Conclusions

The GPR surface reflectivity method can be used to measure soil water content subject to the limitations imposed by scattering and stratification of water content. The effective sampling depth can be increased and the scattering effects reduced by using a GPR with a lower center frequency. Elevating the antenna reduces the water content variability related to scattering, but the measured values will be less than for a surface without scattering effects. The simplistic interpretation model used for estimating water content may be enhanced to accommodate scattering and stratification effects. At this time, robust and practical processes to do this do not exist and are the subject of further research.

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