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AC. See Alternating electric current (AC)

Accuracy of Global Positioning System, 191-192

Acoustic waves, 161

Active methods, 5

Active microwaves (AM), 17, 18

Adobe Systems, Inc., 342

AEM. See Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) systems Aerial photogrammetry, 207

AGCF. See Automatic Gain Control Function (AGCF) AgGPS Parallel Swathing Option, 63 Agricultural applications contamination transport and GPR, 346 cover crop, 276, 277-278 directed soil sampling, 32-34 electrical conductivity, 273 electromagnetic induction, 19 environmental and hydrological disciplines, 107 and GPR, 47 loop-loop systems, 118 magnetometry methods, 151-152 no-cover, all treatments, 278 organic and commercial amendments, 276 resistivity methods, 106-107 self-potential methods, 155 soil spatial variability, 32 use of lime, 214 Agricultural drainage pipe, 363, 373 Agricultural geophysics applications of, 9, 10 computer software/systems, 14 defined, 383 and GPS, 166, 194-196 ground surface trends, 5 mapping concepts, 200 outlook, 13-14

studies conducted by McCorkle, 12 use of GIS, 9 Agricultural research activity/techniques apparent soil electrical conductivity, 281-282 gamma ray attenuation, 17, 24-25 manure/compost application comparison, 274 soil heterogeneity, 263-264 soil moisture measurement, 4 time domain reflectometry, 17-18 tree root mass, 375-376 Agricultural Research Service, 46 Agricultural test plots, 104-105 Agriculture, 5, 199

Agriculture products and management, 47, 51 Agrigeophysics, 14

Agronomic research, 263-264, 270, 273-274 Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) systems, 4, 19, 23 Airborne magnetometers, 4, 148

Alber's equal area projection, 206

Almanac data, 168, 169, 184, 193

Alternating electric current (AC), 95, 98, 112, 153

AM. See Active microwaves (AM)

American Golf Foundation, 345

American Wire Gauge (AWG), 154

Ampere, André-Marie, 110

Ampere's law, 110-111, 112

Amplitude, 115, 313-314, 319

Amplitude filtering, 122

Amp meter, 111

AMT. See Audio magnetotelluric (AMT) method Anaerobic conditions, 345 Analogous regression performed, 236-237 Analysis of variance (ANOV), 227, 267 Anisotropy paradox, 103 Anomalies, 6, 7

ANOV. See Analysis of variance (ANOV) Antenna frequency, 138-139, 364, 365-366, 368 Antenna phase center location, 174 Antenna Reference Point (ARP), 174 Antenna ringing, 136-137 Antennas, 135-137, 347 Anthropogenic properties, 28, 48 Anti-Spoofing (AS), 170, 177, 194 Apparent conductivity by EMI, 287-288 Apparent electrical conductivity (ECJ

agricultural research techniques, 281-282

analogous regression performed, 236-237

basic principles and theory, 66-68

bulk density, 18

bulk volume of soil, 10

case studies, 74-77

cation exchange capacity, 32, 227, 234

clay content, 268-269

contour map, 235

correlation coefficient, 11, 72-73, 220, 221 crop yield, 248, 268-269 data analysis, 101-102, 103, 219 defined,383

differential GPS, 219, 227

-directed soil sampling, 28-30, 32-34, 68, 69-71, 70,

249-250, 253-254 electrical resistivity, 21-23 electric potential, 93

electromagnetic induction, 23-24, 217, 225

electromagnetic methods, 242

EM-ECa device, 218-219, 227

farm field map, 11-12

field measurements, 64, 278-279

field observations vs. soil properties, 67

herbicides, 241-242

herbicide-soil binding, 242-243

historial perspective, 18-19

integrates multiple soil properties, 268

locations, 218, 226

mapping, 214, 234, 264, 265-267

maps and plots, 62, 104, 242, 275-276

measured with EMI, 106, 211, 234

measurement and soil samples, 242

measurement of water content, 24-26

measurement range, 236

measurements, 219, 227

methods, 211-212, 282-283

vs. microbial-scale measurements, 269

misconceptions surrounding, 64-66

mobile measurement equipment, 28-29, 296

mobilization of, 19

observed associations to, 27-28

organic matter, 67

physicochemical nature, 30

productivity zones, 267, 269-270

results and discussion, 212-214, 220-222, 227-230,

243-245, 284-286 sampling-site scale, 267, 268 Schlumberger array, 94 sensor techniques, 217-218 signal velocity and attenuation use, 18 sites, 242

site-specific nutrient management, 270 soil and field properties, 234 vs. soil edaphic properties, 267-268 soil properties, 64-66, 71-74, 77, 106, 220-222, 247 soil salinity, 19-21, 61-62, 72, 234 soil sampling, 219, 227, 235, 282 soil volumetric water content, 234 spatial variability, 18, 30-32 statistics and data analyses, 227 surveys, 69, 72-73, 248-249, 275-276 time domain reflectometry, 26-27 Wenner array, 22, 100 yield and precipitation relationships, 270 Applied signal voltage, 26 Archie's law, 87 ArcView GIS, 227 Areal resistivity mapping, 94 Argillic and spodic horizons, 46 Argillic horizon, 49, 51 ARP. See Antenna Reference Point (ARP) Arrays, 287 Artificial energy, 157 Artificial source methods, 113 AS. See Anti-Spoofing (AS) Atmosphere, 50 Atmospheric delays, 170-172 Atomic clock, 172 Atrazine sorption, 235, 237 Attenuation applied signal voltage, 26 effect of permittivity on, 134 electrical conductivity in bulk soil, 18 and magnetometry, 151 seismic waves, 157, 161 wave's amplitude, 310 Attenuation constant, 120 Audio magnetotelluric (AMT) method, 113 Automatic Gain Control Function (AGCF), 355, 358

AWG. See American Wire Gauge (AWG) Azimuthal orientation, 115 Azimuthal rotation data collection, 101 Azimuthal rotation resistivity surveys, 103, 105

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