Build Your Own Greenhouse

Tiberian Growdome System

Are you tired of dealing with so-called organic foods or or vegetables that you know are covered in lethal chemicals? If you are, why not grow your own food? It is not nearly as hard as people make it out to be Growing your own food is one of the most rewarding things that you can do! You are being healthy in two ways; you're growing all-natural foods AND you're staying fit by growing food! This ebook teaches you how to make a simple device from ancient times that allows you to grow the very best food that you can at home! This device is much like a small greenhouse You will be able to control the climate inside to make sure that your plants are always in great weather. Don't go along with the rapidly expanding food prices; start growing your own, and don't play the game of people that want to hurt the food supply with chemicals and genetic engineering! Continue reading...

Tiberian Growdome System Summary


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Aulacorthum solani Kaltenbach Glasshouse potato aphid

This extremely polyphagous aphid is a common glasshouse species, where it infests various vegetable and ornamental plants. It is often also present in potato chitting houses and stores. In summer, infestations will occur on various outdoor hosts, including lettuce, potato, tomato and many herbaceous weeds. Infestations on glasshouse lettuce, tomato and ornamentals weaken plants they also affect quality. Direct damage to potato is usually limited to tubers in store or to those in chitting houses. The aphids are vectors of plant viruses, including potato leaf roll and potato virus Y but, compared with other potato-infesting species, such as potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) (p. 114) and peach potato aphid (Myzuspersicae) (p. 116), they are usually of minor significance.

Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood Glasshouse whitefly

The glasshouse whitefly is a major pest of protected crops, occurring on aubergine, cucumber, climbing French bean, melon, sweet pepper, tomato and various ornamentals. Whilst conditions remain favourable, the insects may also survive on various weeds out of doors. Infested plants show poor growth and the foliage may become discoloured when attacks are heavy, leaves wilt and die, and crop yields will be depressed. Attacked plants become coated in honeydew, upon which sooty moulds soon develop vegetables such as cucumbers and tomatoes often need to be washed before they can be marketed. favourable, each female being capable of depositing 200 or more eggs over a 6-week period reproduction is normally parthenogenetic. At normal glasshouse temperatures, eggs hatch in about a week to 9 days. The nymphs (the so-called 'scales') at first wander over the foliage but soon become sedentary on the underside of the leaves, where they continue their development. They pass through three instars...

Scatella stagnalis Fallen S tenuicosta Collin Glasshouse wingspot flies

Infested With Small Flying

These small, black-bodied flies are often numerous in glasshouses and other protected sites and sometimes reach pest status. The larvae feed on algae growing on potting composts and rockwool growing-media, and on algae developing in nutrient-film troughs. Development from egg to adult takes approximately 2 weeks at normal glasshouse temperatures. Although not directly damaging to crop plants, the larvae may act as vectors of fungal diseases. The adult flies may Fig. 256 A glasshouse wing-spot fly, Scatella sp. (x15). Fig. 256 A glasshouse wing-spot fly, Scatella sp. (x15). also cause concern and can be a nuisance, particularly when they contaminate pre-packed, plastic-wrapped food crops such as lettuce the flies also soil glasshouse plants with specks of faecal material. Adults of Scatella are often mistaken for scuttle flies (see p. 177) or sciarid flies (see p. 167), but they are readily distinguishable by the twice-broken costal veins and by the slightly dusky wings which have...

Hauptidia maroccana Melichar Glasshouse leafhopper

This polyphagous leafhopper is well established in glasshouses in northern Europe. It feeds on the underside of the leaves of cucumber, melon, tomato and various ornamentals, especially chrysanthemum and primrose if conditions are favourable, infestations may also occur on outdoor plants, including various weeds. The insects cause a pale speckling or mottling of infested leaves (Plate le). Attacked plants may be weakened, and seedlings can be killed, but infestations are rarely of significance. This species breeds continuously, there being five or more overlapping generations annually. Eggs are inserted singly into the leaf veins and, at normal glasshouse temperatures, each hatches in about a week. The active nymphs then feed for about a month before becoming adults, each passing through five instars. Under colder conditions, however, development from egg to adult is greatly protracted and, in winter, may take several months. Adults are relatively long-lived and many survive for up to...

Small Greenhouses

Glass Green Houses Figure

The farmer who would make his crops of vegetables most profitable, or the small gardener who would have an early supply of early vegetables for home use or market must employ some kind of glass structures to hasten these crops. The hotbed or cold frame have been much in use in the past, but the cost of sash, shutters and mats is nearly as much as the materials needed for a permanent structure, while the labor of caring for cold frames or hotbeds is often much more than that of the small greenhouse. In the latter one may work with comfort no matter what the weather may be outside. It requires much more skill to run hotbeds successfully. Small greenhouses may be built against the south side of the house or stable, Figures 1 and 2, or they may be built entirely away from other buildings, but the shelter of larger buildings on the north or west will be found of great advantage. If one has a basement to the house or stable, a lean-to house may be built, and heat from the open cellar in a...

Overexpression Of Lipid Biosynthetic Enzymes 131 Overexpression of Enzymes Producing TAG Building Blocks

The glycerol backbone has also been examined as a limiting factor in the production of TAG. Analyses of the G3P content of developing seeds of B. napus and Arabidopsis have shown that the rate of provision of G3P is not adequate to sustain high G3P levels during the rapid phase of oil accumulation (Vigeolas and Geigenberger 2004). Subsequently, Vigeolas et al. (2007) overexpressed a yeast G3P dehydrogenase during seed development in B. napus under greenhouse conditions as a means of increasing the abundance of G3P. The level of G3P increased by three- to four-fold in developing seeds of the T4 generation, and the lipid content of mature seed increased significantly by up to 40 on a relative basis.

Collection of Food Safety Data

As GM lines advance to greenhouse trials, good reason seldom exists to require collection or submission of food- and feed-safety data for approval from the biosafety committee, except when it is difficult to exclude the possibility that the GMO will enter the food chain. Greenhouse studies are used primarily to test for efficacy of the introduced trait and to identify individual lines that will be further tested in field trials. For lines showing promise, however, developers may use greenhouse trials to begin collecting data that later will support a commercial-use application. Greenhouse experimentation can provide the material needed for initial testing of, for example, levels of the foreign protein found in various tissues and at various stages of growth.

Expression of a Yeast SLC11 Gene

Zou et al. (1997) enhanced seed oil content in Arabidopsis and high-erucic acid B. napus L. cv Hero through expression of a mutated yeast LPAAT gene (SLC1-1) using a constitutive promoter. The various transgenic lines, grown under greenhouse conditions, exhibited relative increases in seed oil content ranging from 8 to 48 . Field studies from two successive years with T4 and T5 generations of B. napus L. cv Hero expressing SLC1-1 resulted in relative increases in seed oil content of up to 13.5 (Taylor et al. 2001).

Aphis gossypii Glover Melon cotton aphid

This aphid is a major glasshouse pest, attacking both ornamental and vegetable crops, especially cucumber, melon and chrysanthemum. This species is a complex of different races specimens associated with cucurbits, for example, do not breed on chrysanthemum, and vice versa. Foliage of attacked plants turns yellow and may also wilt and die. On cucumber and melon, infested flowers may fail to open and fruitlets can be distorted crop yields and quality are also reduced by the accumulation of honeydew and develop

Termination and Followup Procedures

Measures are usually implemented at the end of laboratory, greenhouse, and field trials to ensure that the GMOs are effectively removed from the experimental area. The required measures are determined by the type of organisms, their natural means of spread, and the environment in which testing was

Biocontrol of Leaf and Stem Blights

Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm (anamorph Phoma cucurbitacearum Fr. Fr.) Sacc. is an important pathogen on greenhouse- and field-grown cucumbers and other cucurbits, and causes the disease gummy stem blight. The disease is favored by warm, humid conditions and the pathogen infects stems, fruit, leaves, and flowers of susceptible plants, especially through wounded or senescing tissues, and natural openings such as stomata and hydathodes. There are few reports on the potential of using biological control agents to control this disease. Utkhede and Coch (unpublished) applied the yeast R. diobovatum and the biocontrol agent

Coccus hesperidum L Brown soft scale

This generally common, polyphagous scale insect is often present on glasshouse-grown ornamentals and house plants in favourable areas, including southern England, infestations also occur outdoors. Although attacks are usually unimportant, the quality of host plants in commercial nurseries may be affected adversely by the presence of the scales, sticky honeydew and sooty moulds. about 3 months. The scales most often settle along the major veins of leaves. Individuals frequently overlap one another to form dense, typically ant-attended colonies. At normal summer glasshouse temperatures, nymphs reach maturity in about 2 months.

Planococcus citri Risso Citrus mealybug

This mealybug is often abundant on glasshouse ornamentals, especially under hot, humid conditions. Vegetable crops such as tomato are also attacked. The pinkish eggs are laid in large batches and then surrounded by cottonwool-like masses of wax these conspicuous ovisacs often attract attention. The adults are 3-4mm long and pinkish, coated with whitish wax the peripheral and caudal waxen processes are characteristically short and stout (cf. glasshouse mealybug, Pseudococcus affinis, below).

Brief Description of Proposed Trial Release

Pseudomonas) solanacearum causes bacterial wilt in potatoes in Sub-Saharan Africa. This disease is growing into a serious limiting factor in the production of potatoes in the area. The loss of this industry will have serious economic impact for the region. The disease affects both commercial and small farmers. Laboratory experiments with insertion mutants of biovar2 strains of the pathogen have shown considerable biocontrol activity against wild type strains of the pathogen. It is now necessary to test the genetically modified biocontrol strains in more representative soil conditions, but this is not currently possible in Africa because these countries do not yet have biosafety structures to assess the risk parameters for greenhouse trials. For this reason, the applicant seeks to conduct greenhouse trials in South Africa because its climate more closely reflects African environmental conditions than the applicant's research facilities in Europe.

Horticultural crops biotechnology

The research priorities for oil-palm developed at an Agricultural Biotechnology Workshop in Bogor are given in Table 4.4. A possible future research scenario for Allium spp. is given in Table 4.5. Depending on the available resources, the research activities will include virus elimination diagnostic kits for virus identification in plant tissue use of coat-protein genes to protect against cucumber mosaic virus in pepper rapid clonal propagation using tissue culture and development of disease-resistant materials through protoplast fusion. Apart from the virus protection with coat-protein genes, the tissue-culture work would proceed at LEHRI with close interaction on techniques with the Agricultural Biotechnology Laboratory at Bogor. A substantial increase in staffing for biotechnology research is projected for LEHRI. Laboratory buildings and equipment and screenhouse greenhouse facilities are required before major expansion of activity can occur.

The location of the site for the proposed released eg ordnance survey map of appropriate scale with site marked

A quarantine greenhouse at the National Agricultural Research Institute, address given and map attached. Lawn and trees surround the greenhouse. Soil is loamy. The greenhouse is routinely used to quarantine imported from river. Rainwater runs past greenhouse complex towards

Making Permanent Hotbeds

A permanent hotbed should be so constructed as to be heated either with fermenting manure or by radiating pipes from the dwelling or greenhouse heating plant. For a permanent bed, in which manure is to supply the heat, a pit 2 to 2,y2 feet deep, according to the latitude in which the work is to be done, should be provided.

Full details are required about the manner in which the trial release of the GMO is to be undertaken

The plants will be grown in a contained greenhouse on the roof of the university's Life Science Building. Provision will be made for insect and manual pollination to occur. Manual pollination is usually required where ploidy differences occur between related species. Locking the facility will control access, and all waste will be autoclaved after the experiment. The facility will be disinfected after the conclusion of the trial. Seed will be collected and transferred to the laboratory for further analysis.

With regard to the pollination characteristics of the plant what is the likelihood of the novel genetic material

This experiment is designed to provide the information to answer this question. Insect and manual pollination will be used to determine which local relatives of sunflower are sexually compatible with the crop through insect pollination or manual pollination. Net screens on the greenhouse vents and doors will prevent insects from entering or leaving the greenhouse. The greenhouse has a double-door entry system, and the vestibule will be sprayed with an insecticide before the outside door is opened. An insecticide spray will be used before and after the experiment to eliminate insects in the study area.

Anaerobic Digestion ad

This is the treatment of organic wastes of solid, liquid or slurry consistency in the absence of molecular oxygen (Ward et al., 2008). The ability of this process to produce biogas as methane has helped to improve its appeal and economic acceptability, particularly since the energy crises of the 1970s, and increasing concern over greenhouse gas emission and global warming. Mass reduction, methane production and improved dewatering are considered to be some of the principal attractions of AD (Ferrer et al., 2008). On the other hand, slow digestion leading to long retention times is a draw back, particularly at mesophilic temperatures. It has been in use since the middle or late nineteenth century, but its application in wastewater treatment did not grow rapidly, due to a lack of fundamental understanding of the process (Wheatley, 1990). It is currently the principal method for treatment of waste sludge, particularly following the invention and success of the up-flow anaerobic sludge...

Clepsis spectrana Treitschke Strawcoloured tortrix moth

This widespread moth is a pest of various glasshouse plants infestations also occur on various outdoor crops, including black currant, rhubarb and strawberry. The larvae cause considerable leaf damage, especially to the younger shoots, and also attack buds and flowers. fully grown, each pupates in its habitation or amongst dead leaves. Adults emerge 2-3 weeks later. Second-generation larvae usually overwinter whilst still very small and complete their development in the spring. In glasshouses, development may be continuous.

Development in Biotechnology

The transformation system for local rice varieties has been established. Transgenic rice containing the coat-protein gene for the tungro virus has been developed. Glasshouse screening has been completed and field trials are being planned for 2001. Transgenic rice with herbicide resistance has also been produced and is currently in glasshouse trials. Transgenic rice resistant to sheath blight disease is being developed. MARDI's rice biotechnology project was part of the Rockefeller Foundation Network on Rice Biotechnology that has just ended. Rice biotechnology is still being given top priority through top-down funding.

Horse waste management systems

Management of a horse operation near urban areas must include methods to keep flies and odors to a minimum. Horses are housed in confinement in paddocks or they are on pasture. Horse paddocks or stalls receive liberal amounts of bedding therefore, most horse manure is handled as a solid. It should be removed from stalls daily if possible and can be land applied, stored in solid manure storage structures, or processed by composting. Some precautions should be taken if the manure is land applied to pastures because this can result in internal parasites spreading to other horses. The manure can be used in gardens, greenhouses, nurseries, and by mushroom growers.

Glossary of Terms

Containment (a) Physical isolation of an organism from its environment (b) measures and protocols applied to limit contact of genetically modified organisms or pathogens with the external environment (c) use of physical means (e.g., greenhouses, indoor growth facilities, isolated locations) and or biological methods (e.g., male sterility, flower removal) to ensure that neither the organism nor its genetic material (in the form of propagative structures, seeds, pollen) is released into the environment. deliberate release (a) Any intentional introduction into the environment of a GMO or a combination of GMOs for which no specific containment measures are used to limit their contact with and to provide a high level of safety for the general population and the environment (b) any intentional use of organisms that is not under containment. DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid the material of which genes are made a linear molecule consisting of a sequence of chemical subunits called bases, which...

Drought Mitigation

The NIAST has quantified the positive impacts of paddy farming, including flood prevention, enhancement of water resources, air and water purification, and soil erosion alleviation (Seo et al., 2001). Negative impacts include the emission of greenhouse gases, nitrogen leaching, and the amount of agricultural water use (Seong et al., 2001). Crop simulation models based on weather data can be used to predict irrigation schedules to aid drought mitigation.

Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval Mediterranean brocade moth

This tropical and subtropical pest is established in various parts of southern Europe where it attacks a range of crops, including glasshouse-grown ornamentals and vegetable crops. The larvae (often known as 'Mediterranean climbing cutworms') cause extensive defoliation they also damage stems and flowers. In the British Isles, larvae are found occasionally on imported plants, especially chrysanthemum the adult is a very rare 'natural' immigrant. Eggs are laid in groups and then covered with hairs from the adult moth. The eggs hatch within a few days at normal glasshouse temperatures. The larvae feed mainly at night and, when fully grown, pupate in the soil a few centimetres below the surface. The development and survival of this multivoltine species depends considerably on temperature breeding is continuous whilst conditions remain favourable.

Energy or Fuel Generation from Wastewaters

Biogas from anaerobic processes such as anaerobic sludge digesters or anaerobic reactors for reducing high-strength wastewaters has been well known and utilized to a certain degree on a small scale. But the enthusiasm for its energy generation capacity never lasts very long as people soon realize the costs associated with enriching methane gas from biogas, collection of this gas, and transportation of this gas in such small quantity. Landfills produce biogas naturally under anaerobic conditions and this gas had, for a long time, generated little interest until recently. The reasons for the attention to biogas from landfills have shared little common ground with one another. People concerned with global warming feel more depressed because methane, which is a worse greenhouse gas than CO2, and CO2, comprises the majority of biogas from landfill, whereas entrepreneurs see the same biogas as diamond in the rough, a part of new green revolution that will usher in a green economy.

Phytonemus pallidus Banks Cyclamen mite

This widely distributed mite is a major pest of glasshouse ornamentals, including African violet, begonia, cyclamen, ivy and many others. The The mites breed continuously under glasshouse conditions, so long as conditions remain favourable, and pass through several overlapping generations each year. In unheated glasshouses, however, breeding ceases during the winter. Development includes an egg, a larval and a quiescent nymphal stage. The nymphs do not feed and are enclosed within the bloated, cast-off skin of the larva. Females at this transitional resting stage are often carried around by adult males, the male holding a female nymph aloft with the aid of a genital sucker. Tarsonemid mites are light-shy and relatively inactive. They often shelter within folded or crinkled young tissue and between bud scales, where they also feed and breed. Development from egg to adult takes about 2 weeks during the summer but is much slower when temperatures are low, duration of the egg stage then...

Chemical Reproductive Hazards Infertility in Males

High levels of pesticide exposures in pesticide applicators and greenhouse workers have been associated with increased time-to-pregnancy. The use of pyrethoids has been similarly associated. However, a large multicenter study found no difference in time-to-pregnancy between traditional and organic farmers. Other studies have found no differences between time-to-pregnancy in greenhouse workers who use personal protective equipment compared to unexposed workers. Differences in working conditions, types of pesticides used, and levels of exposure may account for the discrepancis in these studies (19-22).

Climate Scenarios Seasonal Forecasts and Downscaling Issues

Complex Models regarding general atmospheric circulation (GCM) have been developed to predict the future earth climate. Those models are able to simulate the energy and mass exchanges between the atmosphere and the earth surface, according to several man-due scenarios of greenhouse gases emissions (IPCC, 2007). The HadCM3 model, developed by the United-Kingdom Meteorological Office, and the German ECHAM4 model were considered in the IPCC (2007) report, among other non-European GCM's.

Tyrophagus neiswanderi Johnston Bruce Cucumber mite

This species may also infest cucumber plants attacks have also been noted on damaged tissue of other glasshouse-grown plants, including chrysanthemum. The mites are similar in appearance to Tyrophagus longior (above) but slightly smaller also, they possess a characteristic pair of pigmented, eye-like patches on the propodosomal shield. Populations of this species are capable of overwintering in glasshouses in the absence of straw and, although generally less

Amphorophora rubi Kaltenbach Bramble aphid

How Long Pea Aphids Last Alfalfa

Fig. 189 Outline of front of head of various species of aphid (a) pea aphid, Acyrthosiphonpisum (b) black bean aphid, Aphis fabae (c) glasshouse & potato aphid, Aulacorthum solani (d) strawberrv aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (e) rose grain aphid. Metopolophium dirhodum (f) peach potato aphid. Myzuspersicae (g) damson hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (h) bird-cherry aphid, Rhopalosiphumpadi. Fig. 189 Outline of front of head of various species of aphid (a) pea aphid, Acyrthosiphonpisum (b) black bean aphid, Aphis fabae (c) glasshouse & potato aphid, Aulacorthum solani (d) strawberrv aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (e) rose grain aphid. Metopolophium dirhodum (f) peach potato aphid. Myzuspersicae (g) damson hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (h) bird-cherry aphid, Rhopalosiphumpadi.

Autographa gamma L Silver y moth

This moth is a notorious migrant, and populations spread northwards and westwards each year from Mediterranean areas, where the pest is endemic. The larvae attack various glasshouse and outdoor plants, including brassicas, celery, field bean, lettuce, linseed, pea, potato and strawberry. Defoliation is usually the main problem but frass pellets accumulating between the leaves of infested lettuce plants are also often an important problem. The first immigrants usually arrive in northern Europe in May, but can sometimes occur much earlier. Eggs are laid singly or in small groups on various foodplants and they hatch 1-2 weeks later. Larvae feed for about a month before pupating, each in a flimsy silken cocoon between leaves. Adults appear within about 2 weeks and often fly during sunny weather, to feed on nectar from various flowers. A second, and sometimes a third, generation may be completed during the summer and autumn. However, although capable of breeding continuously in heated...

Overexpression of DGAT

Lines with increased AtDGAT1 transcript and DGAT activity during seed development (compared to the wild type) displayed enhanced seed oil content at maturity. More recently, seed-specific overexpression of DGAT1 in a major oilseed crop has also been shown to lead to enhanced seed oil content. Overexpression of DGAT1 from either Arabidopsis (AtDGAT1) or B. napus L. (BnDGAT1) during seed development in two cultivars of oilseed rape (B. napus L.) has been shown to result in enhanced seed oil content under both greenhouse and field conditions (Weselake et al. 2007). A high oil transgenic line overexpressing BnDGAT1, grown under greenhouse conditions, displayed a decrease in the DAG TAG ratio and fourfold enhanced DGAT activity in developing seeds obtained about 4 weeks after flowering. Top-down control analysis (see Ramli et al. 2002) of this transgenic line indicated a decrease in flux control from about 70 to 50 in the TAG assembly block (block B) (Weselake et al. 2007). Production of...

WMOs Activities in Support of the Combat against Drought

Human-induced changes in dryland surface conditions and atmospheric composition can certainly have an impact on local and regional climate conditions because they directly affect the energy budget of the surface and the overlying atmospheric column. These changes to the energy balance have been simulated in many numerical modeling studies covering almost all dryland areas of the world. The outcomes of these studies underscore the need to improve our knowledge of the climate-desertification relationship and, at the same time, call for improvements in the quantity and quality of the data available for further simulations. Accordingly, the WMO World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) launched the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX ) to study the atmospheric and thermodynamic processes that determine the global hydrolog-ical cycle and energy budget and their adjustments to global changes, such as an increase in greenhouse gases. Many of the fundamental issues...

Expression of Plastidial or Bacterial GPAT

Jain et al. (2000) investigated the GPAT-catalyzed reaction as a target for enhancing seed oil content. The investigators expressed a cDNA encoding a plastidial saf-flower GPAT or the gene encoding Escherichia coli GPAT during seed development in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions. The construct for plastidial safflower GPAT was designed to remove the plastidial targeting sequence. Analyses of T2 seeds revealed average oil content increases, on a relative basis, of 22 and 15 for expression of the safflower GPAT cDNA and the E. coli GPAT gene, respectively.

Ocean Ark the Margaret Mead

We spent quite a long time mulling over ideas of biological restoration, the potential of biotechnology, and the return of commercial sail. In 1981 we founded Ocean Arks International as the vehicle for implementing I these concepts. We had thought at first about the possibility of a sort of sail-powered greenhouse, a Biological Hope Ship. The idea was that the boat would produce and transport biological materials like seeds, plants, trees, I

High Erucic Acid Low Glucosinolate Rapeseed Cultivar Development

A new breeding objective of full resistance to blackleg was added to the HEAR breeding objectives list in the 1990s. MillenniUM 01, MillenniUM 02, and MillenniUM 03 were developed by pedigree selection in the progeny from crosses of HEAR lines and superior-performing, blackleg-resistant, double-low rapeseed (canola) cultivars from Canadian or European breeding organizations. Screening for blackleg resistance was done on seedlings grown in the greenhouse and then confirmed in disease-screening nurseries grown in the field. The MillenniUM series of HEAR cultivars was fully resistant to blackleg.

Recent Success in Fungicide Development from Antifungal Leads

Portait Chinois Illustre

Since strobilurin A and oudemansin A were found to be fungicidal metabolites in Basidiomycete fungi Strobilurus tenacellus (Anke et al. 1977) and Oudemansiella mucida (Musilek et al. 1969), respectively, a number of structurally related compounds were reported to have fungicidal activity. Each member of this family incorporates a methyl b-methoxyacrylate group linked at its a-position to a phenylpentadienyl unit, and all the compounds except strobilurin A carry either one or two additional substituents on the benzene ring that render structural complexity (Figure 1). Their mode of action on mitochondrial respiration, binding at a specific site on cytochrome b, is not shared by any other known class of fungicides (Sauter et al. 1995). The unique mode of action may not provide a chance of cross-resistance between b-methoxylacrylates and other fungicides. Although strobilurin A has excellent in vitro activity against a range of fungi, it did not show any useful in vivo activity in the...

Phytomyza syngenesiae Hardy larva A chrysanthemum leaf miner

Phytomyza Horticola

Infestations of this leaf miner (widely known in older literature as 'Phytomyza atricornisl see also under P. horticola, p. 193) are often established on various members of the Asteraceae, especially glasshouse crops such as chrysanthemum severe infestations are also reported on lettuce. The whitish to brownish larval mines are disfiguring and, if several occur on the same leaf, infested leaves may wilt, turn brown and die. Adult leaf-feeding punctures, which sometimes develop from small, whitish spots to brownish warts, are also disfiguring. Although usually regarded as a pest, the insect has been tested in New Zealand as a potential biological control agent for use against the weed Senecio jacobaea. Adult females deposit eggs singly through punctures made in the upper surface of leaves. The eggs hatch a few days later. The larvae then mine within the leaves to form long, winding, narrow, wavy-edged (cf. American serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii, p. 189) galleries, clearly...

Hydraecia micacea Esper Rosy rustic moth

Infested Plants

Able conditions, there may be a partial second generation. As many as three generations can occur in heated glasshouses. This often common pest attacks various herbaceous plants, but is of greatest importance as a pest of glasshouse-grown vegetables, including cucumber and tomato. Although young larvae merely graze the leaves, older larvae cause extensive defoliation. They also tunnel into developing tomatoes, rendering the fruit unmarketable. The cabbage moth is a generally common and often important pest of vegetable crops, including brassicas, lettuce, onion, pea and sweet corn. Infestations often occur in glasshouses, especially on lettuce and sweet pepper and, less often, other crops, including ornamentals. The young larvae graze on the surface of leaves, leaving the upper epidermis intact ('windowing' symptom) (Plate 15d) but older larvae bite right through the lamina. The larvae also burrow into the heart of cabbages and foul plants with their frass.

Metopolophium festucae Theobald Fescue aphid

Cereal Aphid

On stored bulbs, corms and root vegetables, and on various glasshouse plants. Under mild conditions, colonies can also survive the winter out-of-doors (e.g. on strawberry). Winged migrants appear in the spring, and these spread infestations to various herbaceous plants colonies on winter hosts often then die out.

Family Aeolothripidae banded thrips

In the 1980s, this polyphagous non-indigenous thrips appeared in considerable numbers on glasshouse plants in England and various other parts of Europe, including France, Germany, the Netherlands and Scandinavia, having been introduced accidentally from abroad, mainly on chrysanthemum cuttings. Significant infestations have occurred on aubergine, cucumber, tomato and various other plants (including many ornamentals) and attempts to eradicate the pest have not proved successful. In warmer parts of Europe, this pest is also now established on various outdoor hosts, including fruit trees and vines. Adults and nymphs cause distortion, silvering and speckling of leaves and flowers (Plates lc and Id), and damage from even a relatively small number of individuals is often extensive. The thrips are also implicated in the transmission of important plant viruses, such as tomato spotted-wilt virus. This species breeds continuously under suitable conditions, and the life-cycle is completed in 2-3...

Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks Broad mite

Infested Plants

In temperate regions, this tropical or subtropical mite infests a wide range of glasshouse-grown Broad mites breed continuously under favourable conditions, development including an egg, a larval and a quiescent nymphal stage, the latter being passed within the cast-off larval skin. At normal glasshouse temperatures, eggs hatch in 2-3 days and larvae feed for about 4 days before moulting into 'resting nymphs'. The adult stage is reached a day or so later. Female nymphs are often carried around by adult males which, unlike other motile stages (e.g. larvae and adult females), frequently wander over host plants. Colonies of mites occur on the underside of young, expanded leaves and amongst still furled tender growth leaves, however, become unsuitable as they mature and are then abandoned. All stages may be found together on infested plants, and adult females usually greatly outnumber males.

Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval Carmine spider mite

Infested Plants

Europe, where they are associated mainly with glasshouse-grown plants. Heavily infested hosts are often coated in masses of webbing. Unlike the previous species, with which they will interbreed, adults of Tetranychus cinnabarinus are bright red (both species have a pair of dark lateral markings) eggs are either whitish or pink and nymphs are greenish-yellow or green. The mites lack a diapause stage and, under suitable conditions, breed continuously.

Bradysia paupera Toumikoski

This sciarid is a common and often important pest that can check the growth of glasshouse cuttings, seedlings and young pot plants, including cucumber, lettuce, melon and various ornamentals. Attacked plants may also wilt and die, especially in sunshine. Less frequently, when eggs are deposited on leaves, the larvae skeletonize the foliage. Infestations of this small, widely distributed sciarid often occur in glasshouses, where the larvae cause minor damage to pot plants. Adults are dark-bodied with pale halteres, pale legs and clear wings.

Opportunities and Constraints

Developed in collaboration with Cornell University, these plants have been tested in greenhouses in Geneva, New York, and have now been transferred to Embrapa in Brasilia for field tests. In 2 years they should be ready for large-scale tests and should be as successful as their cousins being planted in Hawaii. The technology will bring the opportunity of papaya cultivation back to small farmers in areas where the crop has been decimated by virus disease. However, if the antibiotic marker is proved to be a real problem under Brazilian conditions, then another 4-5 years will be necessary to reconstruct the material. Developed by Embrapa (Rice and Beans Centre), these plants are undergoing greenhouse tests after a long research period, due to the difficulty of adapting existing technology to the specific virus strain. Researchers expect to complete the cross-breeding of the characteristic into commercial lines in 2-3 years.

Method 59c Determination of resin extractable phosphorus automated method

Agricultural (lower P) and glasshouse (higher P) soils. The above authors phorus intermediate standard solution, 100 pg ml-1, into 100-ml volumetric flasks, make up to the mark with sodium sulphate extractant, and mix. These will contain 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 pg P ml-1 respectively, and are suitable for glasshouse soils that are approximately x8 higher in P than agricultural soils a lower range of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 pg P ml-1 should be prepared for the latter. glasshouse soils low, 436.

Aphis nasturtii Kaltenbach Buckthornpotato aphid

Infested Plants

Fig. 190 Siphunculi and caudas of some aphids associated with bulb or potato crops (a) buckthorn potato aphid, Aphis nasturtii (b) glasshouse & potato aphid, Aulacorthum solani (c) potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (d) shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus (e) peach potato aphid, Myzuspersicae (f) bulb & potato aphid, Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon (g) mangold aphid, Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae tulipaellus. Fig. 190 Siphunculi and caudas of some aphids associated with bulb or potato crops (a) buckthorn potato aphid, Aphis nasturtii (b) glasshouse & potato aphid, Aulacorthum solani (c) potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (d) shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus (e) peach potato aphid, Myzuspersicae (f) bulb & potato aphid, Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon (g) mangold aphid, Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae tulipaellus.

Screening of Potential Leads from Diverse Microbial Sources

Bacillus subtilis is known to produce diverse antifungal peptides represented by inturins. A series of fungicidal metabolites, named rhizocticines, were identified from B. subtilis ATCC6633 (Figure 2) (Fredenhagen et al. 1995). These peptides showed control efficacy against B. cinerea on apples and vines in the greenhouse. The proteolytic digestion test of the compound revealed that L-2-amino-5-phosphono-3-(Z)-pentenoic acid was the actual structure active against B. cinerea. The antifungal activity was proven to be stereo specific, since the corresponding 3-(E) compound did not show any antifungal activity. The mixture of rhizocticines A, B, and D also showed control efficacy against gray molds on grapes in the field.

National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Sri Somrong 60, a Thai cotton variety, was successfully transformed with cryIA b gene expressing a toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Development of transgenic rice varieties has been supported by the Rice Biotechnology Program launched by BIOTEC and the Rockefeller Foundation. An example is the transformation of Khaw Dawk Mali 105, an aromatic Thai rice with delta 1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase for salinity and drought tolerance. Most transgenic plants are now being tested in the greenhouse in accordance with the Biosafety Guidelines (Attathom and Sriwatanapongse 1994, Attathom et al. 1996). Field testing of transgenic plants developed in Thailand will begin in 2000.

Helicoverpa armigera Hiibner Scarce bordered straw moth

Also occur regularly on glasshouse-grown ornamentals such as carnation and chrysanthemum. The moths sometimes migrate northwards (but they very rarely reach the British Isles) where, if conditions are favourable, they may breed the pest may also, occasionally, be introduced accidentally into such areas on imported produce. The larvae (known as Old World bollworms) are capable of causing considerable defoliation. Also, on tomato, the young larvae often bore into the fruits and may then become important contaminants in crops sent for processing.

Siteroptes graminum Reuter Grass cereal mite

Infestations of this widespread but sporadic and usually minor pest are sometimes noted on cereals (including wheat and barley) and grasses. Affected plants are stunted and their infloresences fail to emerge properly, becoming distorted and silvery in appearance (a condition known as 'silver top'). Attacks are usually established in association with the fungus Fusarium poae. A similar relationship occurs on glasshouse-grown carnation this results in rotting and death of the buds (a condition known as 'bud rot' or 'central bud rot'). Such attacks are infrequent and usually initiated in the autumn after a period of hot, dry weather.

Covering with Hotbed Sash

The woodwork of greenhouses and hotbed sash should have a coat of thin linseed oil paint every second year. Much of the success to be obtained from any glass structure will depend upon the skill of the operator, and the thermometer, both outside and in, must be watched very closely. The temperature should be maintained as nearly as possible like that in the open air under which the plants grown thrive the best.

Biocontrol of Gray Mold

Botrytis cinerea Pers Fr. is an important pathogen on many vegetable crops grown under greenhouse conditions as well as under field conditions. Under high humidity conditions or when free moisture is present on the plant surface, the pathogen infects fruits, flowers, leaves, and stems causing tissue decay. This is followed by prolific sporulation of the pathogen, producing a gray mold appearance. Wounded tissues are especially susceptible to this pathogen. Much of the research activity to achieve biological control of B. cinerea on vegetable crops has centered around the use of T. harzianum, followed by Ulocladium spp. and a number of yeasts, as described later. Isolate T-39 of T. harzianum (marketed as Trichodex ) provided control of gray mold as well as a number of other fungal diseases of cucumber under commercial greenhouse conditions (Elad 2000a). T. harzianum T-39 was applied as part of a gray mold management program in alternation with chemical fungicides. The biocontrol agent...

Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon Davidson Bulb potato aphid

This aphid is a generally common pest of glasshouse-grown bulbs or corms, and of potatoes in store or in chittting houses heavy infestations cause discoloration and death of sprouting shoots. The aphids will also damage such crops in the field, infested potato haulm turning yellow and wilting, significantly reducing yields. Heavily infested plants may be killed, especially in hot, dry summers when crops are under particular stress. Although known to transmit viruses, including potato leaf roll, this species is not an important virus vector.

Agricultural Waste Utilization

Agricultural waste utilization is of comparatively recent origin. Agricultural solid wastes are widely recognized as potential sources of nutrients for direct or indirect use in animal agricultural production. Based on the nutrient status of the wastes, some portion of animal wastes is used as a feed supplement for livestock however, caution is warranted for some unknown compounds that are likely to be present in the wastes in trace amounts, such as drugs fed to animals through feed additives or administered to the body of the animals during production to treat them during diseases. Agricultural waste derived from animal production facilities around the world can act as various sources for renewable energy, carbon sequestration, and reduction of emission of greenhouse gases. In the following section various benefits of agriculturally derived waste are briefly discussed.

Aflatoxin management in peanut

Field and greenhouse screening methods have been used to increase the efficacy of evaluation of aflatoxin resistance in peanuts. Sick plots with highly aggressive, toxigenic strains of A. flavus, and laboratory inoculation methods for selecting individual resistant seeds now enable the screening of large amounts of germplasm. As a result, sources of resistance to seed infection and aflatoxin production have now been identified and used to breed high-yielding lines with resistance to seed infection and aflatoxin contamination that have been registered and shared with national agricultural research systems (NARS) for further use in their programs, e.g., ICGV 88145, 89104, 91278, 91283 and 91284 in Asia and ICGV 87084, 87094 and 87110 in West Africa. Other options for aflatoxin control in peanut include the use of isolates of Trichoderma and Pseudomonas, which provide biological control of Aspergillus in both field and greenhouse trials, and cultural practices that reduce aflatoxin...

Impacts of Fertilizers on Insect Pests

Clover mite Greenhouse thrip Green peach aphid* Greenbug Corn leaf aphid Spotted alfalfa aphid In Ohio greenhouse experiments, European corn borer females laid significantly more eggs on sweet corn growing in conventionally fertilized soils than they did on plants growing in organically farmed soils collected nearby. Interestingly, egg-laying varied significantly among the chemically fertilized treatments but was uniformly low in organically managed soils. The difference appears to be evidence for a form of biological buffering more commonly found under organic conditions.

Tetranychus urticae Koch Twospotted spider mite

Infestations of this generally abundant mite occur on a wide range of plants, including glasshouse ornamentals (e.g. carnation, chrysanthemum and rose) and vegetables (e.g. cucumber, sweet pepper and tomato), indoor and outdoor fruit crops (especially wall-trained fruit trees, bush fruits, cane fruits and strawberry) and hops. Serious attacks may also occur on hardy ornamentals and outdoor vegetable crops (including French bean and runner bean), especially in hot, dry summers occasionally, infestations also develop on potato and sugar beet. The mites feed mainly on the underside of leaves they withdraw sap from the plant cells and this leads to a pale spotting of leaves and, later, distinct speckling, silvering or bronzing infested parts of plants may also become coated in webbing. Heavy infestations often lead to withering of leaves and premature leaf-fall on Adult female mites hibernate in cracks in glasshouse staging, posts, supporting stakes, walls and dry soil they also find...

Rhizoecus falcifer Kiinckel de Herculais Root mealybug

Colonies of root mealybugs often occur on the roots of glasshouse plants infestations are most often found on ornamentals. The foliage of attacked plants becomes dull. Also, heavily infested plants eventually wilt. The insects shelter in masses of whitish wax and breed par-thenogenetically, there being a succession of generations throughout the year. Adults are elongate, 1.0-2.3 mm long, and greenish-yellow but coated liberally in whitish wax. They are readily distinguished from root aphids by their stubby, 5-segmented, geniculate antennae (Fig. 198) they also have very short waxy anal appendages.

Larva American serpentine leaf miner

This mainly North American species is frequently introduced into Europe, especially on chrysanthemum cuttings infestations may then develop on glasshouse-grown crops such as celery, cucumber, lettuce, tomato and various ornamentals. Growth of heavily infested plants is checked, affecting both crop yields and quality host plants are also disfigured by adult feeding and egg-laying punctures. Larval mines are long, contorted and whitish, and each contains an irregular line of dark frass. Pupation occurs in the soil (cf. chrysanthemum leaf miner, Phytomyza syngenesiae, p. 192). Infestations build up rapidly and the pest breeds continuously whilst conditions remain favourable. During the summer, infestations may spread to outdoor plants, including Vicia bean and weeds such as Senecio jacobaea and Solanum dulcamara. Adults (wings 1.2-1.5 mm long) are greyish-black with a mainly yellow head and bright yellow scutellum and antennae. Larvae are 2 mm long, yellow to orange-yellow, and the...

Myzus persicae Sulzer Peachpotato aphid

The peach potato aphid is a polyphagous pest of herbaceous plants, often attacking beet, cucumber (it is the main aphid pest of glasshouse-grown cucumber in northern areas of Britain), lettuce, mangold, oilseed rape, potato and vegetable brassicas various ornamentals are also affected. This species is a notorious vector of plant viruses, including beet western yellows, cabbage black ringspot, carnation latent and

Biophysical Conditions

The quality of these components is an important factor for growing any crop or keeping most animals. Some sorts of farming can function without their natural environment (such as greenhouse systems), but they are not reviewed here because they are hardly affected by land-use planning.

Role Of Mrgs In Biocontrol And Strain Improvement

1999), as well as the corresponding gene disruptants (Carsolio et al. 1999 Woo et al. 1999). The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. atroviride was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42 fold in multicopy strains as compared to the nontransformed strain. Multicopy transformants reduced disease incidence by about 10 . Furthermore, a 30 higher degradation of the chitin content in R. solani cell walls was observed during interaction with the overexpressing Trichoderma than with the wild type, when quantified by transmission electron microscopy (Carsolio et al. 1999). In the case of the gene disruptants no differences in their efficiency to control R. solani or S. rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments, as compared to the nontransformed control strains (Carsolio et al. 1999). In a second study (Woo et al. 1999), a reduction of the antifungal activity in vitro of the ech42 disrupted strains towards B. cinerea was observed. However, in vivo tests...

Biocontrol of Powdery Mildews

Verticillium lecanii has been described as a mycoparasite of powdery mildew fungi as well as a pathogen of insects and it has been developed as a biocontrol agent of insects on greenhouse crops. Strains of V. lecanii differed in their level of antagonism against the powdery mildew pathogen of cucumber, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, under laboratory conditions (Askary et al. 1998). Application to cucumber leaves prior to mildew infection and incubation under high ( 95 ) relative humidity conditions reduced mildew development (Verhaar et al. 1997). The high humidity requirement for growth of this mycoparasite was reduced by the addition of an oil formulation (Verhaar et al. 1999). Infection of S.fuliginea by V. lecanii resulted in disorganized cytoplasm and plasmalemma disruption, possibly due to chitinase enzyme activity (Askary et al. 1997). A commercially available formulation of A. quisqualis AQ10 has been extensively evaluated against powdery mildew development. On cucumbers grown in the...

Phlogophora meticulosa L Angleshades moth

Greatest significance as pests of tomato and other glasshouse crops, especially those growing in structures with artificial lighting. The young larvae graze on the underside of leaves but leave the upper epidermis intact. Older larvae bite right through the leaves and, when numerous, can cause significant defoliation. Larvae also attack buds and flower trusses.

Larva Chrysanthemum stool miner

This insect is associated with chrysanthemum stools and was formerly an important pest. Nowadays, however, owing to changes in cultural techniques and better hygiene procedures, infestations are infrequent. Chrysanthemum cuttings and lettuces planted in infested chrysanthemum stool beds are also attacked. Adults are normally active in May and June. Eggs are then deposited in the soil close to chrysanthemum plants. The eggs hatch about 2 weeks later. The creamish-white, shiny larvae mine within the stools to form long, but superficial, galleries. Pupation takes place in the soil 1-2 months later, and a second generation of adults appears in the late summer or autumn. Second-generation larvae feed throughout the winter and, under glasshouse conditions, usually give rise to adults by March. Adult flies are bluish-black, with the head and legs brownish-yellow and the bulbous third antennal segment mainly black (Fig. 253b) (cf. Psila rosae, p. 181).

Bemisia tabad Gennadius Tobacco whitefly

In recent years, this tropical pest has occurred in glasshouses in both England and continental Europe, usually having been introduced on imported poinsettia plants or cuttings. In Northern Europe, it is most likely to occur on glasshouse ornamentals and on protected vegetable crops such as sweet pepper and tomato. Infested tissue becomes slightly spotted. Host plants are also contaminated by masses of sticky honeydew and sooty moulds. Under favourable glasshouse conditions this polyphagous whitefly is capable of breeding continuously, but development from egg to adult tends to be slower than that of the glasshouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (below). Eggs are deposited singly, usually low down on the underside of the young leaves. On hatching, the first-instar nymphs wander for a short distance before becoming sedentary and beginning to feed they pass through three instars before moulting to a non-feeding pseudo-pupal stage. Unlike T. vaporariorum, the eggs and scales are...

Network Density

An easily interpretable statistic for the network density is the so-called road density (symbol W, dimension km km2). This statistic is calculated by dividing the road length by the acreage of the study area. In this calculation, only roads with an access function for the study area are considered. A road density of 1.5 to 6 often is used for farmed areas. The desired value strongly depends on the type of agricultural land use. The lower values (1.5 to 2.0) count for arable land and pasture land in flat areas. For horticulture, a density of 2 to 3 is used, whereas glasshouse districts need a density of 3 to 6 km km2. Furthermore, the values depend on farm sizes, the number of parcels per farm, form and acreage of the parcels, and the topographical structure of the landscape. In newly reclaimed land, with large arable farms and the farmland concentrated around the farm buildings, the road density is only 0.6 to 0.8 km km2 for public roads. This value roughly doubles when the frequently...


As a GMO under development progresses through the laboratory to the growth room and into the greenhouse, the basic biosafety requirement is to limit spread of the engineered organism and its genetic material. Containment is a term for the use of physical barriers to restrict spread within a structure or enclosed space. Laboratory facilities and greenhouses afford this relatively high level of control. Greenhouse containment Greenhouses are designed to keep insects and animals out and plant and plant parts in. Construction details and procedures for handling GMOs will vary depending on the types and degrees of biosafety concern associated with the experimental materials to be housed within. In many cases, conventional greenhouses can be made suitable for GMOs by simple refurbishing and minor structural upgrades. For higher levels of containment, facilities may have to meet such specifications as controlled and filtered airflow, systems to control and disinfect water leaving the...

Physical plant

The building housing the hatchery facility can be a greenhouse or a more permanent structure. In temperate and subtropical regions, hatcheries are enclosed in concrete tile or insulated metal buildings (Valenti & Tidwell 2006), while in tropical regions hatcheries can also be of tile construction (Valenti 2007) or can be built of wood and roofed with leaves (Correia et al. 1988). With recirculation systems, excessive solar energy and light produces excessive heat during warmer months and encourages growth of algae, which can foul the tanks and biofilters. When production occurs in a greenhouse, the area above the culture tank should be shaded to provide a good indirect light and the biofilters and live food production areas should be covered completely. In more permanent structures, adequate windows should be made to provide proper lighting, such as presented in the layout by Aquacop (1983) and Valenti et al. (1998). Provisions for the availability of intense artificial light as...


Herbicides primarily target plant-specific enzymes and are thus generally of comparatively low toxicity to nontarget organisms. Acute intoxications mainly affect the central nervous system, with kidney effects being reported after long-term exposure to chlorophenoxy derivatives. From this group of substances, 2,4,5-T especially has been found to be contaminated with dioxin in the past, and a variety of health effects in former users have been attributed to it. The most exposed, however, were not farmers but American soldiers involved in the spraying of Agent Orange in Vietnam, and hepatic or renal disorders were not a major issue in these cases. The herbicide paraquat has become an infamous example of high mortality due to pulmonary fibro-sis together with liver and kidney failure. Although such cases usually relate to either accidental or suicidal oral intake of larger quantities, one case of lethal paraquat poisoning in a Japanese worker with an occupational history of spraying...


Herbivory can be tested using real herbivores or by simulating herbivory by manually cutting or removing plant tissue. The type of manipulation selected will depend on the type of plants and herbivores examined. For example, the effect of elephant raids on crop yield cannot be simulated easily in a greenhouse experiment. Tiffin and Inouye (2000) have reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of using natural vs. imposed herbivory.

PH determination

Http vdl_2_2m.htm From the home page go to LINK-Seite for addresses of useful agricultural organizations. Balzer says that from the relationship of the two pH values, additional information is given on the salt content and the exchange capacity of the soil. If the pH in water is only 0.1-0.3 higher than that in KCl, then the salt content of the soil is high this may occur in intensively cultivated glasshouse soils and composts. If the pH difference exceeds 1.0 units, the salt and nutrient content will be low. The difference is usually about 0.5 for light soils, and 0.8-1.0 for medium to heavy soils with a high clay content. Following an additional calcium determination, the correct liming materials are recommended to maintain the optimum acid-base balance of the soil. Too much calcium will lock up the phosphorus, displace other cations such as magnesium, and reduce the availability of micronutrients such as boron, copper, iron, manganese and zinc.

Climate Models

Greenhouse Effect An important factor is the extent to which solar radiation that reaches the earth is trapped in the atmosphere and the extent to which it is reflected or reradiated to outer space. Various atmospheric constituents, most notably water vapor and carbon dioxide, act in much the same way as the glass in a greenhouse and cause solar energy to be trapped this is commonly referred to as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect thus causes the atmosphere to be considerably warmer than it would be if these materials were not present in the atmosphere. greenhouse effect is good, not bad. The average temperature of the surface of the earth is about 15 C, and in the absence of any greenhouse gases in the atmosphere it would be reduced by about 33 C (i.e., to -18 C). An average temperature of-18 C would make the earth a rather inhospitable place, and any semblance of modern agriculture would only be possible in a few locations near to the equator. A change of only a few...

Climate Prediction

Sumption of fossil fuels, (2) increase in the concentration of other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, (3) depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, (4) development of land areas, and (5) other human activities, including rain making, irrigation, and the creation of artificial lakes and reservoirs, change of land use associated with urbanization and above-ground nuclear explosions. Sometimes some people (usually politicians) would like to claim, for whatever reason, that there is no evidence for human-induced global warming and that, therefore, there is no need to restrain our behavior in terms of curtailing emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Differences among the various models arise at various stages modeling of the physical processes, choice of grid spacing, boundary conditions and their parameterization, availability of computing power, which increases very rapidly with increasing spatial resolution, and assumptions made about the future. 7....

Tribucide P75

- First Mallinckrodt fungicide labeled for use in bulb or corm crops. ORNALIN is also a special fungicide for use with ornamental herbaceous and woody plants. It works in the greenhouse or outdoors. - Can be used in greenhouses or outdoors, with bedding plants and on unrooted cuttings in propagation bed.

Roto Hoe

Of German design, the Colt is a lightweight, rugged tiller for raised benches in greenhouses and outdoor cultivation. It comes with a 10 h.p. engine, an all-enclosed gear drive no V-belts and a single power-driven wheel for easy handling. The Colt and the Morgan are available from

Indoor nurseries

Hotel Inmigrantes Buenos Aires

Indoornursery tanks (Fig. 7.3) are usually constructed from tiles, concrete or fibreglass. The tanks, usually placed inside buildings or greenhouses, may have square, rectangular, round or octagonal shapes, with areas varying from 10 to 50 m2 (Zimmermann & Sampaio 1998) and depths of about 1 m. Supplemental aeration is required and an automatic generator or back-up aeration system is recommended (Valenti 1996).


Since the beginning of the 21st century, a large number of Trichoderma ( 250) and Pseudomonas ( 100) isolates have been obtained from peanut rhizosphere and evaluated for their antagonism towards A. flavus and their ability to reduce preharvest kernel infection of peanuts (Thakur and Waliyar, 2005 Anjaiah et al., 2006). Significant reduction of A. flavus populations and kernel infection occurred in both greenhouse and field experiments (Desai et al., 2000 Kumar et al., 2002 Thakur et al, 2003). Two Trichoderma isolates, Tv 47 and Tv 23, and two bacterial isolates P. cepacia (B 33) and P. fluorescens (Pf 2), were effective in reducing aflatoxin content in the kernels. Efforts also are being made to identify atoxigenic strains of A. flavus that can be used to alter the population dynamics of toxigenic strains of A. flavus in risk-prone zones (Cotty et al., Chapter 24). The effectiveness of the bio-control agents still needs to be established under African field...

E Dryingdewatering

Oxidation Ditch Schematic

In humid climates dewatering is accomplished by adding energy to drive off the desired amount of moisture. Processes have been developed for drying manure in greenhouse-type facilities however, the drying rate is dependent on the temperature and relative humidity. The cost of energy often makes the drying process unattractive.

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