998), or all biseriate strains according to other authors (Cabanes et al., 2002 Sage et al., 2002), are ochratoxin A producers. Aspergillus carbonarius strains that do not produce ochratoxin A are now regarded by some as a new species, Aspergillus ibericus (Serra et al., 2006b). Aspergillus carbonarius is now confirmed as the primary producer of ochratoxin A in grapes...

Colomerus vitis Pagenstecher Vine leaf blister mite

Infestations of this widely distributed pest occur on grape vines the mites sometimes induce the development of large, whitish to yellowish erinea on the underside of the leaves the upper surface of each gall becomes reddish-brown and blister-like (cf. leaf galls on vines inhabited by the grape phylloxera, Viteus vitifoliae, p. 123). Such damage often causes considerable leaf deformation and is attributable to the erineum strain of the mite. Two other strains are known a bud strain ( 'grape bud mite') and a leaf-curling strain. Adult mites are 0.160.20mm long, elongate and pale yellowish in colour.

Knowledge and technology for weed management an historical perspective

The development of herbicides, beginning in 1896 in a French vineyard with the chance discovery of the selective effects of copper sulfate on plants, further altered the relationship between weed technology generation and use. Advances in the laboratory sciences of chemistry and plant physiology led to the near simultaneous discovery in USA, England, and France of hormonal herbicides in the 1940s. This technological innovation was made with no input from farmers. Although farmers now have the choice of hundreds of different herbicides for a wide variety of crops, weed control has become a consumable, off-farm input in crop production. Herbicides must be purchased for each crop cycle. The separation between technology generation and use in the case of herbicides has been addressed by the public extension service, field sales representatives, and private crop consultants.

Specific Ergonomic Forces Associated with Musculoskeletal Disorders

An assessment of California vineyards by the University of California Ergonomics Research Center found a high proportion of jobs involving repetitive heavy lifting, bending, and stooping. Hand harvest risk factors included highly repetitive handgrip exertion of high force to carry full tubs multiple awkward positions involving the shoulders, forearms, and trunk highly repetitive cutting and reaching and moderate forceful exertions involving the shoulders and arms. Grapevine pruning involves a high level of muscular activity associated with hand-powered professional pruning shears and has been associated with musculoskeletal hand disorders, in particular paresthesias of the dominant hand (31,32).

Readily available water required

Column A is for water sensitive crops such as vegetables. Column B is for most fruit crops and table grapes. Column C is for wine grapes, most perennial pastures and irrigated field crops. Column D is for lucerne, annual pastures and winter cereals. Column E is for crops suitable for new rainfall areas.

Dermatological Conditions

Among northern Ecuadorian potato farm workers, high rates of dermatitis and pigmentation disorders were attributable to the use of pesticides and fungicides. Among California farm workers, skin disease rates were found in tomato workers (6.2 ), citrus (10.8 ), and vineyard workers (21.0 ). Factors found to contribute to dermatitis in farm workers included the specific type of crop cultivated, specific job activity, use of personal protective measures, field and home sanitation, environmental conditions of heat and humidity, personal hygiene, allergic history (including atopy), and ethnicity. several pesticides were shown to cause irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Causes were found to include pesticides, naturally occurring plant substances, heat, sunlight and humidity, atopy, and infectious fungal and bacterial agents (5,6).

Host Nutritional Effects

Collectively benefit host plants by creating favorable conditions for the proliferation of microflora antagonistic to pathogens such as Phytophthora and Pythium spp. as shown for eucalyptus seedlings by Malajczuk and McComb (1979). Unfavorable conditions induced by AMF colonization resulted in qualitative changes in the mycorrhizosphere that prevented P. cinnamoni sporangial induction in tomato plants (Meyer and Linderman 1986). Proliferation of G. mosseae inside grapevine roots was associated with a significant reduction in replant disease-causing fluorescent pseudomonad inoculum in soil (Waschkies et al. 1994). Promoting AMF diversity that will ensure that at least a component of the AMF community may be active against pathogens can further enhance the benefits of this mechanism.

Regulatory and Institutional Challenges

Few countries have legal provisions for continuation in proceeds that would permit the security interest to be maintained as the collateral is transformed. A lender with a security interest in wool in a warehouse will lose it when the wool is sold. Sometimes high costs prohibit certain transactions. In Uruguay it costs 6 percent of the amount of the instrument to register a pledge in Russia it costs 3 percent. Such registration fees alone, calculated at an annual rate, will exceed the interest rate on short-term loans for storing farm inventory. . . . In Argentina and Bolivia, something that does not yet exist cannot be the object of a loan. Consequently, farmers cannot get credit against the eggs from their poultry, the milk from their cattle, or the wine from their grapes. In Peru a rotating inventory requires redefinition of the loan, so fruit extract in warehouses cannot serve as collateral but fish meal, stored in containers of fixed sizes, can. For similar reasons, wheat in an...

Drosophila melanogaster Meigen A small fruit fly

Moth Flies Psychoda Meigen

This generally abundant fly (best known for its universal use in cytological, genetical and other laboratory studies) is sometimes a minor problem in soft-fruit plantations, orchards and vineyards. Most frequently, the flies are merely of nuisance value, as they are often attracted in vast numbers to overripe, fermenting fruit and fruit juices, both indoors and outside. In vineyards, the larvae sometimes feed on damaged grapes and may also invade adjacent sound fruit, remov-

Furnish a description of the genetic and resultant phenotypic modifications of the GMO This should include the origin

The sunflower was transformed by agro-infection using a construct that contains an antibiotic marker (resistance to hygromycin), an herbicide tolerance gene (the bar gene giving tolerance to Basta), and two resveritol genes from grapevines, giving tolerance to fungal infection. The antibiotic marker gene and the herbicide tolerance gene both come from soil organisms. A single, stable insertion has occurred in one of the plant chromosomes.

Vespula vulgaris L Common wasp

Avidly on ripening or over-ripe apples, grapes, pears, plums and other fruits, especially those previously damaged by birds or other agents wasps thereby become a nuisance. The presence of such insects in fruit plantations at harvest is also a potential hazard to fruit pickers, even when the insects are foraging only on fallen fruits. Wasps are sometimes also a problem in flower borders and nurseries, where they may remove tissue from the stems of woody plants such as garden dahlia injured plants often then collapse. This plant material, in common with that removed from wooden posts, shed walls, etc., is used in nest construction. Although much maligned, wasps are also beneficial insects, as they prey during the spring and summer on harmful caterpillars and other pests that are then fed to their developing brood.

Lobesia botrana Denis Schiffermiiller European vine moth

This species is an important pest of grape vines in southern Europe. Larvae destroy flower buds and, sometimes, cause the death of complete inflorescences later in the season, larvae damage or destroy the developing grapes. Moulds often develop on the damaged tissue, which can lead to additional problems.

Time Hours

The solar dryer presented in this study was developed as a prototype and solely for laboratory use. Under a wide range of weather conditions, it dried green pepper and grapes to commercially acceptable moisture levels with good final product quality. An auxiliary heating system was coupled to the dryer for periods of bad weather.

Paola Battilani


Ochratoxin A has been frequently detected in grapes and its derived products since 1996, with contamination limits fixed by the European Commission for dried vine fruits, wine and grape juice to protect consumers. Ochratoxin A is produced in vineyards, primarily by Aspergillus carbonarius. Meteorological conditions are a major factor in determining risk areas and years. The cropping system also can significantly influence the final toxin content in bunches. Ochratoxin A can increase post harvest, during drying or standing before crushing, but this toxin is not synthesized during wine making. Red wine and grape juice had higher contamination levels, 5 g l, as did dried vine fruits, e.g., currants contained up to 53 ng g of ochratoxin A as did balsamic vinegar at levels up to 4.3 g l (Battilani et al., 2004b Table 1). The presence of ochratoxin A in grapes and products derived from them was confirmed in studies aimed at identifying the factors related to its production and ensuring...


BAYLETON 50 Wettable Powder is a unique fungicide which has the ability to control, as well as prevent, certain important fungus diseases, including rusts, powdery mildew and black rot in wheat, barley, grapes, apples, pineapples, pears, pine seedlings, and grasses grown for seed.

Ochratoxin A

Commonly associated with A. ochraceus than it is with P. verrucosum, which often produces ochratoxin A in temperate climates (Sweeney and Dobson, 1998). Ochratoxin A is the major metabolite found as a natural contaminant of cereal grains such as maize, barley, wheat, oats and rye (Shotwell et al., 1971, 1976). Aspergillus carbonarius grows at high temperatures and is more often associated with fruits, especially grapes.

Present situation

Grapes Fungal growth occurs optimally at aw between 0.95 and 0.99 and a temperature of 20-36 C, which corresponds with optimal conditions for ochratoxin production (Belli et al., 2005). In a survey in Italy during 1999-2000, ochratoxin was found in both grapes and wine (Battilani and Pietri, 2002). As a result of a survey (1998-2000) in Greece, dried vine fruits (currants and sultanas) were found contaminated with ochratoxin A. Sultanas were less contaminated (n 27, median 0.6 ng g ) than were currants (n 54, median 1.3 ng g). Seasonal variation occurred in the contamination levels (Stefanaki et al., 2003). The most comprehensive study of ochratoxin A in grapes and wine has been the subject of the EU project WINEOCHRA-RISK (Battilani, Chapter 21). This project identified the key risk elements for ochratoxin A in grape and wine, and developed preventive and corrective actions for the occurrence of ochratoxin producing molds and ochratoxin formation by using HACCP principles.

Cutaneous Neoplasms

Coal-tar, mineral oils, pitch, soot, and asphalt are common chemical carcinogens. Chemicals that contain 4- to 5-ring aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and pyrene are potent carcinogens. Arsenic used in sheep dip has caused skin cancer in sheepherders. Used as a wood preservative for vine trellises in some parts of the world, arsenic can cause skin cancer in vineyard workers (1,41). These substances accelerate the cancer after it is induced, typically a 4- to 5-ring hydrocarbon or a noncarcinogenic chemical such as sulfur (used as a pesticide in grapes, citrus, and other fruits) (1,41).


Several contain starch, which during the ripening process is converted into glucose. Bananas, dates, figs, prunes, and grapes, owing to their large amount of sugar, are the most nutritious. Melons, oranges, lemons, and grapes contain the largest amount of water. Apples, lemons, sweet cherries, grapes, and pears contain the largest amount. Apples are obtainable nearly all the year, and on account of their variety, cheapness, and abundance, are termed queen of


In Figure 3-1 there are three objects A pear, a strawberry, and grapes. These objects have different colors, shapes, and taste but they have in common the fact that they are fruits. They all can be represented by class Fruits and each of them is an instance of the class Fruits. The class Fruits should be designed to represent common characteristics of each of the instances.

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