S

SA. See Selective Availability (SA) Saline-sodic soil, 33

Salinity mapping and assessment, 59, 106

Salinity measurements, 74

Sample-site scale analyses, 267

Sample volume, 319

Sampling-site scale analyses, 267

Sampling-site scale properties, 268, 269

Sandy/silty soil, 88, 89

San Joaquin Valley, California, 32

SAR. See Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR)

SAREC. See Sustainable Agriculture Research and

Extension Center (SAREC) Satellite and receiver clock errors, 172 Satellite imagery, 207 Satellite magnetometry, 148 Satellites and their geometry, 174-175 Satellite signal, intentional degradation of, 175-176 Satellite systems, modernization/other, 194 Saturated soil radargram characteristics, 338-339 Saturation percentage (SP), 32, 66, 67, 74, 249 SBSF. See Spatial Background Subtraction Filter (SBSF) Scaling problems and defects, 149-151 Scan display, 142, 143 Scattering, 131

Scattering electromagnetic energy principle, 130 Scattering from surface roughness, 321 Scattering reflections, 145 Scatter plots, 251, 252 Schlumberger, Conrad, 21, 85 Schlumberger, Marcel, 85 Schlumberger array, 94, 100, 102 Schlumberger Limited, 85 Schlumberger Wireline and Testing, 90 Scrub ecosystem, 380-381 SDSS design, 33 Seismic methods, 6-7 active methods, 5 data collection, 160-161 defined, 390

geophysical methods, 3, 4, 5, 195 introduction, 155-156 migration of radargrams, 325 wave propagation, 157-160 wave types, 156-157 Seismic reflection method, 130 Seismic refraction, 160 Seismic trace analyses, 324 Seismic waves frequency, 161

propagation, aspects of, 157-160

seismic methods, 6-7, 155-156 types, 156-157 Seismology, 3 Seismoscope, 4

Selective Availability (SA), 175-176 Self-potential methods, 6

agricultural applications, 155 agricultural geophysics, 195 consistent and unidirectional natural potential, 153 defined,390 equipment, 153-154 field procedures, 154-155 geophysical methods, 3, 4, 5, 13, 14 introduction, 152-153 Passive methods, 5 Sensitivity analysis simulations, 74 Sensors, 20-21

Sensors & Software Inc., 320, 355-356, 365

Sensor techniques, 217-218

Sensor transport mode, 119

Shaded-relief map, 151, 152

Shaly (clayey) sand value, 90

Shielding, 137

SH-waves, 156, 158-160

Sigma Scan Pro Image Analysis software (Systat), 377 Signal characteristics, 168-170 Signal data, 184

Signal Saturation Correction Filter (SSCF) compute processing procedure, 355, 361 GPR profiles, 356, 365 time-slice amplitude map, 358, 359 Signal trace

AGCF equalizing amplitudes, 358 measurement points, 365 radar wave amplitude, 6, 355, 364 spatial background substraction, 355-356 time-slice amplitude maps, 359 Signal Trace Enveloping (STE), 355, 358, 361 Signal velocity and attenuation, 18 Signal voltage, 26

Simple statistical correlation, 72, 73

Sinkholes, 48

Sites apparent electrical conductivity, 242 data collection and analysis, 300-301 geoelectric instruments, 296 GPR methods, 347 soil conductivity, 274 Site-specific crop management (SSCM)

correlation between crop yield and ECa, 249-250

crop yield, 64, 73, 247-248

crop yield response model development, 251-252

delineated SSMUs, 252-254

delineation of, 60

ECa survey data, 248-249

exploratory statistical analyses, 250-251

productivity zones, 34, 35

spatial information required, 35-36

spatial measurements of soil ECa, 74

spatial variability, 33

statistical and spatial analyses, 249

study site, 248

yield monitoring and ECa survey, 248

Site-specific management (SSM), 247 Site-specific management units (SSMUs) crop yield, 73 crop yield integration, 34 delineated, 252-254 geo-referenced yield data, 35 productivity zones, 268 spatial analysis, 249 spatial variability, 32 spatial variability of edaphic, 248 Site-specific nutrient management, 270 Snell's law, 131, 158-159 Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), 33, 390 Soil. See also Soil mapping; Soil properties; Soil salinity; Soil sampling; Soil surveys agricultural products and management, 47 conditions, monitoring changes, 7 depth sensitivity, 301 drainage classes, 256 electrical properties of, 18 and field properties, 234 and karst, microanalyses of, 47 management practices, 263 measurement principles, 295 mollisols and soils with mollic epipedons, 47 organic matter, 34 phases of, 86-87 and resistivity methods, 86 and topographical data, 256-257 water application, 253 watershed characteristics, 234 water tables, 46 and yield baseline, 281 Soil-applied herbicides, 241

Soil conductivity. See also Soil electrical conductivity ECa maps and plots, 275-276 electromagnetic impulse, 338 electromagnetic induction sensors, 273 EM-ECa device, 227 equipment, 274-275 field measurements of ECa, 278-279 field operations, 274 intermediate-depth investigations, 116 mapping, 273 site description, 274 statistical analysis, 277-278 sub-sand fluctuatons in native, 290 Soil Conservation Services. See Natural Resources

Conservation Service (NRCS) Soil cores analyzed, 274-275 Soil drainage anaerobic conditions, 345 classes, 255, 260

discriminant analysis/geostatistical procedures,

257-258 results and discussion, 258-260 soil and topographical data, 256-257 soil electrical conductivity, 255 topography, 255-256 Soil ECa map, 286. See also Apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) Soil edaphic and biological variability, 269 Soil electrical conductivity antenna frequency/factor influencing, 364 background, 60-64 cation exchange capacity, 7 clay content correlation, 258 data collection, 256-257 ECa and mapping, 234 and GPS, 166 measurement of, 21 relative values, 236 soil drainage, 255 soil sampling, 61 Soil Electrical Conductivity in Precision Agriculture

Symposium, 28 Soil equivalent resistance model, 66 Soil factors, means and ranges of, 75 Soil gravimetric water content, 12 Soil heterogeneity, 263-264, 267, 269, 270 Soil-landscape modeling, 46 Soil mapping bedrock depth in glaciated landscape, 47 EM-ECa technique, 225-226 and GPR, 46

precision agriculture, 286 and rock stratigraphy, 48 Soil materials, 86-91 Soil microvariability, 46 Soil moisture measurement, 4 Soil organic matter (SOM), 227, 228, 230 Soil pathways, 222, 230 Soil permittivity, 325. See also Permittivity Soil phases, 61

Soil physical and chemical properties cation exchange capacity, 286 electrical conductance pathway, 32 EM-ECa technique, 217-218, 225 soil ECa map, 286 soil sample analysis, 249 spatial variability, 30, 33 Soil physicochemical measurement, 59 Soil-plant systems, 35 Soil profile, 8 Soil properties apparent electrical conductivity, 65-66, 71-74, 247, 268

apparent soil electrical conductivity, 106 cation exchange capacity, 60 characterize and assess soil condition, 33 clay content, 60, 91, 212 correlation coefficient, 227-228 Correlation Coefficients, 73 correlation matrix of, 76 correlations between EMI and, 76 ECa-directed soil sampling, 253-254 ECa measurements, 64-65, 77, 220-222 ECa survey, 72

electrical conductivity in bulk soil, 18

EM-ECa technique, 230

exploratory statistical analyses, 250-251

field-applied pesticides, 233

field observations vs., 67

and herbicides, 241

inherent, 211

mapping, 33, 226

moisture measurement, 60 morainic soils, 218, 226 nitrogen loss, 48

parameters related to measurable, 66-67 precision agriculture role, 247 resistivity, 21 soil surveys, 227-229 spatially characterize, 34 spatial pattern, 212, 214 STATSGO, 46-47 within-field spatial variability, 30 Soil quality assessment, 60 Soil radar signal velocity, 12 Soil reclamation, 34 Soil resistivity, 60, 89, 90, 91 Soil salinity apparent soil electrical conductivity, 61-62 defined, 60

dominates ECa measurements, 72 electrical conductance pathway, 32 electrical conductivity, 20 EMI for measuring, 23 and ER, 21

field scales methods, 19 measurement of EC, 20 measurement of ECa, 234 resistivity methods, 10 sensors, 20-21 vertical profiting, 23 -24 Soil sampling

ECa-directed, 28-30 ECa measurements, 219, 227, 235, 282 ECa survey data, 248-249 geospatial ECa measurements, 28 herbicides, 242

herbicides/field correlations, 243-245 soil and topographical data, 256 soil EC, 61

statistical methods, 214 statistical sample design, 29-30 Soil science, 72

Soil solution, 89-90, 107. See also Soil volumetric water content (6) Soil-solution extractor, 20-21 Soil spatial va riability, 32

Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database, 206 Soil surveys. See also Surveys ECa survey, 69

quality and efficiency increase, 46 regression model, 69 response-surface approach, 69-70 soil properties, 227-229 statistical test, 230 using GPR methods, 45 Soil texture, 59, 300 Soil type, 59

Soil volumetric water content (6) and amplitude, 313-314, 319 box plots, 334

dielectric constant dependent on, 365

ECa measurements, 234

and electrical conductivity, 368

influencing measured ECa, 230 mapping, 346

measurement, 317-318, 333-334 measurement of, 24-26 profiles, 327, 332-333 radar events used, 309 research investigations, 12 salinity measurements, 74 and sandy/silty soil, 89 soil ECa map, 286 and soil materials, 87 spatial variability, 330 TDR point source technique for, 26-27 time domain reflectometry, 317, 320, 323 Solar Cycle, 171 Solar energy, 167 Solid-liquid phase pathway, 67 SOM. See Soil organic matter (SOM) South Magnetic Pole, 147 SP. See Saturation percentage (SP) Space Segment, 167 Spatial analysis, 249 Spatial and biological scales, 267 Spatial Background Subtraction Filter (SBSF), 355-356, 358

Spatial databases, 206-207

Spatial decorrelation, 183

Spatial distribution, 237-238, 380-381

Spatial ECa patterns, 104

Spatial information required for SSCM, 35-36

Spatially referenced regression models, 71

Spatial measurements of soil EC, 59

Spatial measurements of soil ECa, 74

Spatial patterns, 212, 214, 270

Spatial response surface sampling (SRSS), 30

Spatial sampling error, 337

Spatial variability apparent electrical conductivity, 18, 30-32 characterizing, 214, 233-234 crop patterns, 33

dielectric properties in subsurface, 324 ECa-directed soil sampling, 68, 69 ECa map use, 62, 104 of edaphic, 247, 248 field- and landscape-scale issues, 34-35 inherent soil properties, 211 parameters correlated w/drainage class, 236 plot-scale experiments, 263 site-specific crop management, 33 site-specific management units, 32 soil physical and chemical properties, 30, 33 and soil resistivity, 91 soil water content measurement, 330 spatial measurements of soil EC, 59 surface water content, 48, 53 yield and irrigated fields, 283 Spatial variation of yield, 248 Spherical-projected GOS, 341 Spiral plot, 340 Split-plot design, 274, 275, 277 SPS. See Standard Positioning Service (SPS) SPSS Inc., 243

SRSS. See Spatial response surface sampling (SRSS)

SSCF. See Signal Saturation Correction Filter (SSCF) SSCM. See Site-specific crop management (SSCM) SSM. See Site-specific management (SSM) SSMUs. See Site-specific management units (SSMUs) SSURGO. See Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO)

database Stacking, 8

Standard Positioning Service (SPS), 170, 175, 191 StarFireâ„¢, 183

State Plane coordinate (SPC) system, 204, 205, 341

State Soil Geographic (STATSGO), 46-47

Static corrections, 139, 141

Static factors, 32, 68

Station and trace spacing, 138

Station interval, 8

Station spacing, 119-120

Statistical analysis, 249, 267, 277-278, 324, 377

Statistical and spatial analyses, 249

Statistical methods, 214

Statistical sample design, 29-30

Statistical test, 230

Statistics and data analyses, 227

STATSGO. See State Soil Geographic (STATSGO)

Stepwise discriminant procedure (STEPDISC), 257, 258

Stochastic models, 71

Stolt migration algorithm, 325

Stream tubes, 32-33

Subsurface antenna frequency, 368 artificial energy, 157 and electromagnetic energy travel, 130 features and GPR, 345, 361 mapping, 354 spatial variability, 324 Subsurface drainage systems, 363-364 Subsurface drain lines, locate, 9 Subsurface electrical permittivity, 120 Subsurface flow pathways, 48-50, 51 Suction lysimeters, 107 Surface-based measurements, 3 Surface methods with raw data, 299 Surface modeling, 124-125 Surface reflectivity method, 319, 322 Surface water content, 48, 53 Surface waves, 156 Surveys

ECa data, 248-249 EMI effectiveness, 290-292 Geophysical measurement, 118-119 GPR drainage pipe mapping, 370 GPR golf course green issues, 356 GPS planning process, 195 grid GPS, 257

magnetometry data processing and analysis, 149-151 mapping, 275-276

near-surface water pathways protocol, 343 protocol, 339-340 seismic refraction, 160 soil cores analyzed, 274-275 surface reflectivity method, 319 Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center (SAREC), 281, 283, 284

SV-waves, 156, 158-160 S-waves, 156, 158

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