The golf green has the perfect condition for the use of GPR to detect underground features. Because of its uniform profile, the response of the electrical permittivity of the soil profile is very consistent. As the electromagnetic wave is transmitted, the velocity of the signal stays unchanged until it detects the layer of gravel or a drain tile. The distinct changes in underground features provide definite reflection. Much of the wave traveling below the clay and gravel interface tends to be scattered, so this interface can be easily identified.

Using the GPR for locating and mapping drain tiles beneath golf greens can be very effective. The noninvasive technology not only can provide accurate and quick answers to superintendents who need to locate drain tiles, it can also detect rooting depth in golf greens. However, in the process of measurement, flagging the green was rather time consuming. It is suggested that a high-accuracy GPS could be used for geo-referencing the measuring of the boundary of the green and scanning location.

The procedure of mapping the golf green drainage system can be summarized as follows:

1. Identify at least two reference points.

2. Create a 1 x 1 m grid system on the golf green.

3. Delineate the boundary of the green.

4. Calibrate the radar.

5. Scan the green.

6. Process data and create scanned image of drain tiles.

7. Plot golf green map with drainage system.

This technology can directly benefit the golf course and the superintendent, and it can indirectly benefit natural resources and the environment. Golf has grown in popularity in recent years. The need to keep courses in pristine condition to attract golfers often fosters practices and management techniques that create environmental hazards. Water leaving the root zone of many golf greens can carry environmentally harmful nitrates or pesticides that, if not redirected, can be harmful to a nontarget population. It is crucial to have this water properly drain into designated areas. Many golf courses are making considerable efforts to be more environmentally conscious and are adopting Audubon regions in proximity of urban dwellings. This GPR technology can provide golf course managers with the critical information they need to make good and environmentally friendly decisions. This technology can also be used on agricultural fields with drain tile and irrigation to examine similar factors.

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