D

D'Agostino-Pearson test, 236 Data analysis, 101-105, 219, 309-314 Database management system, 199-200 Data collection and analysis collection methods, 282-283 common coordinate systems, 204-206 database management system, 199-200 discriminant analysis, 259-260 field measurements, 319-321 field operations, 8-9 finding the optimal offset, 310 geophysical data analysis, 9 geophysical method selection, 7 geostatistical procedures, 257-258 GIS models and modeling, 207-208 GPR measurements, 355, 365 investigation depth/feature resolution issues, 7-8 link spatial data, 203 mobile instruments, 296 root mass and GPR data, 378-380 seismic methods, 160-161 site conditions influence correlations, 300-301 soil electrical conductivity, 256-257 spatial and biological scales, 267 spatial databases, 206-207 surface methods with raw data, 299 survey protocol, 339-340 wide-offset surveys, 310-314 Data input devices, 199

Data processing, 121-123, 149-151, 340-343, 348

Data types, 205-206

DC. See Direct electric current (DC)

DCBs. See Differential code biases (DCBs)

Delineation, 60, 252-254

Delta process, 175

DEM. See Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), 145 Department of Transportation (DOT), 187 Depositional sand, 60 Depth-distance cross section, 140 Depth of penetration, 22, 120, 138 Depth sections, 104-105 Depth sensitivity, 301 Depth-weighed effect, 225 Depth-weighted nonlinear response of EMI, 24 Design-based sampling, 30 Deterministic conversion model, 72 DGPS. See Differential GPS (DGPS) Dielectric constant (e) discontinuity, 364-365 electromagnetic wave, 130, 323-324 GPR method, 12 material to polarize, 309 radar reflection coefficient, 370 radar signal velocity, 6 relative, 330

soil volumetric water content, 365 TDR technique, 27

velocity of GPR electromagnetic waves, 324-325 velocity of propagation, 18, 64 WOR GPR, 311-313 Dielectric permittivity, 18, 64 Difference radargrams, 327-328 Differential code biases (DCBs), 174 Differential GPS (DGPS) defined, 387

ECa measurements, 219, 227 geo-referenced data, 299 GPS positioning modes, 190 mathematical models, 166 message format, 184-187 positioning accuracy, 191-192 precise point positioning, 189 real time tracking, 340 relative positioning, 180-182 relativistic propagation error, 172 services, 182-184 Diffraction scattering, 131 Diffusion potential gradients, 153 Digital Elevation Model (DEM), 206 Dipole-dipole array, 94, 95, 98-99, 100, 105 Dipole mode, 24 Direct applications, 45-48 Direct contact method, 63 Direct electric current (DC), 95, 112 Direct or indirect applications, 45 Direct soil sampling, 30

Discriminant analysis/geostatistical procedures, 257-258,

259-260 DISCRIM procedure, 257 Dispersion, 157

Dissolved ion mobility, 87, 88, 89 Distance, 8

Distance-dependent biases, 187-188

Division of Geoprobe® Systems, 256

DNAPL. See Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL)

DOD. See U.S. Department of Defense (DOD)

Doppler, 169, 178

DOT. See Department of Transportation (DOT)

Drainage classes, 236, 256, 257, 258 Drainage pipe detection, 364 Drainage tiles, 346-347, 349, 350 Drainage water management, 106 Dryland system research, 264 Dualem, Inc., 19 DUALEM-2, 19, 24, 274 Dye experiment, 330 Dynamic factors, 32, 68

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