C

C/A. See Coarse-acquisition (C/A) code Calibration curves developed for TDR, 328, 330 Calibration of EMI equipment, 24 California Method, 353-354, 355 Capacitance probes (CPs), 17, 18, 26 Capacitively coupled resistivity, 98-100, 295 Carrier phase, 178, 180, 181-182, 185 Cartesian geocentric coordinates, 179, 201 Cation exchange capacity (CEC) correlated with SOM, 230 defined, 384 and ECa, 32, 227, 234 GPR and low, 47

physical and chemical properties of texture, 286 sodium adsorption ratio, 390 soil-applied herbicides, 241 soil ECa map, 286

soil electrical conductivity impact, 7 soil properties, 60 and soil solution, 89-90 soil texture, 300 solid-liquid phase pathway, 67 CGF. See Constant Gain Function (CGF) Chang Heng, 4 Choke ring antennas, 172 Clay content and ECa, 268-269 electrical conductivity, 234, 258 and OM influence, 67 soil properties, 60, 91, 212 Claypans, 60, 64, 234 Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 161

Clock estimation procedure, 174

CMP. See Common midpoint (CMP) method

Coachella Valley, 74, 76

Coarse-acquisition (C/A) code, 168, 169, 170, 192 Coefficient of variation (CV), 284, 286 Cokriging models, 71 Collection methods, 282-283 Common coordinate systems, 204-206 Common midpoint (CMP) method, 306, 310 Computer-controlled multielectrode systems, 95-96, 100-101

Computers and Electronics in Agriculture (Corwin), 28 Computer software/systems agricultural geophysics, 14

computer-controlled multielectrode systems, 95-96

data input devices, 199

data processing, 340-343, 348

descriptive statistics and regression, 235-236

EKKO Mapper software, 358

ESAP software package, 30, 71, 212, 248-249

geostatistical software package, 258

GIS software, 200, 204, 207, 249

GPR computer-processing procedures, 361

GPS software, 174

Hydrus-2D package, 327

interpretation, 145

mapping software, 149, 196

mathematical models, 124

MINITAB, 219, 227

modeling software, 321

one-dimensional forward modeling approach, 102 postcollection processing, 377 RES2DINV, 105, 297, 299 SAS software, 249 Sensors & Software Inc., 355-356 Sigma Scan Pro Image Analysis software, 377 three-dimensional modeling of radar, 51 Conductive/metallic objects, 109 Conductive/semiconductive materials, 127-128 Conductivity data modeling, 71-72 Conductivity value, 5

Constant Gain Function (CGF), 355, 356, 361 Constant separation traversing resistivity survey, 100, 101, 106, 107

Contamination transport and GPR, 346 Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS), 187, 189-190

Continuous measurement systems, 96-100 Contour maps, 121-122, 124, 235 Control Segment, 167, 172-173, 174 Conventional equipment, 95 Correlation coefficient (r)

between ECa and soil properties, 72-73, 220, 221 between ECa and soybean yield, 11 ECa map use, 242

between GPR estimates and root biomass, 50 soil properties, 73, 227-228 spatial ECa patterns, 104 Correlation matrix of soil properties, 76 Corrugated plastic tubing (CPT), 363, 366, 368 CORS. See Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS)

Cost-effective technologies, 264

Cover crop, 276, 277-278

CPs. See Capacitance probes (CPs)

CPT. See Corrugated plastic tubing (CPT)

Crop patterns, 33

Crop yield apparent electrical conductivity, 268-269 defined, 384

directed soil sampling, 249-250 ECa measurements, 248 factors influencing, 247 field-scale measure, 268 mapping and yield heterogeneity, 268 monitoring data, 73 productivity zones, 263-264 response model development, 251-252 SSCM, 64, 73, 247-248, 249-250 SSMUs, 34, 73

studies relating ECa to, 72, 253, 264 Cross-validation, 257, 258-259 Current electrodes, 93 Current flow pathways, 30-32, 66, 91-93 Curve matching, 126 CV. See Coefficient of variation (CV)

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