potential Agricultural Applications for Resistivity, electromagnetic Induction, and Ground-penetrating Radar Methods

Geophysical Method

Resistivity Electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic induction Ground-penetrating radar

Ground-penetrating radar

Ground-penetrating radar

Ground-penetrating radar

Ground-penetrating radar Ground-penetrating radar

Resistivity and electromagnetic induction Resistivity and electromagnetic induction Resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and ground-penetrating radar

Agricultural Application

Soil drainage class mapping Determining clay-pan depth

Estimation of herbicide partition coefficients in soil

Mapping of flood deposited sand depths on farmland adjacent to the Missouri River Soil nutrient monitoring from manure applications Quality/efficiency improvement and updating of U.S. Department of Agriculture/Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA/ NRCS) soil surveys Measurement of microvariability in soil profile horizon depths Bedrock depth determination in glaciated landscape with thin soil cover Plant root biomass surveying

Identification of subsurface flow pathways Farm field and golf course drainage pipe detection Soil salinity assessment

Delineation of spatial changes in soil properties

Soil water content determination literature Source

Kravchenko et al., 2002 Doolittle et al., 1994

Jaynes et al., 1995a

Kitchen et al., 1996

Eigenberg and Nienaber, 1998

Doolittle, 1987; Schellentrager et al., 1988

Collins and Doolittle, 1987 Collins et al., 1989

Butnor et al., 2003; Konstantinovic et al., 2007; Wockel, et al., 2006 Freeland et al., 2006; Gish et al., 2002 Allred et al., 2005a; Boniak et al., 2002; Chow and Rees, 1989 Doolittle et al., 2001; Hendrickx et al., 1992; Rhoades and Ingvalson, 1971; Rhoades et al., 1989; Shea and Luthin, 1961 Allred et al., 2005b; Banton et al., 1997; Carroll and Oliver, 2005; Johnson et al., 2001; Lund et al., 1999 Grote at al., 2003; Huisman et al., 2003; Kirkham and Taylor, 1949; Lunt et al., 2005; McCorkle, 1931; Sheets and Hendrickx, 1995

Substantial efforts have been devoted toward evaluating the capabilities of resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods for soil salinity assessment. The standard laboratory technique for determining salinity involves measuring the electrical conductivity of water extracted from a soil sample saturated paste (Smedema et al., 2004). The soil salinity obtained by the electrical conductivity of a saturated paste extract is designated ECe. Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are used in the field to measure an "apparent" electrical conductivity for a bulk volume of soil beneath the surface, and this apparent electrical conductivity is designated ECa. By incorporating various soil moisture, soil density, and soil textural parameters, ECe can be calculated from ECa (Rhoades et al., 1989, 1990). Discussions regarding the impact of soil conditions and soil properties on ECa can be found in Chapters 2, 4, and 5. With the protocols now available for calculating ECe from ECa, resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are indeed valuable tools for monitoring soil salinity levels in an agricultural field.

Precision agriculture is a growing trend combining geospatial data sets, state-of-the-art farm equipment technology, GIS, and GPS receivers to support spatially variable field application of

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