P

Paleo-sinkhole, 49

Parallel resistors, 91

Parallel swather, 63

Partition coefficients, 233

Passive methods, 5

Passive microwaves (PM), 17, 18

Passive remote sensing device, 148

Pathways of radio frequency signals, 18

PDOP. See Position dilution of precision (PDOP)

Pearson's r correlation coefficient, 299

Peatlands as fuel, 47

Permittivity, 27, 130-131, 134, 137, 145

Perpendicular (PRP), 287-292

Pesticide partition coefficients, 233-234

Phase-range, 179

Phase shift, 113-114

Phases of soil, 86-87

Physical oceanography, 3

Physical quality measurement techniques, 3

Physicochemical nature, 30

Plane coordinate system, 204

Plant(s)

corn (Zea mays L.), 50, 265, 274 Escherichia coli, 151

fresno cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn L.) field, 74-76 fungi (Armillaria sp.), 379

grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), 286 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), 50, 376 oak (Quercus sp.), 376

oak trees (Quercus petraea (Mattusch.) Liebl), 50 peach orchards (Prunus persica), 379 proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), 265 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), 211, 286 soybean (Glycine max L.), 211 study using GPR, 50

vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi, 267 winter wheat (Secale cereale L.), 274 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 74, 211, 264 Plot-scale blocking, 269-270, 271 Plot-scale experiments, 263 PM. See Passive microwaves (PM) Point (absolute) positioning, 180 Point vs. relative positioning, 180-182 Polarization, 133-134, 137, 309 Polarization ellipsoid, 114 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 151 Porous-matrix salinity sensors, 20 Positional data, 274

Position dilution of precision (PDOP), 175, 176, 191

Positioning accuracy, 166, 170, 191-192, 205-206

Positioning with GPS, 179-180

Position vectors, 179

Postcollection processing, 377

Potential electrodes, 93

Potential energy, 86

PPP. See Precise point positioning (PPP) PPS. See Precise Positioning Service (PPS) Precise point positioning (PPP), 189-190, 191 Precise Positioning Service (PPS), 170, 189-190 Precision agriculture, 11, 247, 286 Preferential-flow pathways, 337, 339, 343

Principles of induction, 111-112

PRN. See Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN) code

Probe impedance (Q), 27

Process models, 207-208

Productivity zones apparent electrical conductivity, 269-270 crop yield, 263-264, 268-269 management practices, 270-271 mapping, 267

materials and methods, 264-267 microbial-scale measurements, 269 soil edaphic properties, 267-268 soil spatial variability, 32 SSCM, 34, 35 SSMUs, 268 Propagating wave, 130 Propagation and scattering, 130-132 Propagation velocity of GPR, 324 Proton precession magnetometers, 148 PRP. See Perpendicular (PRP) PRP and HCP arrays, 288-289, 292-294 Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN) code, 168, 174, 176-177 Pseudorange broadcasting corrections, 185-186 carrier modulation, 168-169 and carrier phase observables, 176-179 data processing, 187 defined,387

GPS receiver performance, 173 GPS receiver task, 193 Local Area Augmentation Systems, 183 master control station and errors, 182 multipath, 172

point positioning procedure, 174 positioning accuracy, 191-192 positioning with GPS, 179-180 precise point positioning, 189 signal speed, 170

true observations and underlying parameters, 181-182 Pseudo-section, 140 Pure solution (aw), 60 PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) P-waves, 156, 157-160

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