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FIGURE 27.5 Map of Stone Creek golf green.

this discontinuity. Because of this steady and focused traffic, the sandy rooting mixture has been compacted over time. Differences in soil compaction affect both the soil's bulk density and moisture content, and in turn, this affects the propagation velocity of the radar signals. Figure 27.4 also shows a discontinuity in shading in the gravel layer between 1 and 1.2 m. (Gravel layer top coincides with lower marked line.) A reverse in shading from light to dark was found between 1.3 and 1.5 m. The reverse in gray scale shading indicated an object appeared in this section of the green. In this case, it was a drainage tile. Figure 27.5 and Figure 27.6 show the drainage pattern beneath Green No. 2 and No. 3 at the HRGC and SCGC, respectively. The results of drainage tile layout matched designs shown in the blueprint when the greens were installed.

The RADAN quick draw software was utilized to plot the three-dimensional map showing the exact location of the tiles. An example of the three-dimensional map from the green at HRGC was constructed to trace a main pipe with one lateral (Figure 27.7). The result was used to compare the drainage system in the blueprint provided by the respective golf courses. Again, the map obtained by the GPR matched the layout shown in the blueprint. Both radar map and blueprint were taken to the field to verify the exact location of the tiles by probing. Both main and lateral lines were accurately located.

Using the GPR for locating and mapping drain tiles beneath golf greens can be very effective. This technology can be used to assist superintendents in locating drain tiles beneath golf greens. However, flagging the green is time consuming; therefore, more work needs to be done in this area.

Drainage System (HRGC Green No. 2) 10 i-

Drainage System (HRGC Green No. 2) 10 i-

Easting, m

FIGURE 27.6 Map of Hickory Ridge golf green.

FIGURE 27.7 The three-dimensional image of the main and lateral drainage lines.

It is suggested that a GPS with high accuracy could be used for geo-referencing each location in the process of scanning the green.

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